Plurilingualism and pluriculturalism aim to capture the holistic nature of individual language users/learners linguistic and cultural repertoires. In this view, learners/users seen as social agents draw upon all sorts of resources in their linguistic and cultural repertoires and further develop these resources in their trajectories. Plurilingualism/pluriculturalism stresses the dynamic use of multiple languages/varieties and cultural knowledge, awareness and/or experience in social situations.

More on the concept


Watch Plurilingualism (2023: Council of Europe) (08:40)


Developing plurilingualism in the classroom: From reflection to action (CEFR Webinar Series 2021: Enrica Picccardo)

Engaging learners’ plurilingual and pluricultural competence: Online and face-to-face practice in secondary and tertiary language classrooms (CEFR Webinar Series 2021: Angelica Galante)

Putting plurilingual education into practice in primary and secondary schools (CEFR Webinar Series 2021: Joanna Durate)

Assessing plurilingualism: An example from practice (CEFR Online Workshop Series 2022: Belinda Steinhuber)


Plurilingual Guide: Implementing critical plurilingual pedagogy in language education (2022: Angelica Galante et al.)

Mapping students’ everyday multimodal language practices in a high needs school: Final project report (2015 : Margaret, Somerville et al.)

FREPA – A framework of reference for pluralistic approaches to languages and cultures (2013: Michel Candelier et al.)

Plurilingual Portfolio implementation – MAGICC project and ELP – Info sheet (2019: Brigitte Forster Vosicki)

Plurilingual receptive strategy training – Info sheet (2019: Radosław Kucharczyk)

The integrated plurilingual approach (IPA): A case study in Barcelona – Info sheet (2019: Maria González Davies)


Resources created on the basis of FREPA

Plurilingual and intercultural education (European Centre for Modern Languages – ECML)

REFIC:  Skills reference tool for plurilingual communication in intercomprehension (Miriadi project: Maddalena De Carlo et al.)

LINCDIRE (LINguistic & Cultural DIversity Reinvented)

Plurilingual lessons (CEBS: Center für berufsbezogene Sprachen)

EDiLiC : Education and Linguistic and Cultural Diversity (EDiLiC Association)

Plurilingual Lab, McGill University (Angelica Galante et al.)

Breaking the invisible wall (Angelica Galante)

Promoting learning in French and English through plurilingual pedagogies: Teaching resources

I am plurilingual! Je suis plurilingue! (Gail Prasad)


In Venlo gibt es viel Niederländisch, aber auch Englisch und Deutsch” – A workshop on receptive plurilingualism in the neighbour language (2022: Sabine Jentges et al.). Ch. 5 in Enriching 21st century language education: The CEFR Companion volume in practice

Implementing plurilingual oral exams and plurilingual lessons in Austrian upper secondary vocational colleges (2022: Belinder Steinhuber). Ch. 6 in Enriching 21st century language education: The CEFR Companion volume in practice

Promoting plurilingualism through linguistic landscapes: A multi-method and multisite study in Germany and the Netherlands (2022: Lisa Brinkmann, Joana Duarte  & Silvia Melo-Pfeifer)

Implementing plurilingualism in the foreign language classroom (2021: Antoinette Camilleri Grima)

Converting plurilingual skills into educational capital (2020: Déirdre Kirwan)

Bridging teaching, learning and assessment processes through a reflective method: Implications for plurilingual learning environments (2019: Barbara Spinelli)

Portraits of plurilingualism in a French international school in Toronto: Exploring the role of the visual methods to access students’ representations of their linguistically diverse identities (2017: Gail Prasad)

Children as co-ethnographers of their plurilingual literacy practices: An exploratory case study (2013: Gail Prasad)

Visual identity of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)