|Steering Committee (CDMSI)|
|Bureau of the Committee (CDMSI-BU)|
|Former Steering Committee (CDMC)|
Former Bureau of the Committee
|Committee of experts on Media Pluralism and Transparency of Media Ownership (MSI-MED)|
|Committee of experts on Internet Intermediaries (MSI-NET)|
|FORMER GROUPS OF SPECIALISTS|
|Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists|
|Cross-border flow of Internet traffic and Internet freedom|
|Rights of Internet Users|
|Public Service Media Governance|
|Protection Neighbouring Rights of Broadcasting Organisations|
|Public service Media|
Conference Freedom of Expression and Democracy in the Digital Age -
Opportunities, Rights, Responsibilities, Belgrade, 7-8/11/2013
Conference "The Hate factor in political speech - Where do responsibilities lie?", Warsaw18-19 September 2013
|Conference of Ministers, Reykjavik - Iceland, 28-29 May 2009|
|European Dialogue on Internet Governance (EuroDIG)|
|Committee of Ministers texts|
|Parliamentary Assembly texts|
Strasbourg, 8 August 2011
Draft Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on the protection of freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and association with regards to privately operated Internet platforms and online service providers
1. Freedom of expression and the right to receive and impart information and its corollary freedom of the media are indispensable for genuine democracy and democratic processes. Through their scrutiny and in the exercise of their watchdog role, media provide checks and balances to the exercise of authority. The right to freedom of expression and information as well as freedom of the media must be guaranteed in full respect for Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Freedom of assembly and association are equally essential for people’s participation in the public debate and their exercise of democratic citizenship. All Council of Europe member states have undertaken to secure these freedoms for everyone within their jurisdiction in accordance with Article 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights, without distinguishing between the online and offline environments.
2. People, notably civil society representatives, whistleblowers and human rights defenders, increasingly rely on social networks, blogging websites and other means of mass communication in aggregate to access and exchange information, publish content, interact, communicate and associate with each other. These platforms are becoming an integral part of the new media ecosystem. Although privately operated, they are a significant part of the public sphere through facilitating debate on issues of public interest; in some cases, they can fulfil, similar to traditional media, the role of a social “watchdog” and have demonstrated their usefulness in bringing positive real-life change.
3. In addition to opportunities, there are challenges for the effective exercise of freedom of expression and to the right to impart and receive information in the new media ecosystem. Direct or indirect political influence or pressure on new media actors may lead to interference with the exercise of freedom of expression, access to information and transparency, not only at a national level but, given their global reach, also in a broader international context. Decisions concerning content can also impinge on the right to freedom of assembly and association.
4. Distributed denial of service attacks1 against websites of independent media, human rights defenders, dissidents, whistleblowers and other new media actors are also matters of growing concern. These attacks represent an interference with freedom of expression and the right to impart and receive information and, in certain cases, with the right to freedom of association. Companies that provide web hosting services lack the incentive to continue hosting those websites if they fear that the latter will come under attack or if their content may be regarded as sensitive. Further, the companies concerned are not immune to undue interference; their decisions sometimes stem from direct political pressure or from politically motivated economic compulsion, invoking justification on the basis of compliance with their terms of service.
5. These developments illustrate that free speech online is challenged in new ways and may fall victim to action taken by privately owned Internet platforms and online service providers. It is therefore necessary to affirm the role of these actors as facilitators of the exercise of the right to freedom of expression and the right to freedom of assembly and association.
6. Interference with content that is released into the public domain through these means or attempts to make entire websites inaccessible should be judged against international standards designed to secure the protection of freedom of expression and the right to impart and receive information, in particular the provisions of Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights and the related case law of the European Court of Human Rights. Further, impediments to interactions of specific interest communities should be measured against international standards on the right to freedom of assembly and association, in particular the provisions of Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights and the related case law of the European Court of Human Rights.
7. The Committee of Ministers:
- alerts member states to the gravity of politically motivated pressure exerted on privately operated Internet platforms and online service providers, and of other attacks against websites of independent media, human rights defenders, dissidents, whistleblowers and new media actors;
- underlines the necessity to reinforce policies that uphold freedom of expression and the right to impart and receive information as well as the right to freedom of assembly and association, having regard to the provisions of Article 10 and Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights and the related case law of the European Court of Human Rights;
- confirms its commitment to continue to work to address the challenges that these matters pose for the protection of freedom of expression and access to information.
1 Note of information for the Committee of Ministers to be deleted after adoption of the text: distributed denial of service attacks consist of flooding a website with messages and requests from a number of computers in order to put it out of service.