European Convention on spectator violence
Reports on national policies and list of national legislations
European Convention on spectator violence
General (see EPAS)
T-DO and T-RV
Recommendation on comprehensive report on measures to counter hooliganism (89/2)
(adopted by the Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in Particular at Football Matches during their 5th meeting, 1989)
I. At their 13th Informal Meeting (Athens, 1 and 2 June 1988), the sports ministers asked the Standing Committee to "produce a practical report on a comprehensive package of control measures". (MSL-GT 13 (88) 14 rev., paragraph 30.)
II. The first draft of such a report, based on experiences/measures which had been brought to the attention of the Standing Committee, was examined at the 4th meeting on 19 and 20 July 1988. A revised draft was submitted for later comments and the final draft included lessons learned from the European Football Championships (Federal Republic of Germany, June 1988). This report therefore incorporates some of the latest examples of good practice (13 April 1989).
III. It should be stressed that this report lists all the measures used in all countries and organisations which participate in the work of the Standing Committee. Not all these measures however will be applicable in each and every country: the measures adopted will depend on their football history, legal and administrative traditions and structures, as well as the level of spectator violence they are faced with. The method and tactics of policing of potential hooliganism will also be a matter for each country to decide and they are not dealt with in this report. The list of measures should therefore be seen as a "menu", from which choices may be selected. It is for the same reason that the report lists measures to be taken and does not always specify the authority which should take them. Furthermore, some measures can only be implemented within the limits of existing domestic legislation and the powers conferred upon the relevant authorities.
IV. These measures will also be applicable, pari passu, for measures to be taken in international (bilateral or multilateral) co-operation.
V. The report is divided into five parts:
A. Permanent measures to prevent spectator violence
B. Measures to be taken before a high-risk match
C. Measures to be taken during a high-risk match
D. Measures to be taken after a high-risk match
E. Long term measures
VI. As some of the measures may appear to be of a rather general nature, it is important to stress that preparation, planning and the exchange of views and information - in short co-ordination and co-operation - is probably the vital ingredient of success. The main lesson which the Standing Committee draws from its experience is that without full and willing consultation, co-operation and co-ordination between football authorities and public agencies at club and national level, measures to control spectator violence will not be effective. This aspect is equally important when international matches or tournaments are arranged and the parties should arrange for such co-operation on a bi- or even multilateral basis between whatever will be the most appropriate bodies in good time before such events.
VII. It is also relevant to point out that some of these measures refer also to the safety and security of football spectators.
A. Permanent measures to prevent spectator violence
(For adoption as appropriate at local, national, international levels)
1. Are there channels for consultation, co-operation and co-ordination, and for the exchange of information and intelligence between:
a. football clubs, football associations
b. local, national and transport police forces
c. between football and police authorities?
This exchange of information should take advantage of the experience gained by associated groups such as supporters' clubs, tour operators, etc.
It will cover problems raised not only at the origin and destination of potential hooligans but also during their transit.
For major tournaments, co-operation machinery should be established early and cover all aspects of preparation.
2. Is there a national co-ordination committee on hooliganism?
3. Is there a system for the co-ordinated collection of national information on hooliganism?
4. Has a machinery been developed for identifying high-risk national matches and implementing counter-strategies? This machinery should take into account the criteria used by UEFA for deciding high-risk matches.
5. Are adequate barriers, grilles, fencing, tunnels etc provided at grounds for public safety and control, the segregation of supporters, and protection of players, officials, etc? A sufficient space between pitch and stands is desirable. Emergency exits through fencing on to the pitch are desirable.
6. Are there facilities including a command and control post at grounds for police/security forces, medical care, etc?
7. Are there facilities to control entry of spectators into grounds (for example machines for reading passes or tickets, metal detectors, breathalysing equipment, etc)? Clubs should assume, where appropriate, powers to use these facilities.
8. Do grounds comply with the provisions of UEFA's brochure "order and security in the stadia" and, when appropriate, with its security checklist?
9. Have national public and football authorities prepared and do they implement either legislation or a national handbook on crowd safety and control providing clear standards and guidelines for stadium owners and managers?
10. Have clubs, owners or managers improved the quality of spectators' areas and terraces at grounds (small sections; seating; family enclosures; other facilities)?
11. Are clubs aware of their own responsibilities in matters of security, etc? Each football association and, ideally, large club should have its own security committee. Clubs should acknowledge the priority of safety and security of spectators over gate receipts and profit.
12. Do football clubs give adequate encouragement for the organisation of responsible supporters' clubs, including the proper training of adequate numbers of stewards and marshals and their liaison with the local police; and for responsible tour operators etc?
13. Has the need for membership schemes (whether complete or partial) been considered, with special attention for domestic away matches (for example, "pass system" cf. 7), or measures to encourage peaceful fans and identify and exclude troublesome ones.
14. Have clubs designated a spectator safety/control/security liaison officer? Have national football associations designated a similar national official?
Regulation, legislation, etc
15. Is there a strategy for the production of tickets and control of ticket sales, including:
a. numbering and colouring of tickets;
b. clear conditions for sale and resale;
c. devising a system for checking and tracing purchases of tickets where appropriate (eg voucher scheme);
d. defining the role of clubs or FAs or supporters' clubs in supervising the distribution of allocated tickets;
e. making, where appropriate, provision for all-ticket matches;
f. restricting opportunities for black-market sales and/or forgeries;
g. implementing the recommendation and guidelines for ticket sales adopted by the Standing Committee (Recommendation N° 1/89).
16. Are there legislative or administrative powers (for application nationally, locally or by the police as appropriate) permitting:
a. the control or ban of alcohol sales and distribution in and around matches;
b. banning possession of pyrotechnic devices at grounds (or projection when a match is in progress);
c. high risk matches to be banned, played elsewhere, or at a different time, or under certain conditions?
17. Has consideration been given to the adoption of legislation providing an adequate definition of hooliganism (including disorderly conduct and/or frightening behaviour at a sports event) with appropriate punishment, including exclusion from future matches, of offenders?
18. Has consideration been given to granting powers where possible to exclude undesirable spectators from grounds; from travelling in organised supporters' journeys, etc?
19. Have public authorities powers to license grounds for high-risk matches and to approve the holding of them?
B. Before high-risk matches
20. Are known troublemakers prohibited/discouraged from leaving home territory for away matches; or can conditions for travel be imposed?
21. Is consideration given to the organisation, particularly for international matches, of seminars with participation from appropriate authorities, to ensure the precautions and measures used employ the latest examples of good practice (Recommendation N° 1/88)?
22. Is information, publicity, etc on good behaviour provided, in the language of the visiting supporters, explaining inter alia the standards that the host will expect?
23. Have the police developed contacts with local citizens and regular supporters to explain measures taken for ordinary and for exceptional matches?
24. Have police forces been given training in methods for welcoming and helping visiting supporters?
25. It is advisable to anticipate the degree of likely press and media interest in a match or tournament, and to prepare policies for press conferences and to plan for consequences of possible events; have football and police press officers been trained in this aspect (cf. 39)?
26. Is there a ticket sale policy for the match? (cf. 15) for example:
a. limits on number of purchases;
b. no sale on day;
c. not necessarily selling tickets for all the capacity available (reduction overall and for each sector proportionately);
d. restricting black-market sales.
27. Are ticket sales compatible with and do they contribute to the effective segregation of supporters in distinct, designated and separated areas, and allow, where necessary, adequate police supervision?
28. Do clubs/FAs prepare co-ordinated travel-ticket arrangements for their visiting supporters?
29. Do clubs/FAs consider preparing appropriate accommodation, when necessary, for visiting supporters, especially at international events?
30. Are travel and approach routes (including car and coach parks) of rival supporters segregated?
31. Do visiting supporters arrive just before, and leave immediately after, the match?
32. Do clubs provide adequate trained stewards and marshals for home and away supporters respectively? Do organisers consider recruiting/hiring additional stewards for particular matches? (cf. 12)
33. Is consideration given to banning alcohol distribution or sale during organised travel to matches. (Recommendation N° 1/87).
34. Is consideration given to banning alcohol distribution or sales in the vicinity of the grounds before, during and after a match? (Recommendation N° 1/87).
35. Is there specific pre-match planning, liaison and co-ordination and regular, including eve-of-match, briefings for all parties concerned? Are there contingency plans agreed by the police and the referee?
36. Have public authorities taken account of UEFA's measures for security?
37. In accordance with Article 3.1 of the Convention, will "adequate public order resources" be secured?
38. Have arrangements for sharing the costs involved of securing these resources been considered?
39. Has the use of police 'spotters', knowing the visiting supporters, to advise the 'home' police been considered? (Recommendation N° 1/88)
40. Has providing simultaneous watching facilities at the home ground for an away game (or additional watching facilities nearby the match) been considered?
41. Are there regular searches for, and removal of, dangerous objects (for example, building materials, rubble, or other rubbish) inside and in the vicinity of the stadium in good time before it is opened?
C. At high-risk matches (while spectators are in the stadium)
42. Are UEFA's Binding Instructions followed?
43. Are turnstiles opened in good time, giving spectators ample opportunity to enter before the start of the match?
44. Are police, stadium speaker, stewards (including fire stewards) and pre-match entertainers at their respective places of duty, or ready, when turnstiles are opened?
45. Do clubs, and/or police as appropriate, control entering spectators with a view to:
a. excluding those "under the influence";
b. excluding known trouble makers;
c. excluding holders of doubtful tickets;
d. excluding dangerous objects, pyrotechnics, alcohol;
e. providing random searches, frisks, etc? (Recommendation N° 2/87).
46. Are spectators found in a wrong area or sector moved to the correct one, or, at the discretion of stewards or police, expelled?
47. Is segregation effective?
48. Is the distribution, sale or consumption of alcohol at the ground banned or restricted?
49. Are all goods for consumption sold in soft containers?
50. Are adequate trained marshals and stewards provided? (cf. 12)
51. Is the size, material and use of slogans on flags, banners, rattles, musical instruments, etc controlled (including for fire risk)?
52. Are any outbreaks of hooliganism recorded on closed-circuit television (CCTV) or video?
53. Is a public address system used and a pre-match and interval programme of events or entertainment provided?
54. Are adequate public order resources at the ground (cf. 37) secured?
55. Are all exit doors/gates during the time any spectators are in the ground adequately staffed? Are all exits capable of being opened at any time in an emergency from the inside (ground side)? (The locking of exits - even when a steward with a key is present - is unsatisfactory.)
56. Are adequate medical care staff present?
D. After matches
(See also Nos 28-32.)
57. Do away spectators return rapidly (especially if team is defeated), and are they separated from home spectators on dispersal from the ground?
58. Are spectators who commit acts of violence or other criminal behaviour identified and prosecuted in accordance with the due process of the law in accordance with Article 5.1 of the Convention?
59. Do clubs regularly review their list of undesirable spectators?
60. Do clubs review measures taken and draw lessons?
61. Do the agencies involved in co-operation continue to consult and co-ordinate and profit from experience?
E. Long-term measures
62. Are there appropriate educational and sporting programmes on the teaching and practice of fair play at clubs, schools; is there training in fair play?
63. Do clubs/FAs encourage the development and pursuit of community schemes with various age-groups and talents?
64. Are there ad hoc socio-cultural programmes suitable for visiting supporters, and permanent ones for regular supporters, including those on the fringes of hooliganism?
65. Do clubs develop ways of making their fans important for them?
66. Do the agencies involved discuss with and consult the media on their role in the portrayal of hooliganism, fair play, etc?
67. Do clubs/FAs take a strong line against cheating and violence on the field of play; do they ensure that match officials are adequate for the task?
68. Do clubs take a strong line against troublesome 'supporters' and encourage more responsible supporters' clubs?
69. Do local authorities encourage the development of the educational role of football clubs, for example in schools?
70. Is co-ordinated research into the causes and origins of football hooliganism, its role in society and into strategies to counter it, encouraged?