The CEFR Common Reference levels are fully defined in a structured set of illustrative ‘can-do’ descriptors for many different categories.

The original descriptors for both the CEFR and European Language Portfolio were based on those developed in a Swiss National Research Project while also drawing on earlier Council of Europe’s “threshold levels” specifications (see the Report of the Symposium (1992) which was the starting point of the CEFR). The descriptors have been updated and extended in a large-scale international project resulting in the publication of the: CEFR Companion Volume with New Descriptors in 2018.