This Reference Supplement accompanies the Manual for “Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR)”. Its aim is to provide the users of the Manual with additional information which will help them in their efforts to relate their certificates and diplomas to the CEFR.
It contains three main components: quantitative and qualitative considerations in relating certificates and diplomas to the CEFR and different approaches in standard setting.The text of the supplement is available in PDF format and can be downloaded as separate sections:
- Overview and Introduction: Table of contents, Foreword by Sauli Takala (2009) and Section A, an overview of the linkage process
- Section B: Standard Setting by Felianka Kaftandjieva
- Section C: Classical Test Theory by Norman Verhelst
- Section D: Qualitative Analysis Methods by Jayanti Banerjee
- Section E: Generalisability Theory by Norman Verhelst
- Section F: Factor Analysis by Norman Verhelst
- Section G: Item Response Theory by Norman Verhelst
- Section H: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement by Thomas Eckes
- Section I: Cito variation on the bookmark method by Frank van der Schoot
Further Material on Maintaining Standards across Languages, Contexts and Administrations by exploiting Teacher Judgment and IRT Scaling.
The fact that scaling has become an increasingly important aid to standard setting is made clear in Chapter 6 of the Manual Relating Language Examinations to the CEFR. The document "Further Material on Maintaining Standards across Languages, Contexts and Administrations by exploiting Teacher Judgment and IRT Scaling" follows up on this trend.
In the Manual for Relating Language examinations to the CEFR various methods of linking examinations do the CEFR have been described. The standardisation phase in the linking process has been of particular concern and claims of links to the CEFR have not always been sufficiently substantiated.
These concerns prompted CITO, the Institute for Educational Measurement in the Netherlands – to sponsor a colloquium on Standard Setting Research and its Relevance to the CEFR as a complement to the Council of Europe’s work on the CEFR. Even though the Manual gives examples of various methods of setting CEFR standards, CITO has been of the opinion that a discussion among experts could be of much use to the improvement of linking activities that many countries and institutions are now carrying out.
The colloquium took place in the frame of the annual EALTA conference in Athens in May 2008. The publication of the proceedings of the colloquium was kindly provided by CITO to the Council of Europe (Linking to the CEFR levels. Research perspectives. 2009. Neus Figueiras & José Noijons, eds.)
As indicated in chapter 4 (point 4.3.1.) of the Manual, forms and related tables are provided for each of the Communicative Language Activities (CEFR Chapter 4) and for the Aspects of Communicative Language Competence (CEFR Chapter 5). The forms are tools to provide a detailed analysis of the examination or test in question and to relate that examination/test to the relevant subscales of the CEFR. In most of the forms, a short description, reference and/or justification is asked for.