European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI)

 

CRI (2005) 36

Annual report on ECRI’S activities covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 2004

Strasbourg, June 2005

Annual report 2004 - Download the document

CONTENTS

PREFACE
MAIN TRENDS
TEN YEARS OF COMBATING RACISM IN EUROPE: ECRI from March 1994 to March 2004
ECRI’S ACTIVITIES IN 2004

CO-OPERATION WITH RELEVANT BODIES OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

APPENDICES

PREFACE 

The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) is a mechanism which was established by the first Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe member States. The decision to establish ECRI is contained in the Vienna Declaration adopted by the first Summit on 9 October 1993. On 13 June 2002, the Committee of Ministers adopted a new Statute for ECRI and thus consolidated its role as an independent human rights monitoring mechanism specialised in questions relating to racism and intolerance.

ECRI’s task is to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at the level of greater Europe and from the perspective of the protection of human rights. ECRI’s action covers all necessary measures to combat violence, discrimination and prejudice faced by persons or groups of persons, on grounds of “race”, colour, language, religion, nationality or national or ethnic origin.

ECRI's members are appointed on the basis of their in-depth knowledge in the field of combating intolerance. They should have high moral authority and recognised expertise in dealing with racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance. They serve in their individual capacity, are independent and impartial in fulfilling their mandate, and do not receive any instructions from their government.

ECRI’s programme of activities comprises three aspects: the country-by-country approach; work on general themes; and relations with civil society. ECRI’s strategy for constantly enhancing its activities is to take a step-by-step approach, building on the work it has already accomplished by evaluating, consolidating and extending its action.

MAIN TRENDS 

1. Each year, as an introduction to its Annual Report, ECRI outlines, in the light of the data compiled in the course of its various activities, some of the main trends reflecting the context in which it will need to continue its efforts and step up its action in the future. The precise characteristics and extent of these trends vary from region to region and from country to country. They are however sufficiently widespread to justify a special mention.

2. The overall picture as regards contemporary forms of racism and racial discrimination is complex and gives rise to some concern. Throughout Europe, these issues assume an increasing level of political and social sensitivity. The background is of a continuing sense of unease in member States of the Council of Europe which has given rise to both new and intensified manifestations of racism and intolerance. There are a number of factors at work simultaneously. They relate to each other in ways which vary and which are frequently impossible to distinguish from each other. They include the threat of international terrorism, the perceived openness of European societies to migratory pressures, a sense, frequently fuelled by the media, of established values and cultures coming under attack and the impact on public opinion of events outside Europe. Some of the reactions to these developments in individual member States of the Council of Europe have incurred the risk of damaging the tone of political debate and of encouraging attitudes which run counter to the objective of combating racist and discriminatory practices. In ECRI’s view, its experience of these trends lends strength to calls for legal protection against racist acts and discrimination on the grounds of “race”, colour, language, religion, nationality or national or ethnic origin. It also perceives an increasing role for the political leadership necessary to combat these trends effectively.

3. ECRI deplores the current increase in antisemitism in many European countries. This increase is characterised by new manifestations of antisemitism, which have often closely followed contemporary world developments such as the situation in the Middle East. ECRI strongly underlines that nothing will ever justify antisemitism, this evil which has persisted for centuries across Europe. ECRI’s General Policy Recommendation N° 9 proposes a range of measures to be taken to actively and concretely combat antisemitism.

4. ECRI notes with concern that, as a result of the fight against terrorism engaged since the events of 11 September 2001, certain groups of persons, notably Arabs, Jews, Muslims, certain asylum seekers, refugees and immigrants, and certain visible minorities have become particularly vulnerable to racism and racial discrimination across many fields of public life. ECRI’s General Policy Recommendation N° 8 on combating racism while fighting terrorism was elaborated in the face of this preoccupying situation.

5. Manifestations of xenophobia, discrimination and racist acts against migrants, refugees and asylum seekers continue to be an issue of concern. Immigrants and particularly foreigners are the target of prejudices and stereotypes which are sometimes heard in political discourse and in the media. They are subject to a process of criminalisation and stigmatisation through their representation as the persons responsible for the deterioration of security conditions, terrorism, unemployment and increased public expenditure.

6. Islamophobia continues to manifest itself in different guises. Muslim communities are the target of negative attitudes, and sometimes violence and harassment. They suffer multiple forms of discrimination, including sometimes from certain public institutions. ECRI is worried about the current climate of hostility against persons who are or are believed to be Muslim.

7. Roma/Gypsies/Travellers are singled out as a particular target for racism throughout Europe. During its second round of country-by-country reports, ECRI monitored the situation with regard to racism and intolerance in 43 member states of the Council of Europe: the problems encountered by Roma/Gypsies are covered in 32 of the 43 reports and in ten of these reports, ECRI considered that they were issues of particular concern. This finding applies to countries in Western Europe as much as to those in Eastern Europe. It can be said that most members of the Roma/Gypsy community are victims of numerous and varied human rights violations and that racism and racial discrimination are in many cases central elements of these violations.

8. Internet continues to be used for the dissemination of racist, xenophobic and antisemitic material. ECRI deplores the current extent of differences between States in dealing with this phenomenon. It hopes that the Convention on Cybercrime and its Additional Protocol will rapidly enter into force and that international co-operation will improve, enabling a more effective fight against racism and xenophobia on the internet.

9. Racism can be compared to a bacillus that is continually mutating according to the changing environment and, in the process, assuming more and more complex forms and more sophisticated means of resisting treatment. One of the new faces of racism today is “cultural” racism. According to this notion of racism, cultures are pre-defined entities, largely seen as homogenous, unchangeable and, more importantly, incompatible with each other. ECRI is conscious that contemporary racism is a phenomenon which, especially through the new conceptual tool of cultural racism, has permeated many levels of our societies.

10. There is also a current trend which is that of a certain “categorisation” of the fight against racism. While stressing that it is of course necessary to know the specificities of different types of racism and deal with them in consequence, ECRI thinks however that there is a need for a common approach to fighting racism. ECRI is concerned that the different groups and organisations involved in the fight against racism are sometimes in conflict with each other and end up diluting their efforts in a negative way, instead of coming together and co-operating with each other to come up with a joint and mutually supportive approach to combating racism. ECRI thinks that it would be dangerous and counterproductive to enter into a competition over “who is the worst victim” and forget the need to unite to fight racism.

11. The negative trends outlined above should be closely monitored and additional measures taken at local, national and European level to combat manifestations of racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance.

12. ECRI draws attention to these trends since, as a Commission with the task of combating racism, it has the duty to describe the forms which racism takes today. ECRI wishes nevertheless to stress that not all the trends are negative, and that there are also some encouraging signs at international, European and national level, which indicate that member States and civil society are determined to combat racism and intolerance.

13. Legislation is a strong tool for combating racism. The adoption of Protocol N° 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides for a general prohibition of discrimination, is an important step forward. ECRI strongly welcomes the entry into force of the Protocol, which will take place on 1st April 2005 thanks to the States which ratified it (Albania, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Finland, Georgia, the Netherlands, San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro and “the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”). ECRI calls for States who have signed Protocol N° 12 to ratify it as quickly as possible (Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine). Lastly, ECRI asks States which have not yet signed nor ratified Protocol N° 12 to do so rapidly (Andorra, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom).

14. ECRI welcomes the recent legislative reforms in member States concerning their anti-discrimination legislation. It strongly encourages member States to make headway in this direction, and hopes that its General Policy Recommendation N° 7 on national legislation to combat racism and racial discrimination will be widely used by all interested parties in order to promote these changes.

15. Nevertheless, if these provisions are to be fully effective, it is essential that the authorities, in particular the police and the courts, implement them. They should on no account remain a dead letter, which means it is necessary not only to inform the public and potential victims, but also to provide training to relevant staff. This is why ECRI stresses the need to establish a national specialised body, with local branches, to combat racism and racial discrimination.

16. 18 March 2004 marked ECRI’s 10th anniversary. ECRI’s creation was made possible because there was a strong political will among Council of Europe member States to come together and fight racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance in a concrete manner. However, today, these phenomena have not disappeared. They are more topical than ever, and ECRI’s mission remains essential. Through its global and multidisciplinary approach, ECRI undeniably contributes to the fight against all forms of which racism takes in Europe today in a active a determined manner. Nevertheless, whatever its action, it can only have a long-lasting effect if there is a strong political will on the part of member States to adopt the solutions suggested by ECRI and to apply its recommendations. In this connection, there are encouraging signs showing that the impact of ECRI’s work is increasing. The challenge now facing ECRI is to further reinforce this impact. It is a challenge shared by the member States of the Council of Europe because it requires strengthening ECRI itself, as well as its resources and means of action.

TEN YEARS OF COMBATING RACISM IN EUROPE: ECRI from March 1994 to March 2004 

1. On the occasion of its tenth anniversary, ECRI published an independent study on its action. This publication, prepared by Mark KELLY, provides a synthesis of the gist of ECRI’s work, drawing out the main messages of ECRI’s country-by-country reports as well as its General Policy Recommendations, and outlining its relations with civil society. The study tries to answer the question of how ECRI has contributed to the fight against racism in Europe, and evaluates the impact of its action.

2. The review is divided into three sections: Section I contains an introduction; Section II is a review of ECRI’s substantive work and Section III is an assessment of the impact of that work.

3. Section II reviews all three strands of ECRI’s programme of activities; country-by-country work, work on general themes and relations with civil society. As regards country-by-country work, ECRI has produced second round reports on 43 of the member States of the Council of Europe. This part of the Review highlights the “main messages” which ECRI has sought to convey during its visits to this diverse range of States. In doing so, it aims to highlight messages of potentially general application which have been developed by ECRI in these country-specific contexts. All aspects of ECRI’s work on general themes are explored as is its work on relations with civil society.

4. Section III of the report contains an assessment of the impact of ECRI’s work across the three main strands of its programme of activities. The impact assessment was compiled by reviewing the responses to a detailed questionnaire sent to key non-governmental organisations, national human rights and anti-racism institutions and national authorities in three Council of Europe member States. The questionnaires invited respondents to comment on their familiarity with ECRI’s work and to assess its impact. The responses to the survey included sufficient detail to enable a qualitative assessment to be made of the impact of ECRI’s activities in these countries.

5. In the conclusions of the study, it is stressed, inter alia, that the very outset, ECRI has observed certain guiding principles: to be concrete and results-oriented, to prepare proposals which are useful and targeted, and to adopt a comprehensive approach to the problems of racism and intolerance by examining both legislative and policy aspects. It has also invested time in evaluating the progress which it has made at each stage in its development, before seeking to consolidate and capitalise upon the achievements which it has identified. Above all, ECRI has sought to conserve the notion of the protection and promotion of human rights as a cornerstone of its work.

6. The country-by-country work has generated a detailed body of standards, which are reflected and further developed in ECRI’s General Policy Recommendations. While ECRI is, first and foremost, an international monitoring body, it has also recognised the importance of working at grass-roots level, including by developing close relations with civil society.

7. ECRI’s reports are working tools for those involved in the fight against racism at national level. They aim to provide a source of inspiration and impetus both for national authorities and for civil society actors. In practice, the attitude of national authorities on certain issues seems to have shifted thanks to the national debates and discussions which have arisen around recommendations made in ECRI’s reports. In addition, the reports seem to be providing a focus and debating tool for NGOs. In short, it would appear that the reports are serving a dual purpose: offering detailed proposals for change and opening up a space for reflection.

8. ECRI’s General Policy Recommendations bring to the forefront issues which apply in a general fashion across Europe, thus providing a framework for the preparation of national strategies. Particular reference should be made to General Policy Recommendation No 7 on national legislation to combat racism and racial discrimination. This Recommendation has already contributed to legislative reforms in a number of member States and has positively influenced the content of legislation under preparation.

9. The national Round Tables organised by ECRI as part of its programme of activities to foster relations with civil society provide good opportunities for governments and NGOs to meet together on an equal footing. The Round Tables – hosted by ECRI – represent neutral ground upon which the two parties can discuss and debate. Thus far, the results have been positive, and have reinforced the effect of the country reports on which they have been based.

10. Concrete changes in legislation and policies are crucial, but another measure of impact is the level of debate to which ECRI’s work has given rise in the member States. This is an area where ECRI can certainly claim a measure of success. The publication of country reports represents a key moment in this process. Media coverage of the reports, although variable from country to country, has increased substantially over the years. Inevitably, some reaction has been hostile but, even in such cases, the outcome has been positive in that a debate has been opened up, there has been a raising of awareness of certain issues, and a dialogue has been initiated.

11. Undoubtedly, one of ECRI’s strong points is that it has striven to avoid conflict with other bodies involved in the fight against racism or the protection of human rights in general. On the contrary, ECRI has been at pains to build on what already exists, using a global and multidisciplinary approach. In this respect, ECRI has sought to play a role in translating international standards into practice at national level. This task of clarifying and elaborating upon international standards is a central - and distinctive - feature of ECRI’s activities.

12. Moreover, ECRI has itself contributed to the development of standards, in an innovative way: starting from the bottom-up. ECRI’s primary concern has been to make useful and concrete proposals, and these proposals have gradually come to form a corpus of standards. Without necessarily having had this aim at the outset, ECRI has, through its empirical approach, helped to create new standards in the fight against racism and racial discrimination.

13. In a number of important areas – specialised bodies, data collection, positive measures, immigration policies and practices – ECRI has developed and advocated its own distinctive view.

14. Through its close work with non-governmental organisations, ECRI also seeks to provide a sounding board for NGOs at European level. This is consistent with ECRI’s vision of itself as an international monitoring body which actively seeks to achieve change at the level of individuals and their daily concerns.

15. ECRI can also claim credit for the fact that the fight against racism is higher on the European agenda than was the case ten years ago. ECRI has been, and remains committed to making a positive contribution to the ongoing debate about the meaning of racism in contemporary Europe. In this context, what first appeared to be a potential weakness has, paradoxically, proven to be one of ECRI’s advantages: the fact that it is not based on a convention has allowed it to enjoy a wider degree of autonomy and flexibility in its work than might otherwise have been possible. Given the ever-evolving nature and character of racism, such flexibility continues to be a valuable asset.

16. To meet the challenges of the coming years, ECRI must be prepared to invest in enhancing the impact of its work, by continuing to look for the best ways in which to strengthen its contribution to the fight against racism. ECRI must also ensure that it preserves the elements which have sustained the quality of its work to date. It must remain impartial, open to dialogue, act completely independently and employ a collegiate approach. It must retain the guiding principle, which it has always respected, of treating States on an equal footing, examining the situation in each member State without fear or favour. Above all, ECRI must continue to work from the perspective of human rights, human dignity and equality which breathes life into the fight against racism and intolerance.

ECRI’S ACTIVITIES IN 2004 

1. Country-by-country approach

1. The first aspect of ECRI’s activities concerns its country-by-country approach. This is a method whereby ECRI closely examines the situation in each of the member States of the Council of Europe and draws up, following this analysis, suggestions and proposals as to how the problems of racism and intolerance identified in each country might be overcome. The aim of this exercise is to formulate helpful and well-founded proposals which may assist governments in taking practical and precise steps to counter racism and intolerance.

2. ECRI’s reports are first transmitted in the form of draft texts to the member States concerned for a brief process of confidential dialogue with the national authorities of these countries. The content of the report is reviewed in the light of this dialogue. The report is then adopted in its final form and transmitted by ECRI to the government of the member State concerned, through the intermediary of the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers.

3. ECRI’s country-by-country approach concerns all Council of Europe member States on an equal footing. The reports for the first cycle were completed in late 1998. From January 1999 to the end of December 2002, ECRI worked on the second round of its country-by-country approach. ECRI started in January 2003 the third round of its country-by-country approach.

4. In order to obtain as detailed and comprehensive a picture as possible of the situation concerning racism and intolerance in the countries in question, a contact visit is organised before the preparation of each new country report.

5. The visits provide an opportunity for the rapporteurs to meet officials from the various ministries and national public authorities dealing with issues within ECRI’s remit. They also allow the rapporteurs to meet representatives of NGOs working in the field, as well as some of ECRI’s other partners and anyone else concerned with matters within ECRI’s remit.

6. In 2004, ECRI published its first nine reports of the third monitoring cycle. ECRI’s third reports on Belgium, Bulgaria, Norway, Slovakia and Switzerland were published on 27 January 2004. The third reports on the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece and Hungary were published on 8 June 2004.

7. The publication of ECRI’s country-by-country reports is an important stage in the development of an ongoing, active dialogue between ECRI and the authorities of member States with a view to identifying solutions to the problems of racism and intolerance with which the latter are confronted. The input of Non-Governmental Organisations and other bodies or individuals active in this field is a welcome part of this process, and should ensure that ECRI’s contribution is as constructive and useful as possible.

8. ECRI attaches considerable importance to this dialogue with government authorities and non-governmental bodies as a means of following up the suggestions made in its country-by-country reports. Adequate dissemination of the results of its work in the member States is part of its strategy in this connection.

9. The nine reports published in 2004 have all been translated into the national language(s) of the country concerned, and national NGOs have been encouraged to organise an event in the country concerned upon publication of the report as a means of raising awareness of its content. Steps have been taken to ensure that the report is circulated as widely as possible among relevant bodies at national level. A “dissemination plan” has been drawn up in conjunction with the relevant national member of ECRI.

10. As far as media coverage is concerned, a press release has systematically been issued and widely distributed each time a report is published. Most of these press releases have served as a basis for articles in the press and radio broadcasts.

11. In 2004, ECRI also carried out ten contact visits and drafted ten new reports on the following countries: Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Poland, Sweden, the “Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Turkey, the United Kingdom.

12. The third round reports focus on “implementation”. They examine if ECRI’s main recommendations from previous reports have been implemented and if so, with what degree of success. The third round reports also deal with “specific issues”, chosen according to the different situations in each country, and examined in more depth in each report.

2. Work on general themes

13. The second aspect of ECRI’s programme includes work on general themes and activities specifically based on these themes, with a view to making a real contribution to the setting up and strengthening of those institutions which underpin the functioning of civil society.

General Policy Recommendations

14. ECRI’s General Policy Recommendations are addressed to the governments of all member States and cover main important areas of current concern in the fight against racism and intolerance. They are intended to serve as guidelines that policy-makers are invited to use when drawing up national strategies and policies to combat racism and intolerance.

15. On 17 March 2004, ECRI adopted its General Policy Recommendation N° 8 on combating racism while fighting terrorism.

16. This Recommendation is ECRI’s contribution to the wider efforts underway in the Council of Europe to ensure respect for human rights while fighting terrorism.

17. While firmly condemning terrorism, ECRI stresses the need for member states to refrain from adopting anti-terrorist measures which are discriminatory, notably on grounds of “race”, colour, language, religion, nationality or national or ethnic origin. ECRI underlines the responsibility of states to react promptly and effectively, including through legal measures, to acts of racism and racial discrimination resulting from tensions generated by the fight against terrorism.

18. A public presentation of the Recommendation took place in Madrid on 8 June 2004 and the event was covered by the press and television.

19. On 25 June 2004, ECRI adopted its General Policy Recommendation N° 9 on the fight against antisemitism.

20. This Recommendation is the first European legal instrument on the specific subject of the fight against antisemitism. It is the outcome of a wide-ranging consultation process involving Jewish organisations, human rights NGOs and other bodies concerned.

21. The text suggests legal and policy measures that States should undertake in a variety of areas, including criminal legislation, education and awareness-raising, research, and inter-religious dialogue. ECRI gives particular importance to the development of a legal framework that covers antisemitic crimes, such as incitement to racial violence, hatred and discrimination, and ensures the thorough implementation of these provisions.

22. A public presentation of the Recommendation took place in Paris on 20 September 2004 and was followed by several articles in the press in several European countries, as well as in the United States and Israel.

Working group on ethnic data collection

23. At its 33rd plenary meeting (15-16 March 2004), ECRI decided to explore further the issue of ethnic data collection. A working group was entrusted with the task of preparing the programme of a seminar on this issue with national bodies specialised in combating racism and racial discrimination, to be held in February 2005. The working group was also entrusted with the task of exploring possibilities for collecting examples of “good practices” concerning ethnic data collection.

3. Relations with civil society

24. A successful strategy against racism and intolerance depends to a large extent in raising awareness of the threat posed by these phenomena and ensuring that the anti-racist message filters down throughout civil society in general. ECRI attaches increasing importance to this third aspect of its programme of activities and accordingly adopted on 20 March 2002 a programme of action for reinforcing its relations with civil society.

25. This programme falls within the framework of the global approach of the Council of Europe to promote tolerance. It is complementary to actions implemented in fields such as education and culture, as well as human rights awareness-raising. It also constitutes the basis for ECRI’s contribution to the implementation of the Conclusions of the European and World Conferences against racism, which stressed the importance of involving civil society in the fight against racism and intolerance.

Organisation of national Round Tables in member States

26. ECRI’s Round Table in Switzerland was held in Bern on 15 June 2004. The main themes which were discussed were ECRI’s report on Switzerland; racism and xenophobia in public discourse and in public sphere; national legislation to combat discrimination; and the situation of non-citizens residing in Switzerland.

27. ECRI’s Round Table in Greece was held in Athens on 18 November 2004. The main themes which were discussed were ECRI’s report on Greece; racism and xenophobia in public discourse and in public sphere; national legislation to combat discrimination; and the situation of immigrants in Greece.

28. ECRI’s Round Tables contributed in a positive way to the debates on combating racism and intolerance and encouraged reflection in the relevant governmental and non-governmental circles. These events also raised awareness among the general public about problems related to racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance.

Consultation meetings with international NGOs

29. Two consultation meetings with international NGOs were organised respectively on 19 March 2004 and on 20 October 2004, and their results were integrated into the work programme of ECRI. The first consultation meeting allowed an in-depth exchange of views on future co-operation between ECRI and NGOs. The second consultation meeting dealt with the theme of ethnic data collection.

Development of a communication strategy

30. Different communication and information initiatives were implemented in 2004. Press releases were drafted and distributed to coincide with the publication of ECRI’s country-by-country reports. An electronic Listserve informed ECRI’s main partners of the latest developments in its activities. Country-specific lists of national journalists particularly interested in ECRI’s activities have been drawn up and used at the time of publication of ECRI’s reports

31. In 2004 ECRI’s Secretariat identified 219 articles concerning ECRI and the results of its activities in the national media. The Secretariat has prepared press reviews containing these articles, which come to a total of 340 pages (published three times a year: 121 pages in March 2004; 146 pages in June 2004 and 73 pages in December 2004).

Conference “All different, all equal: ECRI, ten years of combating racism”

32. On 18 March 2004, ECRI celebrated its 10th anniversary with its long-standing partners in the fight against racism and intolerance with a major conference. The aim of the conference was to take stock of ECRI’s contribution to the fight against racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance in Europe in the past ten years, and to provide ECRI with fresh ideas for its ongoing and future work.

33. The question of how ECRI has contributed to the fight against racism in Europe, and the evaluation of the impact of its action was also discussed extensively during the conference and partners of ECRI were invited to act as “witnesses” to ECRI’s action, describing their co-operation with ECRI and how ECRI’s action has contributed to the fight against racism and intolerance in their respective fields of activity.

34. The key-note speech of the eminent philosopher and sociologist Professor Zygmunt Bauman on the topic “Insecurity and fear of the stranger in liquid-modern times” also provided for food for thought and discussion.

35. Furthermore, the conference addressed in more detail the following themes: (1) “Combating racism while fighting terrorism”; (2) “Combating racism in the context of migration in Europe”; and (3) “Racism: a “mutating bacillus” – islamophobia, antisemitism and “cultural” racism as new challenges in our societies”. Renowned experts in these fields had been invited to prepare discussion papers on these topical subjects of public debate, which were discussed in more depth in three separate workshops.

CO-OPERATION WITH RELEVANT BODIES OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS 

Council of Europe

1. ECRI is kept regularly informed of the work of other Council of Europe bodies dealing with issues related to racism and intolerance. Its Secretariat regularly provides information on ECRI’s work to these bodies.

2. In 2004, ECRI co-operated in particular with the Commissioner for Human Rights, the Advisory Committee of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, and the Group of Specialists on Roma/Gypsies (MG-S-ROM). The Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe are represented with ECRI and actively contribute to its work.

European Union

European Commission

3. The European Commission is invited to participate in ECRI’s work without the right to vote. ECRI’s Secretariat maintains relations with the Anti-Discrimination, Fundamental Social Rights and Civil Society Unit of the Directorate General for Employment, and social Affairs of the European Commission. ECRI’s Secretariat and the Anti-Discrimination Unit keep each other informed of important developments in their work and exchange information on subjects of common interest.

The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC)

4. The EUMC is invited to be represented in ECRI without the right to vote. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe appoints, among members of ECRI, a person to serve on the EUMC’s Management Board. An Agreement between the European Community and the Council of Europe for the purpose of establishing close co-operation between the EUMC and the Council of Europe was signed on 21 December 1998. ECRI’s Bureau and that of the EUMC hold a meeting each year to review the co-operation between the two bodies.

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

5. ECRI’s Chair and Secretariat participated in the Conference on Anti-Semitism held in Berlin on 28-29 April 2004 and in the Conference on Tolerance and the Fight against Racism, Xenophobia and Discrimination held in Brussels on 13-14 September 2004.

6. At the invitation of the Director of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), an Inter-Agency Meeting between Organisations active in the field of combating racism took place in Vienna on 3 September 2004. ECRI was represented in this meeting by its Chair and its Executive Secretary.

7. ECRI’s Secretariat maintains relations with the ODIHR and provides the necessary information on work carried out by ECRI.

United Nations

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)

8. The Secretariat of CERD and ECRI’s Secretariat keep each other informed of important developments in the work of the respective bodies. More specifically, ECRI takes into account CERD’s recommendations in the preparation of its country-by-country reports, and also transmits its own reports to CERD on the countries to be examined during a CERD session.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

9. ECRI participated actively in the preparation of the World Conference against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (Durban, September 2001). It played a key role in the holding of the European Conference against racism (Strasbourg, October 2000) which was the regional preparatory conference at European level for the World Conference.

10. ECRI contributes, through its own programme of activities, to the implementation of the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference against racism.

11. ECRI’s Secretariat maintains relations with the Anti-Discrimination Unit of the OHCHR. The Secretariat participated, as an expert, in the Regional Seminar for Western Europe organised in the framework of the implementation of the Durban Programme of Action on specialised bodies in combating racism and racial discrimination, which took place in Brussels on 10-12 December 2003.

12. The Chair of ECRI was invited to give a speech on international legal instruments within the Council of Europe at the second session of the Intergovernmental Working Group on the Effective Implementation of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action (Geneva, 26 January – 6 February 2004).

APPENDICES 

APPENDIX I : MEMBERSHIP OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION AGAINST RACISM AND INTOLERANCE (31 December 2004)

Name

Member in respect of

Term of office expires

Mr Levan ALEXIDZE

Georgia

1st January 2008

Professor Raluca BESTELIU

Romania

1st January 2008

Mr Thomas BÜCHEL

Liechtenstein

19 May 2009

Mr Tonio ELLUL

Malta

17 November 2009

Mr Vitaliano ESPOSITO

Italy

1st January 2008

Mr Gilberto FELICI

San Marino

12 June 2008

Mr Fernando FERNÁNDEZ SAVATER

Spain

22nd January 2008

Mr Fernando FERREIRA RAMOS

Portugal

1st January 2008

Mr Chris FLOOD

Ireland

1st January 2008

Mr Ljubomir D. FRCKOSKI

“The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”

1st January 2008

Mr Lauri HANNIKAINEN

Finland

1st January 2008

Mr Michael HEAD

the United Kingdom

1st January 2008

Professor Gudrun HOLGERSEN

Norway

1st January 2008

Mr Lätif H. HÜSEYNOV

Azerbaijan

1st January 2008

Professor Vasilika HYSI

Albania

1st January 2008

Professor Dalibor JÍLEK

the Czech Republic

1st January 2008

Mr Jenö KALTENBACH

Hungary

1st January 2008

Professor Stefan KARNER

Austria

1st January 2008

Mr Vigen KOCHARYAN

Armenia

1st January 2008

Mr Luben KOULICHEV

Bulgaria

1st January 2008

Ms Adila KRESO

Bosnia and Herzegovina

13 February 2008

Reverend Baldur KRISTJÁNSSON

Iceland

1st January 2008

Professor Gün KUT

Turkey

1st January 2008

Mr Johan LEMAN

Belgium

22nd January 2008

Mr Marc LEYENBERGER

France

21 April 2009

Mr Roger LINSTER

Luxembourg

1st January 2008

Ms Ruta MARJAŠA

Latvia

1st January 2008

Mr Petro MARTINENKO

Ukraine

16 June 2009

Mr Arvydas Virgilijus MATULIONIS

Lithuania

1st January 2008

Mr Mart NUTT

Estonia

1st January 2008

Professor Stelios E. PERRAKIS

Greece

1st January 2008

Professor Tibor PICHLER

Slovakia

1st January 2008

Ms Alenka PUHAR

Slovenia

1st January 2008

Professor Maja SERSIC

Croatia

1st January 2008

Professor Andrzej SICINSKI

Poland

1st January 2008

Professor Eva SMITH ASMUSSEN

Denmark

1st January 2008

Ms Winnie SORGDRAGER

the Netherlands

22nd January 2008

Mr Felix STANEVSKIY

the Russian Federation

1st January 2008

Mr Klaus STOLTENBERG

Germany

1st January 2008

Mr Demetrios STYLIANIDES

Cyprus

1st January 2008

Professor Daniel THÜRER

Switzerland

1st January 2009

Professor Victor VOLCINSCHI

Moldova

1st January 2008

Vacant seat

Andorra

 

Vacant seat

Monaco

 

Vacant seat

Serbia and Montenegro

 

Vacant seat

Sweden

 

Deputies to the members of ECRI (31 December 2004)

Name

Deputy in respect of

Term of office expires

Ms Doris ANGST YILMAZ

Switzerland

1st January 2009

Mr José Manuel FRESNO GARCIA

Spain

22nd January 2008

Ms Eva HEIZER HEGEDÜS

Hungary

1st January 2008

Professor Aleksandra KORAĆ

Croatia

1st January 2008

Mr Konstantin KORKELIA

Georgia

1st January 2008

Professor Šarūnas LIEKIS

Lithuania

1st January 2008

Professor Erich MISTRIK

Slovakia

1st January 2008

Professor Artis PABRIKS

Latvia

1st January 2008

Ms Kristina PARDALOS

San Marino

12 June 2008

Ms Merja PENTIKÄINEN

Finland

1st January 2008

Mr François SANT'ANGELO

Belgium

22nd January 2008

Mr Hans-Joachim STANGE

Germany

1st January 2008

Ms Hanna WOŁĄSIEWICZ

Poland

22nd January 2008


Observers (31 December 2004)

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Mr Kevin Mc NAMARA

Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe
Mr Mohammad NAZIR

Holy See
Professor Jean-Pierre MACHELON

European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC)
Ms Naina PATEL

European Commission
Ms Deirdre HODSON

ECRI’S BUREAU (31 December 2004)

Mr Michael HEAD
Chair 
member in respect of the United Kingdom

Ms Winnie SORGDRAGER , Vice-Chair, member in respect of the Netherlands

Mr Baldur KRISTJANSSON, Vice-Chair, member in respect of Iceland

Mr Roger LINSTER, Bureau member , member in respect of Luxembourg

Mr Fernando FERREIRA RAMOS, Bureau member , member in respect of Portugal

Professor Raluca BESTELIU, Bureau member , member in respect of Romania

Professor Adila KRESO, Bureau member, member in respect of Bosnia and Herzegovina

APPENDIX II: SECRETARIAT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION AGAINST RACISM AND INTOLERANCE


Mme Isil GACHET, Directorate General of Human Rights, Executive Secretary to the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Conseil de l'Europe, 67075 STRASBOURG CEDEX, France
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 48
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: isil.gachet@coe.int

Mme Claudia LAM, Lawyer
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 49
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: claudia.lam@coe.int

M. Giancarlo CARDINALE, Lawyer
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 42
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: giancarlo.cardinale@coe.int

Ms Aline USANASE, Lawyer
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 17
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: aline.usanase@coe.int

Ms Heike KLEMPA, Responsible for relations with civil society
Tel: + 33 (0) 3 90 21 51 55
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: heike.klempa@coe.int

Ms Paula ECK-WALTERS, Documentalist
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 33 99
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: paula.eck-walters@coe.int

Mme Sylvia LEHMANN, Assistant
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 29 64
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: sylvia.lehmann@coe.int

Ms Jennifer HOOD,Assistant
Tel: +33 (0) 3 90 21 53 96
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
E-mail: Jennifer.hood@coe.int

APPENDIX III: MEETINGS HELD BY ECRI IN 2004

Plenary sessions

  • 16-17 March 2004
  • 22-25 June 2004
  • 14-17 December 2004

Bureau meetings

  • 15 March 2004
  • 24 May 2004
  • 21 June 2004
  • 13 December 2004

Meetings of CBC Working Groups

  • CBC 1: 13 February 2004
  • CBC 2: 15 July 2004
  • CBC 3: 2 February 2004
  • CBC 4: 30 January 2004
  • CBC 5: 30 July 2004
  • CBC 6: 16 July 2004
  • CBC 7: 29 July 2004
  • CBC 8: 30 July 2004
  • CBC 9: 3 February 2004
  • CBC ad hoc: 13 February 2004

Meeting of the Working group on the fight against terrorism and combating racism.

  • 22 January 2004

Meetings of the Working group on the fight against antisemitism

  • 4 February 2004
  • 20 February 2004
  • 26 May 2004

Meetings of the Working Group on relations with civil society

  • 23 January 2004
  • 15 March 2004
  • 21 June 2004
  • 13 December 2004

Consultation meetings with representatives of international NGOs

  • 19 March 2004
  • 20 October 2004

National Round-Tables

  • Switzerland: 15 June 2004
  • Greece: 17 November 2004

Public presentations

  • Madrid: 9 June 2004
  • Paris: 20 September 2004

Conference “ALL DIFFERENT, ALL EQUAL: ECRI, 10 years of combating racism”

  • 18 March 2004

Contact Visits

  • France: 29 March-2 April 2004
  • Austria: 17-22 April 2004
  • “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”: 18-23 April 2004
  • Turkey: 2-6 May 2004
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: 9-15 May 2004
  • United Kingdom: 19-24 September 2004
  • Croatia: 19-23 September 2004
  • Albania: 3-8 October 2004
  • Poland: 24-29 October 2004
  • Sweden: 24-29 October 2004

APPENDIX IV: LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

  • ECRI and its programme of activities (Strasbourg, September 2004)
  • Legal measures to combat racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, January 1998)
  • Legal measures to combat racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe (revised version: Strasbourg, 2000)
  • Examples of “Good practices”: Specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level (Strasbourg, February 2004)
  • Examples of "Good practices" to fight against racism and intolerance in the European media (Strasbourg, April 2000)
  • Practical examples in combating Racism and Intolerance against Roma/Gypsies (Strasbourg, October 2001)
  • Legal instruments for combating racism on Internet (Strasbourg, August 2000)
  • Compilation of ECRI's general policy recommendations (Strasbourg, January 2001)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 1: Combating racism, xenophobia antisemitism and intolerance (Strasbourg, 4 October 1996)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N°2: Specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level (Strasbourg, 13 June 1997)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 3: combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies (Strasbourg, 6 March 1998)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N°4: National surveys on the experience and perception of discrimination and racism from the point of view of potential victims (Strasbourg, 6 March 1998)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 5: Combating intolerance and discrimination against Muslims (Strasbourg, 27 April 2000)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 6: Combating the dissemination of racist, xenophobic and antisemitic material via the Internet (Strasbourg, 15 December 2000)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 7: National legislation to combat racism and racial discrimination (13 December 2002)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 8: Combating racism while fighting terrorism (8 June 2004)
  • ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 9: The fight against antisemitism (9 September 2004)

ECRI's country-by-country approach:

First round:

  • Volume I (Strasbourg, September 1997)
  • Volume II (Strasbourg, March 1998)
  • Volume III (Strasbourg, 15 June 1998)
  • Volume IV (Strasbourg, 26 January 1999)
  • Volume V (Strasbourg, 13 March 1999)
  • Volume VI (Strasbourg, 24 May 1999)
  • Volume VII (Strasbourg, 9 November 1999)

Second round:

  • Albania (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
  • Andorra (Strasbourg, 15 April 2003)
  • Armenia (Strasbourg, 8 July 2003)
  • Austria (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
  • Azerbaijan (Strasbourg, 15 April 2003)
  • Belgium (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
  • Bulgaria (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
  • Croatia (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
  • Cyprus (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
  • Czech Republic (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
  • Denmark (Strasbourg, 3 March 2001)
  • Estonia (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
  • Finland (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
  • France (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
  • Georgia (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
  • Germany (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
  • Greece (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
  • Hungary (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
  • Iceland (Strasbourg, 8 July 2003)
  • Ireland (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
  • Italy (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
  • Latvia (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
  • Liechtenstein (Strasbourg, 15 April 2003)
  • Lithuania (Strasbourg, 15 April 2003)
  • Luxembourg (Strasbourg, 8 July 2003)
  • Malta (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
  • Moldova (Strasbourg, 15 April 2003)
  • The Netherlands (Strasbourg, 13 November 2001)
  • Norway (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
  • Poland (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
  • Portugal (Strasbourg, 4 November 2002)
  • Romania (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
  • Russian Federation (Strasbourg, 13 November 2001)
  • San Marino (Strasbourg, 4 November 2003)
  • Slovakia (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
  • Slovenia (Strasbourg, 8 July 2003)
  • Spain (Strasbourg, 8 July 2003)
  • Sweden (Strasbourg, 15 April 2003)
  • Switzerland (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
  • “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
  • Turkey (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
  • Ukraine (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
  • United Kingdom (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
  • Compilation of second round reports (Strasbourg, February 2004)

Third round:

  • Belgium (Strasbourg, 27 January 2004)
  • Bulgaria (Strasbourg, 27 January 2004)
  • Czech Republic (Strasbourg, 8 June 2004)
  • Germany (Strasbourg, 8 June 2004)
  • Greece (Strasbourg, 8 June 2004)
  • Hungary (Strasbourg, 8 June 2004)
  • Norway (Strasbourg, 27 January 2004)
  • Slovakia (Strasbourg, 27 January 2004)
  • Switzerland (Strasbourg, 27 January 2004)
  • Activities of the Council of Europe with relevance to combating racism and intolerance (Strasbourg, February 2004)
  • Recommendations adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in the field of combating racism and intolerance (Strasbourg, September 1998)
  • Recommendations adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the field of combating racism and intolerance (Strasbourg, September 1998)
  • Texts of international instruments relevant to the work of ECRI (Strasbourg, October 1999)