The CEFR descriptive scheme: from four skills to four modes of communication

In any communicative situation, general competences (for example, knowledge of the world, sociocultural competence, intercultural competence, professional experience if any) are always combined with communicative language competences (linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences) and strategies (some general, some communicative language strategies) in order to complete a task.

With its communicative language activities and strategies, the CEFR replaces the traditional model of the four skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing), which has increasingly proved inadequate in capturing the complex reality of communication.

CEFR descriptors are provided for communicative language activities, strategies and competences.

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Visual identity of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)