Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR)
A transparent, coherent and comprehensive reference instrument
The result of over twenty years of research, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR) is exactly what its title says it is: a framework of reference. It was designed to provide a transparent, coherent and comprehensive basis for the elaboration of language syllabuses and curriculum guidelines, the design of teaching and learning materials, and the assessment of foreign language proficiency. It is used in Europe but also in other continents.
The CEFR is available in 40 languages
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR) is related to the work of the Education Department which is part of the Directorate of Democratic Participation within the Directorate General of Democracy ("DGII") of the Council of Europe.
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment - Companion Volume
The Council of Europe is pleased to announce the publication of the definitive English version of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment - Companion Volume which updates the CEFR 2001.
The CEFR Companion Volume broadens the scope of language education, reflecting academic and societal developments since the CEFR publication in 2001. It presents the key aspects of the CEFR for teaching and learning in a user-friendly form and contains the complete set of extended CEFR descriptors, replacing the 2001 set. These now include descriptors for mediation, online interaction, plurilingual/pluricultural competence, and sign language competences. The illustrative descriptors have been adapted with modality-inclusive formulations for sign languages and all descriptors are now gender-neutral.
This publication marks a crucial step in the Council of Europe’s engagement with language education, which seeks to protect linguistic and cultural diversity, promote plurilingual and intercultural education, reinforce the right to quality education for all, and enhance intercultural dialogue, social inclusion and democracy.
Six levels of foreign language proficiency
The CEFR describes foreign language proficiency at six levels: A1 and A2, B1 and B2, C1 and C2. It also defines three ‘plus’ levels (A2+, B1+, B2+)
Based on empirical research and widespread consultation, this scheme makes it possible:
- to establish learning and teaching objectives
- to review curricula
- to design teaching materials and
- to provide a basis for recognising language qualifications thus facilitating educational and occupational mobility.
A European Indicator of Language Competence
Following a call for action by the Barcelona European Council (March 2002), the European Commission has developed a survey based on the CEFR (see Executive Summary 2012) to measure the foreign / second language proficiency of pupils at the end of compulsory education.
The purpose of the survey was to establish a European Indicator of Language Competence, providing member states with internationally comparable data on the results of foreign language teaching and learning in the European Union
Using the CEFR in specific contexts
The CEFR does not offer ready-made solutions but must always be adapted to the requirements of particular contexts, for example, the teaching and learning of Romani.
There is a particular need for careful interpretation and adaptation is especially acute when the CEFR’s descriptive scheme and proficiency levels are used for example to explore the communicative needs of adult migrants (www.coe.int/lang-migrants) and to guide the assessment of their proficiency in the language of their host community (see relevant studies).
The CEFR is much more than proficiency scales
The CEFR’s scales of foreign language proficiency are accompanied by a detailed analysis of communicative contexts, themes, tasks and purposes as well as scaled descriptions of the competences on which we draw when we communicate.
The CEFR is used in teacher education, the reform of foreign language curricula, the development of teaching materials and for the comparability of qualifications.
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is published in English by Cambridge University Press - ISBN Hardback 0521803136 Paperback: 0521005310
The French version is published by Editions Didier: Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues: apprendre, enseigner, évaluer. ISBN: 9782278058136
The copyright belongs to the Council of Europe. Requests concerning the translation or the reproduction of all or part of the CEFR should be addressed to the Council of Europe.
The use of the Council of Europe’s logo or of the European emblem for certification is not authorised. It is not the role of the Council of Europe to verify and validate the quality of the link between language examinations or diplomas and the CEFR's proficiency levels.
Member states are responsible for guaranteeing the quality and fairness of testing and assessment on the basis of the existing guidelines (including tools and illustrations) developed in the frame of the Council of Europe’s Language Policy Programme (Strasbourg).