From linguistic diversity to plurilingual education: Guide for the development of language education policies in Europe
2007. Jean-Claude Beacco, Michael Byram.
This Guide is intended for those who influence, formulate and implement language education policy at any level. It presents approaches to the development of policies rather than policies as such, and is designed to accommodate the needs of different education contexts.
The aim of the Guide is to offer an analytical instrument which can serve as a reference document for the formulation or reorganisation of language teaching in member states. Its purpose is to provide a response to the need to formulate language policies to promote plurilingualism and diversification in a planned manner so that decisions are coherently linked.
Accordingly, the Guide does not promote any particular language education policy but attempts to identify the challenges and possible responses in the light of common principles. It is intended for those who influence, formulate and implement language education policy at any level. It presents approaches to the development of policies rather than policies as such, and is designed to accommodate the needs of different education contexts.
It constitutes one of the key documents for the development of (national or regional) Language Education Policy Profiles.
Structure of the Guide
The Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe is organised in three parts:
- analyses of current language education policies in Europe (common characteristics of member states policies and presentation of Council of Europe principles) ;
- information required for the formulation of language education policies (methodologies for policy design, aspects/factors to be taken into account in decision making);
- implementation of language education policies (guiding principles and policy options for deciders in providing diversification in choice of languages learned and in promoting the development of plurilingual competence; inventory of technical means and description of each ’solution’ with indicators of cost, lead in time, means, teacher training implications, administration etc.).
The Guide is available in two versions
The Guide exists in two versions of unequal length to suit the needs of specific groups of readers:
- the Main version is the reference version, written for those who decide language education policy, and which provides the scientific and professional argument and evidence in detail. The new edition was developed after a process of consultation; it includes cross-references to related Studies, as well as a glossary
- an abridged Executive version, written for policy deciders involved in language education policies but who may have no specific specialist knowledge of technical matters in language education.
21 Reference Studies
The Guide is accompanied by a series of separately published Reference Studies on key policy issues which provide in-depth analysis of key issues covered in the Main Version.
Language education policy, national and sub-national identities in South Africa - Alexander Neville (2003)
Languages and Language Repertoires: Plurilingualism as a way of life in Europe (also available in Georgian) - Beacco Jean-Claude (2005)
Plurilingualism, Democratic Citizenship in Europe and the Role of English - Breidbach Stephan (2003)
Social representations of languages and teaching - Castelloti Véronique / Moore Danièle (2002)
Language Education, Canadian Civic Identity and the Identities of Canadians - Churchill Stacy (2003)
L’Educazione Linguistica in Italia: Un’esperienza per l’Europa? / Language education in Italy: an experience for Europe? - Costanzo Edvige (2003)
Intercomprehension - Doyé Peter (2005)
Linguistic diversity and new minorities in Europe - Gogolin Ingrid (2002)
Using language economics and education economics in language education policy - Grin François (2002)
Tools for planning language training - Huhta Marjatta (2002)
Addressing 'the age factor': some implications for languages policy - Johnstone Richard (2002)
Policy approaches to English - Neuner Gerd (2002)
A site for debate, negotiation and contest of national identity: Language policy in Australia - Lo Bianco Joseph (2003)
The Consequences of Demographic Trends for Language Learning and Diversity - Ó’Riagáin Pádraig (2002)
Teaching and learning less widely spoken languages in other countries - Piri Riita (2002)
Europe, frontiers and languages - Raasch Albert (2002)
A concept of international English and related issues: from ‘real English’ to ‘realistic English’? - Seidlhofer Barbara (2003)
Why should linguistic diversity be maintained and supported in Europe? Some arguments - Skutnabb-Kangas Tove (2002)
Democratic Citizenship, Languages, Diversity and Human Rights - Starkey Hugh (2002)
Key aspects of the use of English in Europe - Truchot Claude (2002)
Language teacher education policy promoting linguistic diversity and intercultural communication - Willems Gerard (2002)
- Three fundamental guides
- Guide for the development and implementation of curricula for plurilingual and intercultural education
- A Handbook for Curriculum Development and Teacher Training. The Language Dimension in All Subjects
- From linguistic diversity to plurilingual education: Guide for the development of language education policies in Europe