Today there are still differences and inequalities between girls and boys with respect to school organisation and curricula, teaching methods and materials, career guidance, teacher training and most aspects of education.

In particular, the social roles associated with stereotypical representations of femininity and masculinity are often replicated in the education system. These inequalities impact on women and men’s economic and social situation. Notably, girls’ academic success has not led to the elimination of employment inequalities, the gender pay gap, or inequalities in relation to care work. The educational sector plays a crucial role in shaping gender representations, attitudes and behaviours. Therefore, eradicating formal discrimination in the education system is a first step, as well as the integration of a gender equality perspective into all aspects of education to ensure that the education sector actively promotes gender equality.


Gender mainstreaming and education at the Council of Europe


The Council of Europe Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)13 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on gender mainstreaming in education provides  the framework and aims for the activities of the Organisation on this topic. The Recommendation suggests actions in all areas pertaining to the organisation and content of education. Combating gender stereotypes in education is also one of the priorities of the Council of Europe Strategy on Gender Equality 2018-2023  In addition; Member states are introducing measures in order to integrate a gender equality perspective in their educational system. The final objective is to integrate a gender equality perspective in all Council of Europe activities in the field of education: from higher education to teachers’ training, education for democratic citizenship and human rights, history teaching or language policy.


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