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CAHAMA

Checklist of measures to be taken by the organisers of professional sporting events and by the public authorities

The Standing Committee (T-RV) of the European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in Particular at Football Matches

1 Whereas, in connection with all sports events, the primary concern of all involved must be public safety both at the event itself and, when necessary, in "transit", and recalling that, without prejudice to the responsibilities of the organisers, the public authorities are ultimately responsible for public order;

2 Considering that such safety can only be ensured through observance by the organisers of safety rules and regulations, and close and effective co-operation by them with the public authorities;

3 Recalling its Recommendations No 1/93 on Measures to be taken by the Organisers of Football Matches and Public Authorities and No 1/94 on Measures to be taken by the Organisers and Public Authorities concerning High-risk Indoor Sports Events;

4 Considering the significant improvements effected in recent years in respect of spectator safety and public order by national and local authorities, national and international sports bodies, venue owners and event organisers;

5 Recalling its Recommendations during the past ten years on:

6 Noting the standard-setting work carried out by European Committee for Standardisation concerning the accommodation of spectators;

7 Considering that the organisation of sports events is subject to the provisions of:

and (in States which are Party to it), of

8 Whereas in this context the sovereign power of States to issue laws and regulations, binding on State organs and on individuals, concerning public order and safety in general and at sports events in particular must be borne in mind, together with their power and duty to ensure observance of such laws and regulations, notably by means of police forces;
9 Recognising that:

I That they make use of the revised Standard Checklist of measures to be taken by the organisers and public authorities concerning professional sporting events, appearing in the Appendix to the present Recommendation, with a view to identifying respective roles and responsibilities of those involved organising such events, particularly high-risk ones.

II That the standard checklist, which is general in nature, be:

III That, wherever this has not already been done, the public authorities draw up a comprehensive list of practical measures to be taken by the owners and managers of venues and the organisers of events, including detailed provisions for:

IV That the public authorities invite the organisers or the competent national sports association or other responsible bodies to take all educational and social preventative measures that could contribute to a sporting event.

Checklist of measures to be taken by the organisers of professional sporting events and by the public authorities

Directions for use

1 Detailed guidance notes for completing it are attached to the checklist.

2 Those responsible for specific measures listed below should be identified with a cross in the appropriate column(s).

3 Wherever possible, the person(s) responsible should also be identified by name, and deadlines given for completion of the suggested measures.

4 Wherever possible, only one should be indicated as being responsible for each suggested measure.

5 Additions or modifications to the standard checklist measures should appear on the checklist itself.

Notes on completing the checklist

These notes are designed to assist parties to the Convention to allocate the responsibilities identified in the checklist. They are not intended to be prescriptive. Each country should have regard to its own legal system and administrative arrangements.

The checklist uses the generic terms venue, event and area of activity. These should be understood as including the stadium or sports hall, the football, basketball, ice hockey or other match and the pitch respectively.

I Overall regulation and co-ordination

1 Verifying the venue structure and issuing a safety certificate.

All venues used for professional sporting events in front of paying spectators should possess a safety certificate issued by the public authorities. This certificate should be constantly reviewed and specifically examined to ensure it is suitable for such events. In exercising this function the public authorities will normally work in co-ordination with the police, fire and medical services and the representatives of the organiser or venue management.

Any facility will have to meet the requirements of the public authorities on stadium and venue infrastructure and safety; this will particularly apply to temporary demountable or telescopic stands where their use is permitted or any retractable roof. In drawing up these requirements the public authorities should have regard to any relevant European Standards.

2 Determining the safe capacity.

This function relates to the determination of both the maximum permitted capacity and the maximum times allowed for the entry, exit and emergency exit of the spectators. It will normally be undertaken by the public authorities.

The safe capacity should be based on whichever is lowest of the capacities of the spectator accommodation or the number of spectators who can safely use the entrances, exits or emergency exits within the prescribed period. This period will vary according to the design and structure of the venue, in particular its level of fire resistance. Experience has shown that all spectators should ideally be able to enter a free-flowing exit system within a maximum of eight minutes. The capacity should be reduced if either the physical condition of the venue or the safety management is inadequate.

The permitted capacity of the venue as a whole and of each area within it should be recorded in the safety certificate.

3 Monitoring and enforcing the conditions of the safety certificate.

This should include the monitoring of the venue both during event and on non-event days by a body with the authority to take whatever action may be required to enforce compliance in the short or long term.

4 Providing the public authorities with all relevant information on the planned event.

This should be undertaken at the earliest opportunity. It should include the names of the organisers and the teams/participants involved together with the date, hour and place of the event, and any other information that might assist the public authorities in evaluate the level of risk.

5 Determining that the accommodation for spectators in the venue is suitable for the event concerned.

This relates to the suitability and safety of the venue for the specific event in the light of a risk assessment of the anticipated behaviour and profile of the spectators and the nature of the particular sporting event. This risk assessment should identify the hazards, decide who might be harmed and how, evaluate the risks and decide whether the existing control measures are adequate or further measures are needed. The findings should be recorded and reviewed and assessed if necessary. The risk assessment will normally be undertaken by or on behalf of the organiser and reported to the public authorities.

6 Verifying the correct application of the guidelines and instructions issued by national or international sporting bodies.

These guidelines or instructions will normally be applied by the organiser or the venue management. They shall be applied in as much as they do not contradict rules and instructions by local and national public authorities. In case of conflict, the requirements of the public authorities take precedence.

7 Where appropriate, authorising the event.

In some countries, the public authorities will authorise the event after checking compliance by the organisers with applicable legislation (if any) on the staging of public events, and any other obligations of the organisers, including those listed elsewhere in this checklist.

8 Informing the organiser of any objection to the staging of the event and/or of any requirements before it may take place.

It will normally be the responsibility of the public authorities or a sporting association to inform the organiser as soon as possible of any objection to the staging of the events and/or of any particular condition which would have to be fulfilled it may take place.
9 Excluding, as far as legally possible, known and potential risk supporters from venues.

This could include national stadium bans imposed by the courts, administrative bans or bans imposed by a sporting association or a club. It will normally be enforced at the local level.

For the definition of “risk supporter” and a further check list to aid their identification, see Appendix 1.

10 Regularly reviewing details of known risk supporters.

This will include regular reviews by sporting associations, venue management, the organiser and/or the police of details of known and potential risk supporters.

11 Identifying the named individuals responsible for spectator safety.

For the avoidance of confusion, the individuals with overall policy responsibility for spectator safety at the venue, for its upkeep and for ensuring spectator safety on the event day (see item V.1 below) should be identified and their names recorded in writing.

12 Planning all financial matters related to the safety/security of the event.

This encompasses all financial matters relating to related to the safety and security of the event which need to be addressed well in advance. These include arranging adequate insurance cover for medical, fire, and general accident hazards, and for damage caused by supporters within the stadium.

II Design and structure of the venue

1 Verifying the existence of adequate separate entrances and exits.

This item covers three inter-related aspects:

2 Ensuring a sufficient quality of accommodation and amenities for all spectators.

This encompasses the design, comfort and accessibility of the areas from which all spectators (including women, children, the elderly and the disabled) watch the event. Improvements may include the provision of additional seating, small sections for particular groups and family areas. Regard should also be paid to spectator comfort, in particular the amount of leg room and the ability to see the event without obstructions in line with the relevant European Standard.

This item also relates to customer facilities such as toilets and public refreshment areas, which should be provided in sufficient numbers for all spectators, including those supporting the visiting team. A typical minimum would be one urinal for every 70 male spectators and one WC for every 600 males, 35 females and 15 wheelchair users.

3 Providing adequate assembly areas.

Adequate areas are required around the venue to allow for the accommodation of spectators following an evacuation without overcrowding. These need to be identified and systems should be in place to direct spectators there if necessary. The size and location of such areas should permit the free access of the police, fire and ambulance services.

4 Checking fences and barriers.

This includes checking the existence of or erecting appropriate barriers, grilles, fencing, crush barriers and other obstacles designed to

Ensuring that these are constructed in such a way as not to impede emergency evacuation of the venue.

5 Protecting the area of activity.

As part of this process, the public authorities will normally be responsible for determining whether and if so what physical barrier should be in place around the area of activity, having regard to the perceived level of risk from and to the spectators. They should pay regard to the Standing Committee’s statement on fences and barriers adopted at its 17th meeting in June 1997.

6 Preventing unauthorised access onto the area of activity.

The arrangements for keeping spectators off the area of activity will normally be determined locally by the organiser, venue management and/or the police.

7 Creating adequate emergency exits and passages onto the area of activity.

Where there is a physical barrier between spectators and the area of activity, careful consideration needs to be given to how spectators will be able to leave in an emergency, for instance a fire or disorder outside the normal exit. This should be taken into account by whoever is determining the safe capacity (see item I.2 above). As a general principle, spectators should be able to escape via the playing area as a last resort.

Where there are emergency gates leading from the spectator viewing areas onto the playing area, no form of obstruction which would prevent the outward opening of such gates shall be permitted.

These gates should be permanently staffed whilst spectators have access to the venue to facilitate effective egress from viewing areas onto the playing area should that course of action be necessary.

8 Protecting players and participants.

This should including protection of visiting participants/teams during training sessions and transfers to and from the venue, when considered necessary.

Officials and referees, where considered necessary, should be provided with secure guarded parking facilities for their vehicles and protected access to the field of play, for example through a retractable tunnel). Spectators transport should be afforded, when considered necessary, similar protection.

9 Providing fine-mesh nets behind goals to protect players and participants.

If the erection of fine mesh nets behind goals is considered necessary to protect players from any objects thrown from viewing areas, these nets should be fireproof and not impede the evacuation of supporters in case of emergency.

It should also be borne in mind that such nets may seriously impede the ability of spectators to see the event, which in turn may adversely affect their behaviour and cause safety and security problems.

10 Protecting spectators from the area of activity.

Suitable netting or screening should be provided when necessary to protect spectators from the area of activity. The events concerned could include ice hockey or the warm up period before a football match. In other circumstances there might be a need for a clear demarcation of the area of activity (involving the use of physical means or stewards) to prevent inadvertent encroachment by spectators.

11 Separating rival spectators.

The separation of different groups of spectators, in particular the supporters of rival football teams, may be effected by physical means (barriers or netting), by placing them in sufficiently distant areas of the venue (with their own sanitation and catering facilities) or by the deployment of police officers or stewards. While one entity should be responsible for determining the nature of any means of separation, this should be decided in collaboration with all those with a management role at the event.

12 Preventing outbreaks of fire.

Fire may present one of the greatest safety risks at a venue. Preventive measures, such as the removal of sources of ignition, the provision of fire doors and the adoption of sensible precautions, especially where food is being prepared, can greatly reduce this risk. (See also item IV.5 below.)

13 Monitoring air quality.

This relates to the possible introduction of a ban on smoking in the whole or part of the venue, as well as the monitoring of smoke and fume density and the control of humidity and temperature. It may also include prohibiting or restricting the sale of tobacco.

14 Providing floodlights, lighting and emergency lighting.

Suitable lighting is required for all areas including:

Additionally emergency lighting is required in case of a failure of the primary lighting source. Arrangements should be in place for the attendance of a suitable technician to remedy the problem in the case of a failure during the event.

III Maintenance of the venue

1 Monitoring and testing structures and equipment.

All structures and equipment should be inspected and tested on a regular basis in accordance with the requirements of the public authorities. May of these, such as roofs, barriers and electrical fittings, are likely to require the employment of specialist personnel. The checklist should identify who is responsible for commissioning and following up the tests or inspections.

Additional precautions are likely to be needed in areas where there is a risk of earthquakes or flooding.

2 Undertaking general maintenance.

Each venue should adopt a schedule of day to day maintenance. Any damage should be identified and items such as seats should be repaired or replaced as necessary before each event. Facilities should be cleaned and any dangerous objects should be removed.

IV Safety facilities, equipment and fittings

1 Providing and equipping a control post.

The match commander should be provided with the suitable necessary facilities (including where possible a control post equipped with a closed-circuit television surveillance system), in accordance with national/local regulations and requirements.

The control post should be in a secure location with a good overall view of the spectator accommodation.

The identity of the match commander will vary from country to country. In some cases, it will be a senior police officer, in others the venue safety/security officer (see item V.1 below). In some cases, the function may be shared between the two, with each having his own clearly identified areas of responsibility.

2 Providing closed-circuit video equipment (CCTV).

Where possible there should be a CCTV system to monitor the situation, ensure crowd safety and identify offenders. This should be capable of recording images and should be effective both in daylight and after dark.

Live images should be made available to both the venue safety team and to the police commander.

The system should, when appropriate, provide coverage of the approaches to the venue. Where possible it should also extend to significant transportation hubs and points where spectators congregate. This will provide advanced information on the likely build up of spectators at entry points to the venue and a visual profile of their conduct as they approach the venue.

An auxiliary power supply should be provided to ensure the continued operation of the system in the event of a power failure.

3 Preventing overcrowding.

A system that records the number of spectators who have entered the stadium or venue through each entrance can play a major part in preventing overcrowding in sections of the venue or the venue as a whole. This is particularly important where the venue is not all seated or where groups of spectators remain standing. Experience has shown that merely checking tickets is vulnerable to forgery or abuse.

Any entry-counting system should also account for the number of people afforded VIP status and housed in corporate facilities within the venue.

4 Providing a public address system.

A public address (PA) system is an essential component of crowd safety. It enables the safety manager, the police and the emergency services to inform or give directions to spectators. It should be audible in the event viewing areas, the adjacent circulation areas and the immediate vicinity of the venue. Ideally it should be capable of delivering separate messages to different areas. It should be clearly audible above any background or crowd noise. The communications room should be in a secure location inaccessible to unauthorised persons.

The PA system operator should be provided with instructions to avoid undesirable comments liable to excite the public against a rival team and its supporters, the referee and officials and the police. It may be advisable that the conduct of the crowd, the nature of the situation, the content of the message and the reaction of the crowd to it are noted in writing by the individual deciding to broadcast the message.

At international events, there should be an announcer able to speak the language of the visiting spectators. When numerous nationalities are in attendance a decision needs to be made at an early stage as to which languages are the most relevant for the purpose of delivery.

An auxiliary power supply should be provided to ensure the continued operation of the system in the event of a power failure.

5 Arranging for adequate medical and first aid assistance, fire fighting and other emergency services.

The required level of medical and first aid assistance should be determined in the light of the nature of the event, the anticipated composition of the crowd, the likely attendance, the weather and evidence about the rate of injuries at similar events. It should also bear in mind that spectators may seek treatment for illnesses or injuries incurred prior to the arrival at the venue.

A similar process should be adopted for determining whether the presence of the fire service and/or other emergency services is likely to be required. The construction of the venue and the propensity of the spectators to use flares should be taken into account.
6 Providing effective communications equipment.

Effective communications play an important role in the management of the crowd and the prevention or control of safety or security incidents. Suitable radio and/or telephone link are required between the command and control post and the police, stewards, medical and fire services and all others with a role in managing the event.

V Pre-event co-ordination

1 Appointing a venue safety/security officer.

The title and the role of this individual will vary from country. In some places he (or she) will be responsible for all aspects of the safety of the venue on non-event days and take command of the management of the event. Elsewhere the role may be limited to operational matters connected with the event. In either case, the safety officer should be trained and competent to undertake these tasks.

At most venues, the safety officer is responsible for establishing and maintaining contact with the public authorities, the police and the other emergency services. The safety officer should therefore be provided with the authority to undertake and the necessary resources to carry out the tasks for which he/she is responsible, including access to and radio communication with the command post.

2 Assessing and addressing risks.

The safety officer is normally responsible for identifying and assessing the risks of each event and of implementing any necessary safety or security measures in advance of the event on behalf of the organiser.

This is best achieved through the preparation of written contingency plans covering the range of possible incidents that may adversely affect the safety of spectators or disrupt normal operations. These may be large or small. Among the matters to which they may relate are the structure of the venue, the safety equipment, crowd control and ticketing. In some cases they may require the evacuation of the venue. The plans should be tested and should be updated in the light of the outcome.

The safety officer is also responsible for ensuring that these measures are co-ordinated with those being taken by the police, emergency services, public authorities and any other entities involved in the management of the event. These could include measures to address:

3 Convening co-ordination meetings.

In advance of any high risk event, the authority with overall responsibility should consider whether to convene additional co-ordination meetings in order to plan and supervise the staging of the event. In some countries, this may occur at the request of the police or the safety officer. The police, fire and medical services should each nominate a permanent high level representative with authority to take decisions on their behalf to attend these meetings. The public authorities, venue management and, where possible, the competing teams should also attend.

It should be possible to convene this group urgently in the event of an emergency or major incident (see item VIII.4 below).

4 Alerting the public authorities to the need for public order resources.

The organiser and/or the venue safety officer should alert the public authorities to the possible need for public order resources, to counter outbreaks of violence and misbehaviour, inside the venue, in its immediate vicinity and along the transit routes and gathering points used by spectators.

5 Informing the police of potential breaches of public order.

All relevant information should be transmitted to the police forces of the different localities affected or likely to be affected by the event. This will include any affected transit countries. If appropriate, these could then establish intelligence centres and/or a register of convicted spectators, or other co-operation measures.

6 Making contact with the visiting spectators’ embassy/consulate.

This is necessary in order to ensure that the police and/or public authorities can communicate rapidly with the embassy/consulate in case of need.

7 Informing the public authorities of spectators’ travel plans.

The public authorities of the host country and of transit countries need to be informed of the travel plans of groups of spectators. When possible, this should include travel information on individual and casual spectators (including spectators likely to attend without tickets).

8 Ensuring co-operation with transport authorities, tour operators and transport companies.

These bodies have an important role to play in transporting spectators to and from the venue. It is important that their plans are co-ordinated with those of the other national and local entities. In addition, their personnel should be specially trained for this task.

9 Confirming that information has been exchanged between the participating clubs or national sports bodies.

The participating clubs or national sports bodies need to exchange information about the team, the official delegation, VIPs and the media travelling with the team, travel and accommodation arrangements and, where known, details of supporter numbers and possible travel arrangements.

VI Pre-event checks

1 Inspecting the venue.

An inspection of the venue should be conducted in good time before the event, normally by representatives of the owners, the organisers (including the safety officer) and the public authorities, to identify possible technical or material deficiencies and provide solutions to them; a final inspection should take place the day before the event is held.

2 Searching the venue.

It is essential that the venue is thoroughly searched before spectators are admitted to any event and that any dangerous objects (for example, building materials, rubble, loose seats, glass or other rubbish) inside and in the vicinity of the venue are removed. Any construction site within or in the vicinity of the venue should be removed or sealed off.

3 Checking for obstructions.

Where there are emergency gates leading from the spectator areas into the playing area, no form of obstruction which would prevent the outward opening of such gates shall be permitted. It is essential to check that these are unobstructed and that they can easily be opened.

4 Checking entrances and exits.

Verifying the existence of adequate entrances and exits to the facilities (with doors opening towards the exterior) and their efficient permanent staffing to ensure easy access and evacuation by the public; all exit doors should always be in a non-locked condition when there are spectators in the venue and should be permanently staffed to guard against abuse.

VII Ticketing

1 Controlling ticket sales.

It is of critical importance that ticket sales are adequately controlled. This will normally be the responsibility of the organiser in agreement with the local, national and/or sporting association. Detailed guidance is available in the Standing Committee’s Recommendations 1989/1 and 2002/1.

The number of tickets made available must not exceed the safe capacity of the venue as prescribed by the relevant public authorities (see I 1 above). The overall number should be reduced in the light of any safety, control and public order factors or if the physical condition or safety management of the venue are inadequate. In this context “safety management” includes the venue safety policies, procedures and equipment, the competence of the safety officer and the number and competence of the stewards.
A plan of the ground, preferably colour coded, should be printed on the part of the ticket to be retained by the spectator. If this is not practicable, for example because entry is secured through an electronic card, a plan should be provided with the card.

This should also have regard to the need to ensure optimum separation of the different spectator groups (where appropriate).

2 Distributing tickets.

Ticket sales should be organised so that they take place without disturbances. Tickets for high risk events should not be sold at the venue on the day of the event may take place without the agreement of the police or public authorities.

3 Monitoring the sale of tickets.

Systems should be devised for checking and tracing the purchasers of tickets where appropriate (for example through voucher scheme). They should also define the role of clubs, supporters' clubs or sporting associations in supervising the distribution of allocated tickets, particularly free and reduced price tickets. Wherever possible, the sale of tickets should be computerised.

4 Restricting multiple sales.

Where necessary, the number of tickets which any one individual may purchase may be reduced as may the number of tickets available to visiting spectators. Restrictions may also be placed on the number of tickets available for purchase in bulk, for instance the limit of four tickets per purchaser recommended in the Standing Committee’s Recommendation 2002/1.

5 Combating forgeries.

This includes producing tickets in such a way as to render production and use of counterfeit or bogus tickets difficult, simplify control (for example, by making them machine readable, using appropriate numbering and colour codes, etc.), directing and channelling spectators to their seats and avoiding exceeding the authorised capacity of the stadium.

6 Ensuring that all spectators are issued with a ticket.

It is good practice to ensure that all spectators, in particular VIPs and guests, are included in the number who may be admitted, have tickets and are checked.

7 Informing the public of the availability of tickets.

It is clearly desirable to inform all would-be spectators as soon as possible, through the appropriate national and international channels, when all the tickets for an event have been sold.

VIII Event-day procedures

1 Undertaking the final searches of the venue.

A final thorough check immediately before the event for any explosive devices, smuggled smoke grenades, fireworks and/or other dangerous or suspicious objects should be conducted; after this check only controlled access to the venue is to be permitted.
2 Evaluating the risks on the event day.

The risks associated with an event are likely to change both before and during the event. It is necessary for them to be continually evaluated as the event progresses, a process known as Dynamic Ongoing Risk Assessment.

3 Applying the checklist during the event.

All the safety and security measures in the checklist need to be applied not merely before but also during and after the event. This may require a partnership between the safety officer, on behalf of the organiser, the police and/or the local public authorities and the sporting association. It is particularly important that all these entities clearly understand not merely their own responsibilities but also those of their partners.

4 Establishing a safety and security liaison group.

In the interests of efficiency and continuity, it is desirable that this group should have the same core membership as the co-ordination meetings referred to in item V.3 above. Other organisations, such as the national or international sports body should also attend when appropriate.

The group should meet in a pre-designated location to take any urgent decisions that may be required in the event of a major incident or an emergency. This should be known to all the group members. Appropriate arrangements for summoning them urgently should be in place before the event.

5 Sharing information with the police.

This function comprises three distinct elements:

6 Briefing the event officials.

Either the safety officer or if necessary the police commander will brief the event referee or other officials on the safety and security arrangements before the event.

IX Controlling access and entry to the venue

1 Separating spectators outside the venue.

Where necessary or appropriate, separate approach routes should be identified for rival supporters arriving either on foot or in coaches or personal motor vehicles. This could be achieved through using different roads or with removable barriers. Separate car parks may also be necessary.

2 Establishing outer cordons.

At particular high risk events it may be desirable to establish a secure outer cordon at which tickets may be checked and spectators may be searched before they arrive at the entrances to the venue. This can keep undesirable spectators away and prevent congestion around the entrances.

3 Controlling entry.

Entry controls are necessary primarily to prevent unauthorised entry that could lead to a venue (or more likely one sector) becoming overcrowded. It is therefore necessary not merely to check that the tickets are genuine but to count the number of people that have entered into each sector.

An automatic counting system, ideally linked to a turnstile, will ensure that the numbers entering are clearly recorded. It will also be more secure than a simple visual check of the tickets, especially if the entrances are not well lit.

Procedures are therefore needed to ensure that whoever is responsible for the overall safety of the event is kept continually aware of the number of spectators inside (and of the number still on their way). This will ensure that any decision to reduce the rate of entry or to close particular entrances may be taken before the sector concerned becomes overcrowded.

4 Searching spectators.

Whether or not some or all spectators should be searched will vary according to the nature of the event, the anticipated behaviour of the crowd and local cultural considerations. Where necessary and appropriate, arrangements should be made to search spectators with a view to detecting dangerous, prohibited or illegal articles.

Searches may range from simple checks of bags or pockets to full body checks or scanning by means of metal detectors. Where the searches are more thorough and detailed, the rate of entry will be much slower. To overcome this will require either large numbers of personnel or additional entrances.

Areas set aside for searching will need to be designed so that they do not become overcrowded particularly during the last few minutes before the start of the event. In such circumstances, there is a risk that the quality of the searching may be sacrificed in order to allow spectators into the venue more quickly. This could be exploited by risk supporters.

5 Excluding inebriated spectators or those under the influence of drugs.

Spectators who are inebriated or under the influence of drugs should always be excluded or ejected from the venue. In some countries, it is an arrestable offence to attempt to enter a venue while drunk.

6 Detecting and preventing the introduction of unauthorised objects.

The list of items that may not be brought into the venue will vary from country to country and from event to event. They are, however, likely to include:

At some venues, especially those indoors, it may be necessary to prohibit spectators from introducing flammable or combustible material.

7 Storing and returning confiscated articles.

It may be appropriate to make provision for the safe storage for confiscated items and personal belongings (such as umbrellas) which are not permitted inside the venue but which it would be appropriate to return after the event. This should involve the issue of a receipt to ensure the correct return of personal property.

X Managing spectators

1 Providing clear guidance on acceptable behaviour.

Spectators need to be provided with clear guidance on how they are expected to behave. Where spectators are coming from other countries this information should be provided in their own language. This can be done through signs at the venue, information on or with the tickets or through the media.

2 Informing spectators of prohibited items.

The list of prohibited items may vary from country to country and from venue to venue. While the importation of items such as weapons, flares or glass bottles will normally be banned everywhere, the policy on other items such as umbrellas, cameras or soft drinks may be less obvious. Law-abiding spectators are entitled to be told in advance what items they may not bring with them. This information should be prominently displayed around the outside of the venue so that spectators may see them before they arrive at the entry control points.

3 Controlling the sale and consumption of alcohol.

The European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in Particular at Football Matches states that the Parties shall “restrict, and preferably ban, the sale and any distribution of alcoholic drinks at stadia”.

Policies on the sale and consumption of alcohol vary from country to country, from outright prohibition to consumption by spectators under strict controls. These policies will normally be prescribed by the public authorities and enforced by the police, the venue management or the safety officer. Similar restrictions may apply outside or in the vicinity of the venue.

The sale and consumption of all drinks in glass bottles or metal containers (and in some instances in plastic bottles with their caps on) is normally prohibited because they can be used as missiles.

4 Enforcing the rules of the venue.

Each venue will normally issue its own rules on spectator behaviour. These may be promulgated by the public authorities, by national sporting bodies or by the venue itself. They may take the form of legal regulations or of private requirements in place of or in addition to the public law. Enforcement may lie with the police or the venue safety officer or it may be divided between them according to the nature of the particular requirement.

These rules should be prominently displayed around the outside of the venue so that spectators may see them before they arrive at the entry control points.

5 Controlling the movement of spectators.

The movement of spectators at the venue is controlled both by physical means (see section II above) and through the use of stewards. The responsibility for arranging the presence of the stewards at the event will normally rest with the safety officer, in agreement with either the police or the public authorities.

While the detailed arrangements vary from country to country, the stewards are normally responsible for the safety, the control and the customer care of spectators, in co-operation where appropriate with the police or security personnel. For the avoidance of confusion, it is desirable that the relative roles of the stewards and the police should be agreed between the relevant parties and recorded in writing.

6 Ensuring that spectators occupy the correct seat.

It is strongly recommended that each spectator be issued with a ticket containing a seat number and that the spectator be required to occupy this seat. This helps to guard against particular areas of the venue becoming overcrowded. It also ensures that gangways can be kept clear, thereby allowing police, fire and medical personnel free passage when necessary.

As part of their safety function, stewards should be responsible for directing spectators to the correct seat.

7 Providing and supervising stewards.

In its Recommendation 99/1 of 9 June 1999, the Standing Committee provided detailed advice on the functions, recruitment, training, conduct and deployment of stewards.

The number of stewards on duty at any one time should be determined with the agreement of the public authorities, the police or the relevant sporting body. These should all be clearly identified and deployed in their allotted positions in and around the venue before it is opened to spectators.

All stewards should be appropriately trained to a standard approved by the public authorities and aware of and competent to perform their duties. Their performance should be monitored. Records should be maintained of their training and performance and should be available for inspection by the appropriate authorities.

They should also be fully briefed before each event on the likely behaviour of the spectators. They should be suitably dressed, adequately supervised and required to obey a code of conduct.

Visiting stewards should be required to meet the same standards as those provided by or on behalf of the venue. Their role and powers should be clearly defined.

XI Customer care

1 Providing general information to spectators.

It is desirable to provide practical information to the spectators who are coming from other cities or countries about matters such as bus and other public transport lines to and from the venue, parking facilities, customs provisions and visa requirements, accommodation and the availability of food and alcohol and their average.

At major tournaments or international events, there may be a need to identify or provide appropriate accommodation for visiting spectators.

2 Directing spectators to the venue.

This includes providing staff at railway stations and parking areas and at main crossroads near the venue to guide spectators to the venue. Other elements of this are the erection of signs and posters at railway stations indicating the possible means of transport to and from the venue.

3 Facilitating access to the venue and its viewing areas.

Spectators, especially those who are unfamiliar with a venue, are likely to require advice on how to find their way to the correct entrance and from there to their seat. Information, in the media, with the tickets and in the form of clear signs will enhance spectator enjoyment and thereby facilitate the safety and security of the event.
4 Meeting the particular needs of children, the elderly and those with disabilities.

Young children and less mobile elderly spectators may require a higher level of care than other spectators. It may be necessary to deploy additional trained staff for this purpose.

Particular attention should be paid to the needs of spectators with disabilities (who may include not merely wheelchair users but those with restricted vision or hearing or with learning difficulties). At many venues it will be necessary to identify arrangements for their evacuation via a separate route in an emergency.

5 Providing meeting points and a lost children and property service.

Depending upon the size of the venue, the nature of the event and the likely audience profile, it may be desirable to arrange meeting points outside and in the vicinity of the venue, a lost children service and a lost and found property service to be staffed at all times.

6 Entertaining visiting spectators.

Where large numbers of spectators may be travelling from a distance and remaining for one or more nights, there may be advantage in providing suitable ad hoc entertainment programmes either in the vicinity of the venue or at a site elsewhere in the city. This is particularly important if the visiting spectators present a risk of drunkenness or misbehaviour.

7 Entertaining the spectators before the event.

A programme of events such as a curtain-raiser match, music or parades may attract spectators to the venue well before the start of the event. This can serve to prevent congestion or to encourage good behaviour. In such cases, it will be necessary to ensure that sufficient refreshments are available at the venue as soon as it opens.

XII Post-event procedures

1 Observing the dispersal of the spectators from the venue.

The departure of the spectators from the venue does not mark the end of the event. They need to be observed and managed as they disperse from the venue into adjoining town-centres, bars and places of entertainment, transport hubs (in particular railway stations) and places where groups of pedestrians may merge.

2 Reporting on the outcome of the event.

It is important that after the event, the person who has been in overall charge should prepare a report for the appropriate authorities on the effectiveness of the preventative measures that were taken. This should identify the lessons that have been learned and how these will be applied in future.

3 Inspecting the venue for any damage.

Following any event a full inspection of the venue should be carried out in order to identify any damage. Appropriate repairs should then be carried out before any subsequent events.

4 Identifying any spectators against whom action should be taken.

As soon as possible after any event, it is necessary to identify any spectators who have misbehaved in order that any measures to exclude them from the venue may be implemented before the next event. Any video footage which might assist in the retrospective investigation of criminal offences should be made available to the appropriate prosecuting authority.

5 Maintaining detailed written records.

Those responsible for the facility and for the event need to maintain detailed written records both to assure themselves that all necessary measures have been taken to ensure spectator safety and security and to satisfy the relevant authorities that monitor and enforce the safety certificate (see item I.3 above).

These records should include (as a minimum):

XIII Social, educational and preventive measures

Further detailed guidance on these matters, may be found in the Standing Committee’s Recommendation 2003/1 on the role of social and educational measures in the prevention of violence in sport.

1 Co-operating with spectator groups and associations.

This includes making sporting associations and clubs aware of their own responsibilities in safety and security matters. In particular these clubs should be encouraged to form positive and constructive links with their supporters' clubs and to work with them to promote an inclusive and friendly atmosphere and to avoid incidents of violence.

2 Encouraging and supporting fan coaching projects.

Fan coaching projects exist in a number of countries in different forms. It is desirable that any projects should at the very least be encouraged and supported by the public authorities and other local entities.

3 Encouraging and promoting the use of persons accompanying visiting supporters.

These accompanying persons may be either stewards, full-time employees of the visiting club or fan coaches. They provide a valuable resource that can help to defuse tension and help visiting supporters feel welcome. Their use should be encouraged and supported.

However, it is necessary to ensure that their role and powers are clearly defined. This applies particularly to stewards coming from another country who are unlikely to possess any legal powers or insurance cover and may therefore have to restrict their role to providing information to their own supporters outside the venue.

4 Establishing contact with the local population.

Local citizens, and indeed local supporters, are likely to be affected by the arrangements for any significant event. This applies particularly to those who live in the vicinity of the venue, who may find the access to their homes and their parking arrangements are disrupted. It is therefore highly desirable that they be made aware of the likely arrangements and that their interests are taken into account.

5 Involving the local population.

The local population can easily be marginalised during a major tournament. This can lead to alienation and misbehaviour. Consideration should therefore be given to providing opportunities for local people to become engaged during major tournaments even if they are unable to attend any of the events. In some cases, this may be undertaken by the event organiser; in others the public authorities may take the lead.

XIV Relations with the media

1 Preparing and implementing an overall media strategy.

This comprises anticipating the degree of likely press and media interest in an event or tournament, preparing policies for press conferences and planning for consequences of possible events. It also requires the training of sporting organisations and police press officers.

2 Co-operating with the media.

Experience has shown the benefit of liaising with the media in a spirit of co-operation, particularly concerning information for supporters and the number of media representatives circulating inside the venue.

Appendix 1

Categorisation of football supporters

Definition for a ‘Risk’ Supporter

A person, known or not, who can be regarded as posing a possible risk to public order or anti social behaviour, whether planned or spontaneous, at or in connection with a football event.

Definition for a ‘Non-Risk’ Supporter

A person, known or not, who can be regarded as posing no risk to the cause of or contribution to violence or disorder, whether planned or spontaneous, at or in connection with a football event

Risk supporter checklist

Elements Supporting comments

Public order

 

Historical rivalry between club

 

Expected violence

 

Racist behaviour

 

Away supporters likely in home sector

 

Pitch invasion

 

Alcohol related problems

 

Use of weapons

 

Knowledge of police tactics

 

Other

 
   

Public safety

 

Terrorist threat

 

Political tension / use of banners

 

Use of flares / fireworks likely

 

Travelling supporters without tickets

 

Black market tickets

 

Other

 
   

Criminal activity

 

Counterfeit tickets

 

Sale / use of illegal drugs

 

Other

 

CHECKLIST OF MEASURES FOR SAFETY AND SECURITY AT SPORTING EVENTS

MEASURES

Owner

Organiser

National sports body

UEFA or equivalent

Public
authorities

Other

I. Overall regulation and co-ordination

1 Verifying the venue structure and issuing a safety certificate.

2 Determining the safe capacity.

3 Monitoring and enforcing the conditions of the safety certificate.

4 Providing the public authorities with all relevant information on the planned event.

5 Determining that the accommodation for spectators in the venue is suitable for the event concerned.

6 Verifying the correct application of the guidelines and instructions issued by national or international sporting bodies.

7 Where appropriate, authorising the event.

8 Informing the organiser of any objection to the staging of the events and/or of any requirements before it may take place.

9 Excluding, as far as legally possible, known and potential risk supporters from venues.

10 Regularly reviewing details of known risk supporters.

11 Identifying the named individuals responsible for spectator safety.

12 Planning all financial matters related to the safety/security of the event.

II Design and structure of the venue

1 Verifying the existence of adequate separate entrances and exits.

2 Ensuring a sufficient quality of accommodation and amenities for all spectators.

3 Providing adequate assembly areas.

4 Checking fences and barriers.

5 Protecting the area of activity.

6 Preventing unauthorised access onto the area of activity.

7 Creating adequate emergency exits and passages onto the area of activity.

8 Protecting players and participants.

9 Providing fine-mesh nets.

10 Protecting spectators from the area of activity.

11 Separating rival spectators.

12 Preventing outbreaks of fire.

13 Monitoring air quality.

14 Providing floodlights, lighting and emergency lighting.

III Maintenance of the venue

1 Monitoring and testing structures and equipment.

2 Undertaking general maintenance.

IV Safety facilities, equipment and fittings

1 Providing and equipping a control point.

2 Providing closed circuit video equipment (CCTV).

3 Preventing overcrowding.

4 Providing a public address system.

5 Arranging for adequate medical and first aid assistance, fire fighting and other emergency services.

6 Providing effective communications equipment.

V Pre-event co-ordination

1 Appointing a venue safety/security officer.

2 Assessing and addressing risks.

3 Convening co-ordination meetings.

4 Alerting the public authorities to the need for public order resources.

5 Informing the police of potential risks to the event.

6 Making contact with the visiting spectators’ embassy/consulate.

7 Informing the public authorities of spectators’ travel plans.

8 Ensuring co-ordination with transport authorities, tour operators and transport companies.

9 Confirming that information has been exchanged between the participating clubs or national sports bodies.

VI Pre-event checks

1 Inspecting the venue.

2 Searching the venue.

3 Checking for obstructions.

4 Checking entrances and exits.

VII Ticketing

1 Controlling ticket sales.

2 Distributing tickets.

3 Monitoring the sale of tickets.

4 Restricting multiple sales.

5 Combating forgeries.

6 Ensuring that all spectators are issued with a ticket.

7 Informing the public of the availability of tickets.

VIII Event-day procedures

1 Undertaking the final searches of the venue.

2 Evaluating the risks on the event day.

3 Applying the checklist during the event.

4 Establishing a safety and security liaison group.

5 Sharing information with the police.

6 Briefing the event officials.

IX Controlling access and entry to the venue

1 Separating spectators outside the venue.

2 Establishing outer cordons.

3 Controlling the entry of spectators.

4 Searching spectators.

5 Excluding inebriated spectators or those under the influence of drugs.

6 Detecting and preventing the introduction of unauthorised objects.

7 Storing and returning confiscated articles.

X Managing spectators

1 Providing clear guidance on acceptable behaviour.

2 Informing spectators of prohibited items.

3 Controlling the sale and consumption of alcohol.

4 Enforcing the rules of the venue.

5 Controlling the movement of spectators.

6 Ensuring that spectators occupy the correct seat.

7 Providing and supervising stewards.

XI Customer care

1 Providing general information to spectators.

2 Directing spectators to the venue.

3 Facilitating access to the venue.

4 Meeting the particular needs of children, the elderly and those with disabilities.

5 Providing meeting points and a lost children and property service.

6 Entertaining visiting spectators.

7 Entertaining the spectators before the event.

XII Post-event procedures

1 Observing the dispersal of spectators from the venue.

2 Reporting on the outcome of the event.

3 Inspecting the venue for any damage.

4 Identifying any spectators against whom action should be taken.

5 Maintaining detailed written records.

XIII Social, educational and preventive measures

1 Co-operating with spectator groups and associations.

2 Encouraging and supporting fan coaching projects.

3 Encouraging and promoting the use of persons accompanying visiting supporters.

4 Establishing contact with the local population.

5 Involving the local population.

XIV Relations with the media

1 Preparing and implementing an overall media strategy.

2 Co-operating with the media.