Persisting inequalities between women and men, gender bias and stereotypes also result in unequal access of women and men to justice.

A study into women's access to the European Court of Human Rights drew attentation to the low number of applications filed by women, pointing out that this possibly reflects obstacles experienced by women at national level. Reasons advanced include lack of awareness, confidence and resources, gender bias and cultural, social and economic barriers. These barriers are particularly important in the case of women victims of violence or in situations of vulnerability, such as women victims of various forms of discrimination.

The Council of Europe is also implementing a specific project on  “Improving Women’s Access to Justice in Six Eastern Partnership Countries” in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine in 2015-2017.