An important added value of the Council of Europe anti-trafficking Convention is the monitoring mechanism set up to supervise State Parties compliance with the obligations contained in the Convention. It consists of two pillars:

- an independent expert body, the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA), which is composed of 15 members who sit in their individual capacity and are selected on the basis of their expertise in the areas covered by the Convention;
- the Committee of the Parties, which is composed of representatives of the Parties to the Convention.

GRETA evaluates periodically each State Party and draws up evaluation reports. GRETA has to date published over 130 country evaluation reports.

The evaluation procedure is divided into rounds. Since 2010, GRETA has conducted three evaluation rounds of the Convention and, in July 2023, it launched the fourth evaluation round.

 Launching of the evaluation round

All States Parties must follow all evaluation rounds unless otherwise decided unanimously by GRETA. The first evaluation round is launched at the earliest one year and at the latest two years after the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned.

 GRETA’s questionnaire

GRETA sends a questionnaire to the authorities of the Party undergoing evaluation. It also sends the questionnaire to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) active in the field of action against trafficking in human beings. GRETA may send other requests for information to States Parties.

 Country visits

Following the reception of the questionnaire, GRETA may conduct on-site visits. This visit allows to hold meetings with relevant actors, collect additional information, clarify the responses to the questionnaire, and assess the practical implementation of adopted measures in-depth discussions with relevant professionals. government officials, police, prosecutors, parliamentarians and other relevant actors.

 Draft GRETA report

Following the conduct of the country visit, GRETA draws up a draft evaluation report. The draft report is discussed and approved at a GRETA plenary meeting and is sent to the relevant national authorities for comments. The draft report is confidential.

 Final GRETA report and comments by the government

Following the receipt of the government’s comments, GRETA draws up a final report which is adopted at another plenary meeting, and transmitted to the Party concerned and the Committee of the Parties to the Convention. GRETA’s final reports are made public together with eventual comments by the Party concerned.

 Recommendation by the Committee of the Parties

On the basis of the report and conclusions of GRETA, the Committee of the Parties adopts recommendations addressed to the government of the Party concerned, setting a date for submitting information on te implementation of the recommendation.

 Governement's reply to the Recommendation of the Committee of the Parties

The Government’s reply to the Committee of the Parties’ recommendation is presented at a meeting of the Committee and is subsequently made public. The replies  can be found on the country monitoring webpage for each State Party.

End of the evaluation

Levels of urgency of GRETA recommendations

GRETA uses three different levels of recommendations in its reports:

“URGE” - when GRETA assesses that the national legislation or policies are not in compliance with the Convention, or when it finds that, despite the existence of legal provisions and other measures, the implementation of a key obligation under the Convention is lacking.

“CONSIDER” - when GRETA assesses that it is necessary to make further improvements to fully comply with a provision of the Convention

“INVITE” - when GRETA assesses that the measures taken to comply with a provision of the Convention are already in place and should be continued and fully implemented in practice


The Council of Europe Anti-Trafficking Convention is the first international legal instrument to take a human rights-based approach to the fight against human trafficking.

 More about the Convention

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