(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 May 1985,
at the 385th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)

The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council
of Europe,

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members, and that this aim is pursued notably by common action in cultural matters;

Convinced of the vital importance of a recommendation on artistic creation for the functioning and development of a democratic society, especially in the present period of economic difficulty;

Regarding artistic creation as one of the essential factors for development;

Wishing to promote the individual creativity of professional and amateur artists;

Having regard to Resolution No. 4 on fostering artistic creation, adopted in Oslo by the Ad hoc Conference of European Ministers responsible for Cultural Affairs (1976), and to Resolution No. 1 on culture and communication technologies, adopted by the 4th Conference of European Ministers responsible for Cultural Affairs in Berlin in May 1984;

Recalling the conclusions of the Council of Europe colloquies on artistic creation in the plastic arts, music and the theatre as well as those of the Colloquy on "Copyright and Cultural Policy", held in Brussels in June 1984;

Having regard to the Consultative Assembly's report on the democratic renewal of the performing arts (Doc. 3766);

Concerned to help artists to occupy their rightful place in a democratic society;

Convinced that governments can play a major role by encouraging artistic creation through suitable action;

Having regard also to the Recommendation concerning the status of the artist, adopted by the General Conference of Unesco at its 21st Session, in October 1980,

I. Recommends that the governments of member states:

a. be guided by the principles set forth below in drawing up and implementing their national policies on aid for artistic creation and ensure that the responsible agencies also take account thereof;

b. circulate this recommendation as widely as possible, especially among persons and organisations concerned with the plastic arts, music, theatre, cinema, dance, literature and video;

II. Instructs the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to bring the content of this recommendation to the notice of the governments of the states party to the European Cultural Convention which are not members of the Council of Europe.

Principles for a policy on aid for artistic creation

Without prejudice to the diversity of member states' social, economic and administrative structures and conditions, efforts should be made in the general directions set forth below, in particular in the specific fields listed at the appendix by way of example.

1. General ways of arousing awareness

a. Supporting the maintenance and development of certain artistic forms which are indicative of a country's cultural identity and are experiencing difficulty in gaining access to or surviving in the commercial circuit; creating conditions that will foster such artistic forms as well as young creative talents;

b. Ensuring, wherever possible, that development schemes and national, regional and local planning programmes respect the role and function of creative and performing artists;

c. Increasing opportunities for young people and the various minority groups to acquire means of developing and expressing their own creativeness;

d. Creating the conditions necessary for diversifying forms of assistance (places of work, fellowships, commissions, support for theoretical research), as well as possible sources of assistance in such a way that they contribute to guarantee freedom of expression;

e. Making every effort to further the social status of artists with particular reference to income and social security.

2. Training

a. Wherever necessary improving the status of artistic subjects in schools, while giving creative artists an opportunity to be consulted in the matter;

b. Where desirable introducing or developing basic instruction in artistic subjects as part of the training of general-education teachers;

c. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach to the design of artistic courses;

d. Familiarising future members of the various creative professions with the new technologies by organising interdisciplinary contacts and providing them with opportunities to learn about the functioning and demands of the audio-visual media;

e. Considering ways of making those working or intending to work in the audio-visual field conscious of traditional artistic activities and of their potential for their own sphere of activity.

3. Dissemination of works

a. Generally linking the aims and procedures of aid for creation with those of aid for dissemination;

b. Encouraging media co-operation for the purpose of ensuring a wider audience for new works, particularly contemporary ones;

c. Promoting community events, such as exhibitions and festivals, and all forms of activity aimed at bringing the public into contact with artists;

d. Intensifying efforts to harmonise and simplify regulations on the movement of works of art between member states.

4. The lives of creative artists

a. Supporting the social role of creative artists by enabling them to assert themselves not only through professional contacts outside their own fields but also through involvement in decision-making concerning their profession;

b. Promoting satisfactory regulations on copyright and performers' rights for the purpose of protecting the intellectual property rights of creative artists and other rightholders and regularly adapting such regulations to technical innovations in the field of reproduction and publication;

c. Developing, at all levels and particularly through international institutions, facilities for contacts, exchanges and research as well as opportunities for joint ventures both at home and abroad, and ensuring a proper supply of information to interested circles;
d. Encouraging the pursuit of personal research projects;

e. Providing creative artists with a reasonable system of remuneration for the loan and other public use of their work.

Appendix to Recommendation No. R (85) 6

(included by way of example)

1. Plastic arts

a. Developing architects' appreciation of the contemporary plastic arts (such as sculpture, painting, drawing and graphic art) in order to promote the judicious incorporation of works of plastic artists in new buildings;

b. Promoting the involvement of creative artists in architectural design as well as in the shaping of the urban and rural environment through co-operation between creative artists and city managers, municipal councillors, town planners and the public;

c. Promoting the co-operation of creative artists in schemes for preserving works of the past;

d. Improving conditions for the commissioning of works of art by setting aside a certain percentage of the cost of investment in public building.

2. Music

a. Promoting the musical output of living composers through measures to encourage their performance by orchestras, the production of sound recordings, the publication of sheet music and the dissemination of both via musical information and documentation centres and through other arrangements, such as the provision of support for promising young artists, the grant of official awards and the subsidisation of concert tours, etc.

b. Considering the setting up of professionally managed funds for assisting the publication of specific musical scores, with the approval of the supervisory authorities where necessary;

c. Fostering musical composition through liaison with radio and television companies and the culture industries, while also having regard to new broadcasting arrangements (cable transmission, pay TV) as well as the new electronic delivery systems; ways of widening such organisations' markets while fostering creativity include the commissioning of works, the launching of repertoire enhancement schemes and the publicising of such initiatives in consideration of the commercial risks involved.

3. Theatre

a. Taking all possible measures to safeguard the live theatre at a time of frenzied competition from audio-visual performances;

b. Encouraging research into experimentation with such new forms of specific language as are appropriate to the needs of theatrical output in an audio-visual context;

c. Recommending that the provision of pluri-annual subsidies for theatre companies be considered bearing in mind that new productions do not always achieve immediate success;

d. Fostering co-operation between amateur and professional theatre companies by means of suitable forms of aid or incentives;

e. Making live performances a compulsory part of the training of young actors.

4. Dance

a. Drawing the media's attention to dance in order to increase public interest in this specific form of art;

b. While recognising the autonomy of dance as a form of artistic expression, promoting appreciation thereof as an art closely linked to music, the various forms of drama (opera, mime, total theatre) and the plastic arts (scenery, costumes).

5. Cinema

a. Promoting a comprehensive policy for film and television production through the co-ordinated use of all distribution channels;

b. Ensuring that the young are familiarised with the various aspects of film as a medium of communication;

c. Wherever feasible, providing appropriate resources for keeping cinema in operation, reopening those which have closed for economic reasons and setting up cinemas in localities devoid of cultural amenities; equipping cinemas with facilities for organising cultural activities wherever necessary in view of their importance as places of contact and exchange;

d. Providing appropriate support, in conjunction with professional circles, for international coproduction agreements calculated to give fresh impetus to the European cinema without detracting from its special role as a medium of expression for national cultural identities;

e. Creating the right conditions for diversified distribution so as to avoid undue concentration;

f. Facilitating the distribution of films whose artistic and cultural merit is universally acknowledged.

6. Video

a. Creating optimum conditions for the development (with due regard for copyright) of new forms of artistic expression that combine the use of video and computers;

b. Ensuring that the development of the new technologies, such as optical-fibre cable television, direct satellite broadcasting and videocassettes, does not harm artists as regards their employment or copyright; arranging for such development to be officially encouraged in such a way as to increase scope for creative work, stimulate programme production and give creative artists more opportunities for professionally useful artistic collaboration, whether direct or indirect.

7. Literature

a. Encouraging young authors as well as stimulating the publication of their work and the widest possible distribution thereof;

b. Facilitating translation by devoting more resources thereto, so that as many readers as possible in each country may become acquainted with the classical and contemporary literature of other countries;

c. Promoting the availability of classical and contemporary literature through the activities of such institutions as libraries and schools and, in that context, stimulating the optimum use of modern audiovisual media and of information distribution facilities;

d. Taking all appropriate measures to promote reading by various minorities;

e. Exploring the possibility of encouraging publishers to produce paperback European series and multilingual European literary reviews;

f. Encouraging the activity of playwrights.