Recommendation on Standard Urine Sampling Procedures for Doping Control in and out of Competition (95/1)
The Monitoring Group of the Anti-Doping Convention, under the terms of Article 11.1.d of the Convention,
Whereas under Article 3 of the Anti-Doping Convention the Parties undertake to co-ordinate the policies and actions of their government departments and other public agencies concerned with combating doping in sport;
Whereas in Article 7 of the Convention the Parties undertake to encourage their sports organisations to harmonise their doping control procedures;
Considering that common operating standards for control procedures would ensure a fair and equitable system for athletes;
Considering that such standards could also provide a firm basis upon which to build bilateral and multilateral agreements for doping control between countries;
Considering that this would also encourage other sports organisations and countries to seek common standards;
Convinced of the need to establish a standard system of urine sample collection;
Having studied the Sampling Procedures of the International Olympic Committee's Medical Code;
Having discussed this Recommendation with international and European sports organisations;
Having revised Recommendation N° 1/94 adopted by the Monitoring Group in 1994, to include provision for standard urine sampling procedures for doping controls out of competition.
Recommends that Parties to the Anti-Doping Convention include, or where appropriate, strongly urge the national sports bodies concerned to include, in their Anti-Doping Regulations, the Standard Urine Sampling Procedures and annexes thereto appended to the present Recommendation.
Standard urine sampling procedures for doping control in and out of competition
1. The Anti-Doping Convention requires Contracting Parties to encourage their sports organisations to harmonise their procedures for doping control. The aims of achieving harmonisation are many fold:
- Common operating standards for testing procedures would ensure a fair and equitable system for all athletes.
- It could lead to the establishment of an international system of sample collection.
- Minimum operating standards could also provide a firm basis upon which to build bilateral and multilateral anti-doping agreements between countries.
- Sports organisations and countries would be encouraged to seek common standards.
- Countries would be able to guarantee a level of competence within these standards.
2. By operating to common standards, testing programmes organised by International Sports Federations, of national governing bodies and by national anti-doping organisations could be intercommunicated. Working together, these parties could create and develop a more effective system of doping control.
3. The Anti-Doping Convention invites Contracting Parties to coordinate their anti-doping policies and actions (Art. 3.1, the Parties shall co-ordinate the policies and actions of their government departments and other public agencies concerned with combating doping in sport). As suggested in Art. 3.2 (they shall ensure that there is practical application of this Convention, and in particular that the requirements under Article 7 are met, by entrusting, where appropriate, the implementation of some of the provisions of this Convention to a designated governmental or non-governmental sports authority or to a sports organisation), a designated national authority or organisation (whether in the public sector or within the sports movement) with clearly defined roles and responsibilities could undertake the implementation of practical elements of the Convention. In essence, a national anti-doping organisation should be established so as to operate independently of but in association with individual sports federations, both national and international. Furthermore, to achieve harmonisation national governing bodies and International Sports Federations should try to make maximum use of the common testing services offered by the national anti-doping organisation.
4. These Standard Sampling Procedures should be followed as far as is reasonably practicable in each case. A minor departure from them shall not invalidate the possible finding of a prohibited substance during analysis. Only a departure which reasonably casts doubt upon the validity of a positive analysis will be entertained.
5. These Standard Sampling Procedures apply only to the collection of urine samples.
1. Sample collection teams
1.1. Sample collection should be carried out by qualified staff (including independent sampling officers and medically qualified experts, hereafter called "doping control officers") properly trained and duly authorised. When recruited by the national anti-doping organisation (or agency or body; hereafter called "organisation"), these officials should be independent of the sport in which they are testing and from the persons being tested, though they should be familiar with the sport and its rules.
1.2. National anti-doping organisations should undertake training of appropriate individuals using a curriculum based on the procedures which follow.
1.3. Wherever possible a sample collection team should consist of a minimum of 2 doping control officers. In appointing the team to collect urine samples, the sex of the athlete(s) should be taken into account.
1.4. Doping control officers should carry an identity card issued by the national anti-doping organisation or international federation. In addition each doping control officer should have written authorization from the national anti-doping organisation or from the international federation to carry out the controls.
2. Selection procedures
2.1. In Competition
At competitions, the doping control officer and/or national anti-doping organisation is responsible for the selection of athletes. However, where the competition regulations of the relevant sports federation so require, this selection or pre-selection shall be made in conjunction with and in the presence of the nominated representative of that federation.
2.2. Out of Competition
Individual athletes may also be selected for out of competition testing at any time, in accordance with national procedures and/or International Federation regulations. The testing procedures may be initiated with no or little notice at any appropriate time. Controls shall be conducted in a way which is equitable for all sportsmen and sportswomen and which includes testing and retesting of persons selected, where appropriate, on a random basis.
3. Notification and doping control form
3.1.1. The doping control officer (or nominated representative of the Federation, or a person designated by the national anti-doping organisation) may notify the athlete in writing or orally. Oral notification must be confirmed in writing. The date and time of notification shall be noted on the Doping Control Form (DCF: Annex B2). The athlete should sign this form to acknowledge receipt of the notice as soon as the notice is presented.
3.1.2. The athlete's identification data shall be included on the form, together with advice that and/or conditions under which he/she may be accompanied to the Doping Control Station by a person of his/her choosing.
3.1.3. The possible consequences of failing to report for the control or for refusing to provide a sample (ie such failure or refusal being deemed to be equivalent to a positive result) shall be clearly stated on the notification form (cf. 8, 9 and 10 below, in order to keep the form manageable, any additional information which may be given should be put on a separate sheet attached to the form).
3.2. Procedure for notification of controls - in competition
3.2.1. Notification of the doping control test should normally take place immediately after the athlete has finished competing.
3.2.2. Notification and sample collection may be made earlier if appropriate. For example, in sports involving weight classes, testing may also take place at the time of the weigh-in.
3.3. Procedure for notification of controls - out of competition
3.3.1. Once liable for testing, athletes may be notified at any appropriate time that they are required to provide a urine sample.
3.3.2. The sample should be collected at the earliest opportunity (24 hours between notification and collection should be considered a maximum).
3.3.3. Following notification, every effort should be made to chaperone the athlete until the sample has been provided.
4. REPORTING FOR SAMPLE COLLECTIONS
4.1.1. The athlete may if so wished be accompanied to the Doping Control Station by a person of his/her choice (see 3.2.), provided this person is accessible and available within the time limit specified.
4.1.2. The date and time of reporting, together with the means of identification should be recorded on the Doping Control Form. Appropriate details relating to the accompanying person should also be noted.
4.1.3. Failure to report to the Doping Control Station within the agreed time limit shall be recorded and reported to the responsible authority for consideration.
4.1.4. Provision may be made for keeping the athlete under observation (escort, chaperone) between notification and reporting.
4.2. In Competition
4.2.1. At competitions, an athlete must report to the Doping Control Station at the time indicated on the notification (usually as soon as possible, and no later than one hour after notification).
4.2.2. At the request of the athlete and where there is good reason to do so (for example, presence required to attend a victory ceremony or press conference; to warm down; to receive treatment for an injury), the doping control officer or authorised representative may authorise a delay (for example, 60 minutes) in the reporting time. In such cases, the athlete will be kept under observation during this period.
4.3. Out of Competition
4.3.1. When providing a no notice sample, athletes will be kept under observation and will be required to provide a sample as soon as practically possible.
4.3.2. When providing a short notice sample out of competition, athletes will be required to report to the Doping Control Officer at a time and place mutually established, within the time allowed after notification.
5. PREMISES FOR DOPING CONTROL
5.1.1. Privacy and security should be maintained at all times at the place where the sample is collected.
5.1.2. Only one athlete at a time should be called to the area in which urine is to be provided. When the sample is passed, only the D.C.O. or other qualified person shall be present, except in specific circumstances provided for in the regulations.
5.1.3. Photographs etc should not be taken during doping control procedures, unless they are required for official identification purposes.
5.2. In Competition
5.2.1. At competitions, an area should be specifically designated for doping control as close as possible to the competition/training area. Sports federations are advised to include provision for adequate premises in their requirements for facilities at major competitions.
5.2.2. Ideally the doping control premises should comprise a separate waiting and administration area adjacent to toilet facilities for the collection of samples (example attached at Annex A).
5.2.3. The following persons should be authorised to attend the Doping Control Station:
The athlete, an accompanying person, members of the sampling team and nominated representatives of the international and/or national federations, and, if required, an interpreter.
The chief doping control officer should authorise any additional presence.
5.3. Out of Competition
5.3.1. Sample collection should be made in as a discrete a way as possible, whether in a sports facility, training centre, athlete's home, or wherever the mutually established rendezvous may be (see 4.2.2.).
6. SAMPLE COLLECTION PROCEDURES
6.1. The sampling equipment used (see Annex B.1) must be able to guarantee the unique identification, security and integrity of the urine samples collected.
6.2. Sample collection procedures must be explained to the athlete.
6.3. When ready to provide a urine sample, the athlete will select a collection vessel (individually sealed) and shall urinate into it under the direct observation of the doping control officer or other designated person. A minimum volume of 75 ml is usually required. The amount shall be indicated by the doping control officer (in accordance with the national or international federation requirements).
6.4. In order to avoid any manipulation, the doping control officer should require the athlete to remove sufficient clothing to provide the observer with an unobstructed view of the passing of the sample.
a. The athlete shall select a pair of (pre-sealed) bottles or bottle containers and individual code numbers and break the seal to obtain the bottles.
b. Approximately 2/3rds of the urine sample will be poured into the first bottle and approximately 1/3rd into the second bottle.
c. Both bottles will be closed, sealed and coded with a unique identification method.
Either the athlete or, at his/her request, the doping control officer may carry out the procedures under b & c.
d. The codes of the bottles will be recorded on the Doping Control Form and cross-checked by the doping control officer, by the athlete and by any accompanying person.
6.6. If required by the international or national Federation, the specific gravity and pH of the urine will be measured using a residual volume of urine in the collection vessel. Details of the measurements should be recorded on the Doping Control Form. If the sample does not meet the relevant specifications, a further sample may be required.
6.7. If insufficient urine has been provided by the athlete, the partial sample shall be poured into a bottle (as in 6.5 above). The bottle shall be closed, sealed and coded. The code shall be recorded on the Doping Control Form (or on a separate form provided for that purpose; cf. Annex B.2 § 15). The athlete must remain under the observation of a member of the doping control officer team until further urine has been provided and the sample collection procedures are complete.
6.8. When the athlete is ready to provide more urine, a further collection vessel should be selected by the athlete and the sample should be provided under the observation of the doping control officer. The doping control officer should check the seal number on the bottle against the codes previously recorded (before breaking the seal to open the bottle). The urine collected from the second collection shall be added to the urine collected from the first collection and the total volume checked. Once the required volume has been provided the procedures will continue as from 6.5. above. Otherwise the sealing of the sample as in 6.7. will continue until the required volume has been obtained.
Declaration of Medications:
6.9. The athlete shall be advised by the doping control officer that it is in his/her own interest to declare any medication or other substance taken in the relevant period prior to the control, the length of this period being specified in accordance with national/international regulations. The declaration should be recorded on the Doping Control Form by the athlete or the doping control officer. If the athlete declines to make a declaration, this shall be recorded on the Doping Control Form.
Such information must be treated in the strictest confidence by all who have access to it.
(With a view to respecting the athlete's privacy, anti-doping organisations might consider entering the declaration on a separate, sellable annex to the Doping Control Form, which would be opened only if the sample gives rise to a positive finding.)
Completion of the Doping Control Form
6.10. The Doping Control Form will be completed by the doping control officer. Details relating to the athlete and sample identification data should be recorded and cross-checked by the athlete and by the doping control officer. If measured, the pH and specific gravity to the sample shall also be recorded (cf. 6.6.).
6.11 The athlete shall certify the accuracy of the information and correctness of procedures used by signing the Doping Control Form which should also be signed by the doping control officer. Additional signatures may be required if specified in national and international regulations.
6.12 Any reason for dissatisfaction identified by either party should be declared on the Doping Control Form before or at the time of signature. Standard Sampling Procedures should be followed as far as is reasonably practicable in each case. A minor departure from them shall not necessarily invalidate the possible finding of a prohibited substance during analysis. Only a departure which reasonably casts doubt upon the validity of a positive analysis will be entertained. A statement to this effect shall be included on the Doping Control Form and shall be drawn to the attention of the athlete prior to signature.
6.13 Copies of the Doping Control Form shall be available for:
6.13.1. the athlete;
6.13.2. the national anti-doping organisation;
6.13.3.the laboratory (with no information on the name or identification details of the athlete and accompanying representative);
6.13.4. the national sports federation where appropriate;
6.13.5. the international sports federation, where appropriate.
Chain of Custody: (Annex C1 and C2)
6.14. At the site of collection, samples should be securely packed for transport in a container which is then sealed. A chain of custody form should be used to record the contents and custody of the equipment in the container from the site of collection to the laboratory.
7. TRANSFER OF SAMPLES TO THE LABORATORY
7.1.All samples shall be sent to the laboratory by a method of despatch which is secure and which has been approved by the national anti-doping organisation.
7.2. Despatch shall take place as soon as reasonably possible after the controls have been completed. Samples must be held in a cold and secure place until they can be delivered to the laboratory.
A refusal by an athlete to agree to doping control procedures should be noted on the Doping Control Form. If possible, the signature of the athlete and/or a witness to the refusal should be obtained.
9. FAILURE TO REPORT
If an athlete fails to report for sample collection at the agreed time, this should be noted on the Doping Control Form. Wherever possible attempts to contact the athlete within a reasonable timescale (e.g. one hour) should be made and noted.
In general, a refusal or failure to report or a refusal to provide a sample or otherwise to comply with these standard sampling procedures shall be deemed to be equivalent to a positive test.
Doping control station in competition
Facilities for Doping Control should provide privacy for competitors and security for the collection procedures. They should be situated close to the competition or training area. Access to the Doping Control Station is restricted to authorised personnel only (i.e. doping control officer, selected competitors and their accompanying officials, Federation Doping Control official). The entry door to the Doping Control Station must be secure.
Within the station three areas are required, a waiting area, administration area and an area for sample collection. (Ideally, there should be at least two inter-connecting rooms).
The waiting area should be equipped with chairs, clothes hangers and hooks, space for an adequate supply of non-alcoholic drinks (still and carbonated) in unopened containers and a rubbish bin. In addition reading materials, television or radio are helpful to create a relaxed atmosphere.
The administration area should contain table and chairs, wash basin, soap and towels. At major events involving sample collection over several days, a lockable freezer or refrigerator for storage of samples is useful. At least one W.C. is required in the sample collection area and separate sample collection areas should be provided for each sex being tested. Sufficient space is needed to accommodate the doping control officer and competitor in this area.
An Ideal Station
A Waiting Room
B Administration Room
C Sample Collection Room
An Alternative Arrangement
A Waiting Room
B Administration Room
C Sample Collection Room
1.Sampling equipment which is approved by national anti-doping organisations should include the following:
1.1. Disposable urine collection vessels, individually sealed prior to use.
1.2. Transparent bottles (of sufficient volume to ensure the total quantity of urine could be contained in 1 bottle, i.e. when collecting partial samples prior to sub-division), sealed prior to use.
1.3. A unique sealing system which secures the bottles during transit and storage.
1.4. Doping Control Forms to record identifying details for the samples, athlete and collection procedure. This form should consist of an original with 4 copies:
1.4.1. the athlete;
1.4.2. the national anti-doping organisation;
1.4.3. the laboratory (with no information on the name or identification details of the athlete and accompanying representative);
1.4.4. the national sports federation where appropriate;
1.4.5. the international sports federation, where appropriate.
Copies should be clearly indicated and differentiated by colour.
A checklist of the information required is attached at Annex B2
1.5. A secure container for transporting the sample bottles to and from the laboratory.
1.6. Measurement sticks for pH and specific gravity.
1.7. Chain of custody form(s).
2. There should be sufficient numbers of collection vessels, bottles and codes to allow the athlete to choose, provision for possible faulty equipment, breakages; provision for partial and second samples.
Doping control form/s
The Doping Control Form or Forms (for notification and for the collection procedure) should provide space for the following information:
1. Athlete's name
Out of Competition
Notification details and consequences of refusal, etc:
5. Notification Date and Place
6. Notification Time
7. Signature of doping control officer (for notification)
8. Name of doping control officer
9. Signature of Athlete
10. Consequences of refusal (para 3.3)
"Failure to report for doping control and refusal to provide a sample are deemed to be equivalent to a positive result".
11.Procedural objections waiver (para 6.12)
"Standard Sampling Procedures should be followed as far as is reasonably practicable in each case. A minor departure from them shall not necessarily invalidate the possible finding of a prohibited substance during analysis. Only a departure which reasonably casts doubt upon the validity of a positive analysis will be entertained".
Collection Procedure details:
(repeat information under 5 & 6 if two forms are used)
12. Date and Place of Sample Collection
13. Time of Arrival at Doping Control Station
14. Event Code if at competition
15.Sex of Athlete
16. Total Volume of Urine
17. Partial Sample Seal Numbers (if taken)
18. Bottle Code A/B
19. Seal Numbers A/B
20. pH reading (if taken)
21. Specific gravity reading (if taken)
22. Declaration of Medications (see para 6.9)
"...it is in his/her own interest to declare any medication or other substance taken in the relevant period prior to the control, the length of this period being specified in accordance with national/international regulations".
24. Signature of Athlete
25. Signature of doping control officer (to certify procedures correct)
26. Signature of International Representative (if present)
27. Signatures of Accompanying Official and Person (if present)
A standard form with a consistent colour scheme should be used (for distribution of copies, cf. Annex B1, item 1.4).
Chain of custody
1.There should be a secure and documented chain of custody for the transport of sampling equipment from the despatch of the prepared equipment to the doping control officer and from the doping control officer to the laboratory. If the doping control officer opens the transport container on receipt to check the contents, the sample equipment within must remain sealed. The transport container should be resealed and the code noted.
2. Equipment (see Annex B 1, 1.1 - 1.3) should be received (by the doping control officer and the athlete) sealed.
3. Once the equipment has been used, it should be sealed in a manner distinct from the first sealing system (i.e. by colour/design or other means).
4. There should be restricted access to both types of seals. The first seals (from the organisation preparing the kit to the doping control officer) should not be available outside the organisation. A secure method of ordering, delivery and storage of the seals should be implemented, and the organisation should maintain an inventory of issue.
5. A copy of the chain of custody form should be sealed inside the kit.
-> doping control officer
doping control officer
6.The chain of custody form should include the following information:
6.1. Control code number
6.2. Week number/date
6.3. Number of samples collected, A and B bottle
6.4. Competition (event code) or out of competition
6.6. Outer bag seal number on despatch - sealed by
6.7. Outer bag seal number on receipt - received by
6.8. Outer bag seal number on return - sealed by
6.9. Sampling Kit custody details:
6.9.1. seal numbers
6.9.2. released by
6.9.3. received by
6.10. Bottle numbers (seal numbers indicate bottle contains urine)
An example is attached at Annex C2
7. Completion of the form:
7.1. On dispatch from the organisation responsible for preparing the kit, the date, seal number for transport and details of equipment enclosed in the transport container should be noted.
7.2. On initial receipt, the breaking and re-sealing of the transport container by the doping control officer (or any official body, e.g. customs, security) should be noted and signed.
7.3. The seal of the transport container should be broken at the collection point in the presence of witnesses (doping control officer, athlete or governing body official).
7.4. The bottle and seal numbers of all samples enclosed in the transport container should be noted on the form together with the seal number for the transport bag itself. A copy of the form must be enclosed.
7.5. Changes in custody of the transport container during transfer to the laboratory must be noted by signature acknowledging the seal number recorded to be correct.
7.6. Any further breaking and resealing of the transport container must be also noted and agreed by signature (e.g. by an official of Customs or security)
7.7. The chain of custody form may be photocopied and the copy given to signatories, the original should continue to accompany the transport container until its acceptance by:
7.7.1. the laboratory;
7.7.2. an official carrier which operates its own chain of custody documentation, with signature required for transfer of ownership
7.8. The original chain of custody form should then be returned to the authority initiating the control, who will have responsibility for checking the chain of custody is complete before forwarding a report of the analysis of the governing body/athlete. In the laboratory report of the analysis, it is suggested that date, time and seal numbers are noted.
SAMPLE COLLECTION - CHAIN OF CUSTODY FORM
The sampling kit sealed as below contains urine samples collected from sports men/women as a part of a programme of doping control. These samples are of no commercial value. They are being transported to an International Olympic Committee accredited Laboratory for analysis. The urine samples have been collected and sealed at the place of collection. Maintenance of the chain of custody is essential to ensure the security and integrity of the urine samples. When custody of the sampling kit is transferred confirmation of receipt to the sealed container must be obtained by signature of the receiving party. A photocopy of this form should be retained as written receipt. If inspection of the sampling kit is required by Customs and Excise or other authority, acknowledgement of the sealing process by the inspecting authority will assist the maintenance of this chain of custody. Opening of the inner containers will invalidate the chain of custody unless appropriate record is appended which is recognised in a court of law. For further information about the contents of the sampling kit please contact: ...................
1 Event Code:
2 No of samples collected:
3 Outer bag seal number from Laboratory:
Sealed by ______________
4 Tick box as appropriate
5 Sport / Federation:
6 Outer bag Seal number:
8 Sampling kit custody details:
9 Bottle numbers enclosed (seal number indicates bottle contains urine sample)