Password reset (expires every two months)
CRI (98) 31
Annual report on ECRI’S activities covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 1997
I. ORGANISATION OF ECRI
II. ECRI'S COUNTRY-BY-COUNTRY APPROACH
III. THEMATIC ACTIVITIES
IV. ECRI'S CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER COUNCIL OF EUROPE BODIES
V. ECRI AND THE PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY
VI. CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
VII. OTHER ACTIVITIES
APPENDIX I - COMPOSITION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION AGAINST RACISM AND INTOLERANCE
APPENDIX II - SECRETARIAT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION AGAINST RACISM AND INTOLERANCE
APPENDIX III - LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
The Council of Europe represents above all a framework for the construction of a European society which is a community based on a shared belief - that of the equal dignity of all human beings. For this reason, its member States can but strongly reject all ideologies entailing contempt for the individual or a denial of intrinsic equality.
The resurgence in recent years of the phenomena of racism, xenophobia and antisemitism, the development of a climate of intolerance, and the accompanying increase in acts of violence, degrading treatment and discriminatory practices thus led the Heads of State and Government of Council of Europe member States, meeting for the first time in Summit in Vienna in October 1993, to adopt a Plan of Action to combat those phenomena.
It is in this context that the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) was created, with the task of fighting, at the level of greater Europe and in the perspective of the protection of human rights, the absolute evil of racism.
The mandate of ECRI, as determined by the Heads of State and Government, is: to review member States' legislation, policies and other measures to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance, and their effectiveness; to propose further action at local, national and European level; to formulate general policy recommendations to member States; and to study international legal instruments applicable in the matter with a view to their reinforcement where appropriate.
ECRI started its work on 22 March 1994, by discussing how it should go about fulfilling its mandate. It noted that its very broad terms of reference afforded considerable scope for its activities and comprised both legal and policy aspects, and agreed to seek a balanced combination of the two components and pursue a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach developed around the following work plan: information; assessment; stimulation. Against the background of its longterm objective, which is to promote the concept of integration within a multi-cultural Europe and to contribute to European democratic stability, ECRI's strategy is to present useful, well-founded and concrete proposals to help member States to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance.
When Strasbourg welcomed, on 10 and 11 October 1997, the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government of the member States of the Council of Europe, the latter reiterated their aim of achieving a greater unity between the member States in order to build a freer, more tolerant and just European society, and called for an intensification of the fight against racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance. In the Plan of Action which they adopted at the end of the Summit, the Heads of State and Government welcomed the actions carried out by the Council of Europe in this field since the Vienna Summit and decided to strengthen ECRI's activities.
Thus, the Strasbourg Summit once again stressed the priority given at the highest level in the member States of the Council of Europe to a stronger action against racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance.
This is an encouraging sign, as is the desire shown by the Heads of State and Government to support ECRI in the approach it has chosen and to consolidate and strengthen its action.
ECRI is therefore now reviewing its programme, and will prepare for the Committee of Ministers precise proposals as to how its activities could be strengthened. ECRI's strategy will be to build on the work it has already accomplished and to make proposals to render its action more effective, by consolidating and stepping-up its activities. ECRI will continue to base its work against racism and intolerance firmly within the field of the protection and promotion of human rights by means of an approach which focuses on all the relevant aspects of society and which covers all the member States of the Council of Europe on an equal footing.
At the end of 1997, ECRI is aware that, even if it has developed its activities very swiftly over the last four years, it still has a long way to go in ensuring that its work can meet the challenges posed by the scale of racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance across Europe, which represent an unacceptable threat to the very basis of democracy. ECRI is also aware, however, that there now exists within the Council of Europe a real political will to act together against these phenomena. For this reason, ECRI is confident that the necessary decisions will be taken so that, across the wider Europe, a genuine and powerful action against racism and intolerance can be developed. ECRI is itself more than ever convinced of the necessity of such action, and of the fact that merely imposing solutions from above is not sufficient. Instead, ways of co-operating on an equal footing should be sought, bearing in mind that the effectiveness of European action lies in fact at local and national level, and depends to a large extent on working with civil society.
A. Membership of ECRI
1. ECRI is composed of members designated by their governments (one for each member State of the Council of Europe) on the basis of their in-depth knowledge in the field of combating intolerance. They should have high moral authority and recognised expertise in dealing with racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance. ECRI's members are nominated in their personal capacity and act as independent members.
2. Each government may designate a permanent substitute to the ECRI member from its country, under the same conditions as those relating to the designation of members.
3. The list of ECRI's members and, where applicable, their substitutes, appears in Appendix I (composition on 31 December 1997).
B. Elections of the new Bureau
4. ECRI's Bureau is composed of a Chair elected for two years and eligible for re-election once, two Vice-Chairs elected for one year and eligible for re-election twice, and four other members elected for two years and eligible for re-election once.
5. In November 1997, ECRI elected its new Bureau, which took up its duties in January 1998, with the following membership:
Chair: Mr Nikos FRANGAKIS (Greek member of ECRI)
First Vice-Chair: Mr Joseph VOYAME (Swiss member of ECRI)
Second Vice-Chair: Mr Michael HEAD (British member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mr Godwin MUSCAT-AZZOPARDI (Maltese member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mrs Alenka PUHAR (Slovenian member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mr Fernando FERREIRA-RAMOS (Portuguese member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mrs Eva SMITH-ASMUSSEN (Danish member of ECRI)
6. ECRI warmly thanks Mr Frank ORTON (Swedish member) who showed great conviction and personal involvement as Chair from ECRI's first meeting in March 1994 until the end of 1997. ECRI is most grateful for his considerable input in terms of time and effort, and for the dynamism and imagination he displayed in stimulating and developing the work of ECRI.
C. Structures and working methods
7. From its creation until December 1997 *, ECRI has held thirteen plenary sessions interspersed with working group meetings. Each plenary session of ECRI is preceded by a meeting of its Bureau, which prepares the organisation of work in plenary. Furthermore, in November 1997, an ad hoc group on strategies and future work of ECRI, composed of the new Bureau and the outgoing Chair, Mr Frank ORTON, was entrusted with the task of preparing proposals as to ECRI's reinforcement.
8. In September 1997, ECRI adopted in plenary session a series of points relating to its internal organisation and operating methods *, paragraph 49 of which states that an annual report on ECRI's activities shall be prepared for each calendar year, submitted to the Committee of Ministers and made public.
9. ECRI functions in plenary sessions (it held four sessions in 1997) and in thematic working groups, which are the following:
- Working group on specialised bodies
10. The working group on specialised bodies was set up to prepare an ECRI general policy recommendation (N° 2) on specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level and to promote the setting-up of such bodies in countries where they do not exist or the strengthening of already-existing bodies. The working group should, in the course of its work, consult with specialised bodies existing in the various member States. The working group is chaired by Mr Michael HEAD (British member of ECRI).
- Working group on Roma/Gypsies
11. The working group on Roma/Gypsies was set up to examine, taking into account work already undertaken on this subject within the Council of Europe, ways in which ECRI could bring added value to what already exists in this field by drawing up a general policy recommendation (N° 3) on combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies and by examining what follow-up might be given to this recommendation. The working group has the possibility of calling on outside consultants and of inviting members of the Specialist Group on Roma/Gypsies (MG-S-ROM) to participate in its work. The working group is chaired by Mr Fernando FERREIRA-RAMOS (Portuguese member of ECRI).
- Working group on surveys
12. Having taken note of a report containing the results of a survey carried out in Sweden using a questionnaire addressing potential victims of racism and intolerance, ECRI set up a working group on surveys to prepare an ECRI general policy recommendation (N° 4) to promote the idea of national surveys of this kind and to explore at the same time the practical possibilities of organising in other European countries, under ECRI's responsibility, surveys similar to the Swedish one on victims' experience and perception of discrimination. The working group is chaired by Mrs Eva SMITH-ASMUSSEN (Danish member of ECRI).
- Working group on relations with NGOs
13. Since its creation, ECRI has placed emphasis on co-operation with non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and a working group on relations with NGOs was set up to prepare proposals in this respect. The chair of the working group is Mr Andrzej SICINSKI (Polish member of ECRI).
- Working group on research institutes
14. The working group on research institutes was set up to study issues relating to the promotion of a European network of research institutes and the like dealing with questions of racism and intolerance. The working group is chaired by Mr Juraj ŠVEC (Slovak member of ECRI).
- Working group on the "basket of good practices"
15. The working group on the "basket of good practices" was set up to collect information on examples of "good practices" to combat racism and intolerance. The working group is chaired by Mr Godwin MUSCAT-AZZOPARDI (Maltese member of ECRI).
16. ECRI has noted in the course of its work that the problems of racism and intolerance are not identical throughout the forty member States of the Council of Europe, but take different forms and require different remedies. ECRI therefore decided that the best approach is first to examine closely the situation in each of the member States and secondly, to prepare suggestions and proposals on ways to deal with the problems identified in the country in question. The aim of ECRI's country-by-country approach is to assist governments by proposing concrete and precise action to be taken.
17. The procedure adopted for the preparation of the country-by-country reports can be summarised thus:
a. the preliminary collection of information as well as the preparation of the texts of the preliminary draft reports are carried out in small working groups of ECRI. Preliminary sources of information used are wide-ranging, including, inter alia, replies provided by governments to a questionnaire sent out by ECRI, input from the relevant national members of ECRI, information on national legislation collected for ECRI by the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law (Lausanne), information from international and national non-governmental organisations, various publications and the media.
b. ECRI examines and discusses the preliminary draft report on each country in plenary session and adopts a draft report.
c. The draft report is sent to the relevant government for a process of confidential dialogue conducted through a government-appointed national liaison officer. The draft country report is re-examined and possibly revised in the light of the comments provided by the latter.
d. The report is then adopted in its final form by ECRI in plenary session, and transmitted, through the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, to the government of the country in question. Two months after this transmission, the report is made public, unless the government of the country concerned expressly requests that it is not made public.
18. A first series of eleven ECRI country-by-country reports were transmitted to the governments of the countries in question in July 1997, and were made public in September 1997.
19. The reports covered the following countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta and Poland.
20. It should be noted that ECRI is carrying out its country-by-country procedure by preparing reports for all forty member States of the Council of Europe, and that the publication of the first series of eleven reports will be followed by the publication of other country-by-country reports as and when they are completed. The order in which the reports are produced has no significance other than that these are the first reports to be completed.
21. The second series of reports which will be transmitted to the governments of the countries in question in January 1998 and made public in the month of March 1998 will concern Germany, Liechtenstein, Norway, San Marino, Slovenia and Switzerland.
22. The publication of the country-by-country reports represents the start of an on-going and active process of dialogue between ECRI and the authorities of the member States, in order to identify solutions to the problems of racism and intolerance facing Europe.
23. ECRI's country-by-country reports which have been made public can be obtained from the Secretariat, either in a volume containing all the reports, or as separate country reports (available in English, French and the language of the country in question).
24. ECRI adopted on 16 June 1997 its general policy recommendation (N° 2) on specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level. The Committee of Ministers transmitted ECRI's general recommendation to the governments of member States and made it public in July 1997. In this recommendation, ECRI asks governments of member States to consider carefully the possibility of setting up a specialised body to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level, if such a body does not already exist. The appendix to the document contains basic principles concerning such bodies, covering in particular their statutes, alternative forms they might take, their functions and responsibilities; their administration, functioning and style of operation. The text of this recommendation can be obtained from ECRI's Secretariat *.
25. A draft general recommendation on combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies was examined by ECRI in November 1997. The final text of this recommendation will be adopted by ECRI at its plenary session of March 1998. Noting that Roma/Gypsies suffer throughout Europe from persisting prejudices, are victims of a racism which is deeply-rooted in society, are the target of sometimes violent demonstrations of racism and intolerance, and that their fundamental rights are regularly violated or threatened, ECRI aims to encourage by this future recommendation a series of measures with a view to combating manifestations of racism and intolerance and discriminatory practices against Roma/Gypsies.
26. A preliminary draft project proposal concerning national surveys was presented to ECRI in November 1997 and the latter provided guidelines for the finalisation of a general policy recommendation (N° 4) on surveys on victims' experience and perception of racism and discrimination, for adoption at its plenary session of March 1998. This text will provide guidelines for the conduct of such surveys, including their practical organisation, design and follow-up.
27. A draft policy and action statement concerning ECRI's relations with NGOs was submitted to ECRI and then discussed with representatives of NGOs at a consultation meeting held in Paris on 15 December 1997. This consultation meeting provided an opportunity for the NGO representatives to be fully informed about all ECRI's activities and to make proposals concerning closer and more effective forms of co-operation between ECRI and NGOs working in the field of combating racism and intolerance, both at international and national level. In the light of comments made during this consultation meeting, the working group finalised the draft policy and action statement on ECRI's relations with NGOs for adoption by ECRI at its plenary session of March 1998.
28. A document containing information provided by ECRI members on research institutes dealing with issues of racism and intolerance in the member States was prepared at the beginning of 1997. This document was then circulated to the institutes appearing therein for comments and amendments. On this basis, ECRI drew up, in November 1997, an "Inventory of research institutes working on issues relating to racism and intolerance".
29. ECRI's work having led to the publication in 1996 of a first series of "good practices", these were disseminated as widely as possible throughout 1997, particularly among those working to combat racism and intolerance. The publication contains examples of good practices in the following fields: education and training, specialised bodies, awareness-raising, police training, cultural life, vulnerable groups, employment, media, statistics and research, mediation. The publication of a second series of good practices is foreseen for 1998.
A. Steering Committee on Human Rights (CDDH)
- Reinforcement of the non-discrimination clause (Article 14) of the European Convention on Human Rights
30. Having examined the guarantees provided by the European Convention on Human Rights against discrimination, ECRI was of the opinion that this protection might be strengthened and widened by means of an additional protocol. ECRI prepared a reasoned report on this subject, which it transmitted to the Committee of Ministers. The latter asked the CDDH to "examine the advisability and feasibility of a legal instrument against racism and intolerance, taking account of the reasoned report on the reinforcement of the non-discrimination clause (Article 14) of the European Convention on Human Rights prepared by ECRI".
31. Mr Joseph VOYAME (Swiss member of ECRI) participated in the work carried out on this question throughout 1997 by the CDDH. He also participated in the work of the subordinate body to the latter, the DH-DEV, which is entrusted with the development of human rights.
32. The CDDH presented its final activity report to the Committee of Ministers in October 1997. The CDDH was of the opinion that an additional protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights was both advisable and feasible, both as a standard-setting solution regarding equality between women and men and as a legal instrument against racism and intolerance, and made proposals on this subject. The Committee of Ministers will take a decision during the first half of 1998 on the follow-up to be given to the proposals made by the CDDH.
B. Steering Committee on equality between women and men (CDEG)
33. The joint CDEG-ECRI working group was set up to carry out, during 1996-1997, the following activities: to examine the issue of universality as opposed to cultural relativism as regards the fundamental right of women and men to equality; to identify the specific forms of racism, discrimination and intolerance which women face because of their gender; to study, if it considered it necessary, the question of links between intolerance and sexism; to establish, on the basis of the results of its work, guidelines to be addressed to the CDEG and to ECRI.
34. The joint CDEG-ECRI working group was composed of five members, of which two were representatives of ECRI: Mrs Eva SMITH-ASMUSSEN (Danish member of ECRI) and Mr Willem MIJNSSEN (Dutch member of ECRI). It submitted its final activity report at the end of 1997 to the CDEG and to ECRI, who agreed to make this report public. The report can be obtained from ECRI's Secretariat.
D. European Committee on Migration (CDMG)
- Specialist group on Roma/Gypsies
35. The MG-S-ROM is a Council of Europe body which examines how the latter might contribute to solve the problems faced by Roma/Gypsies and which carries out studies and other specific activities in this area. With a view to ensuring good co-ordination of activities, the MG-S-ROM invited ECRI to participate in its meetings. Mr François SANT'ANGELO (substitute to the Belgian member of ECRI) participated in the meetings of the MG-S-ROM during 1997.
- Specialist group on integration and community relations (MG-S-INT)
36. The MG-S-INT is responsible for implementing the project on "Tensions and tolerance: building better integrated communities across Europe". It draws up guidelines for good practice and carries out studies on current questions relating to integration policies, provides practical assistance for countries wishing to develop or review their integration policies, and promotes contacts and exchanges of experience between those involved in different areas of integration policy. A representative of ECRI (Mr François SANT'ANGELO, substitute to the Belgian member of ECRI), participates in the meetings of the MG-S-INT.
37. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe is represented in ECRI (see Appendix I) and takes part in its work.
38. In 1997, the Parliamentary Assembly adopted several Recommendations * in which it makes explicit reference to combating racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance or to ECRI's activities in particular. In this respect, Recommendation 1346 (1997) on human rights education, Recommendation 1338 (1997) on the obligations and commitments of the Czech Republic as a member State, and Resolution 1123 (1997) on the honouring of obligations and commitments by Romania, deserve special mention.
39. In 1997, ECRI provided the Committee of Ministers with opinions on two Recommendations of the Parliamentary Assembly: Recommendation 1306 (1996) on migration from the developing countries to the European industrialised countries, and Recommendation 1291 (1996) on the Yiddish culture.
A. United Nations
40. In 1997, ECRI continued to be kept regularly informed on the work of the Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) and to receive the various reports published by the latter. Mr Régis DE GOUTTES, French member of CERD, is the contact person for relations between CERD and ECRI.
41. ECRI warmly welcomes the proposal made in December 1997 by the Delegation of Luxembourg, in the name of the Presidency of the European Union, that the Council of Europe should be entrusted with the task of preparing at European level the World Conference on Racism which is to be held in the year 2001; this preparation might in particular take the form of a European conference which might take place in the year 2000.
B. European Union
- Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia
42. The Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia was a body set up by the European Council which worked from June 1994 to December 1997. Mr Joseph VOYAME (Swiss member of ECRI) and the Secretariat regularly took part in the monthly meetings of this Consultative Commission, from which originated the proposal to create a European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia.
- European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
43. On 2 June 1997, the Council of the European Union adopted a Regulation setting up the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia. This Monitoring Centre, which is based in Vienna, will have the main task of providing the institutions of the European Community (EU) and its member States with objective, reliable and comparable data on racism and xenophobia. In specific terms, the Monitoring Centre will collect, record and analyse information collected in particular from member States of the European Union, the Community institutions, non-governmental organisations or international bodies, and will set up a European network of information on racism and xenophobia (known as "RAXEN").
44. Article 7 of the Regulation creating the Monitoring Centre provides for the conclusion of a co-operation agreement between the European Community (EU) and the Council of Europe with a view to ensuring a close co-operation between the latter and the Monitoring Centre. To this end, in June 1997 the Council authorised the European Commission to open negociations with the Council of Europe. These negociations led to an agreement on a draft text in December 1997, and the Secretariat was asked to continue to work towards the conclusion of a formal Agreement as soon as possible.
C. Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) - Office for Democratic institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR)
45. The ODIHR asked the Council of Europe to prepare a background report * on the theme of combating racism and intolerance for the Human Dimension Implementation Meeting which took place in Warsaw on 12-28 November 1997.
- Follow-up to the "All different, all equal" Youth Campaign and launch of the website on combating racism and intolerance
46. The Committee of Ministers gave ECRI's Secretariat responsibility for activities relating to the "information and communication" aspect of the follow-up to the Youth Campaign against Racism, Xenophobia, Antisemitism and Intolerance. One member of ECRI's Secretariat is therefore more specifically responsible for all aspects relating to links with civil society, information and awareness-raising in the field of combating racism and intolerance.
47. In October 1997, the Council of Europe website on combating racism and intolerance was launched (www.ecri.coe.fr).
48. ECRI has already in the past stressed the serious problem of the dissemination via the Internet of racist or insulting material. For this reason, it welcomed the initiative of the Council of Europe to counter this tendency by using technology for the positive purpose of disseminating an anti-racist message to a potential audience of millions and of improving collaboration between all those working to the common end of eradicating racism.
49. The site contains legislative texts and summaries of relevant national legislation; examples of good practices existing in the member States; it provides guidelines on how to organise a campaign; it proposes education and media initiatives; and it provides a list of the principle bodies active in the fight against racism. The vast range of information provided by the site is likely to interest a varied public, from different professional backgrounds; the use of illustrations and video clips make the site attractive to a younger audience. ECRI hopes that the site will develop on an on-going basis and will reflect the diverse experiences, needs, goals and cultures of its users. ECRI also hopes to set up very soon its own data base on this site.
- ECRI's participation in activities outside the Council of Europe
50. The Second European Meeting of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights took place in Copenhagen from 20-22 January 1997. This meeting was organised by the Danish Centre for Human Rights, in co-operation with the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Commissioner of the Council of the Baltic Sea States. The Second European Meeting examined ways of reinforcing national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights, particularly as regards their main functions: advisory function; information, education and research; handling individual complaints. ECRI actively participated in this Second Meeting: ECRI's Chair and the Chair of its working group on specialised bodies led the debates in many working sessions and several other ECRI members took part in the meeting.
51. The international conference on "Immigrants, racism and xenophobia: Greek and European experiences of discrimination" was organised in Athens on 15 May 1997 by the Greek Centre of European Studies and Research (EKEME), in collaboration with the Greek General Secretariat for Youth, the Hellenic League on Human Rights and the Marangopoulos Foundation on Human Rights, with the support of the Council of Europe, the European Commission and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. The Conference examined the subject of racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance from both a European and a Greek perspective. ECRI's Bureau took part in the Conference, each of its members contributing to the different themes of the meeting and entering into the discussions.
52. ECRI was invited to participate in the 4th European Ministerial Conference on equality between women and men which took place in Istanbul on 13-14 November 1997. ECRI was represented by its Vice-Chair, Mr Andrzej SICINSKI (Polish member of ECRI) during this ministerial conference which was devoted to the theme of "Democracy and Equality between women and men".
53. ECRI was also invited to the closing conference of the European Year against Racism 1997, which took place in Luxembourg on 18-19 December 1997, and was represented by Mr Joseph VOYAME (Swiss member of ECRI) and by a member of the Secretariat.
54. Furthermore, ECRI was represented by one or other of its members at the following international events: the conference on "The smiling face of fascism", organised on 26-27 January 1997 in London by the "Academic Response to Antisemitism and Racism in Europe", with the patronage of the Simon Wiesenthal European Centre; the Seminar on "Europe against Racism and Xenophobia: an interim review of the European Year against Racism", organised on 11 July 1997 in London by the Runnymede Trust; the Seminar on "Nationalism and Minorities", organised on 13-15 October 1997 in Bled (Slovenia) by the European Justice and Peace Commission.
(31 December 1997)
Albanie / Albania:
Ms Admira SHEHU, Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, University of Malta
Andorre / Andorra:
Madame Patricia QUILLACQ, Représentante Permanente Adjointe d'Andorre auprès du Conseil de l'Europe
Autriche / Austria:
Professor Stefan KARNER, Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Kriegsfolgen-Forschung
Professor Dr. Gerald SCHÖPFER *, Vorstand des Instituts für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte der Universität Graz
Belgique / Belgium:
Monsieur Johan LEMAN, Directeur du Centre pour l'Egalité des Chances et la Lutte contre le racisme
Monsieur François SANT'ANGELO*, Collaborateur au Centre pour l'Egalité des Chances et la Lutte contre le racisme
Bulgarie / Bulgaria:
Monsieur Luben KOULICHEV, Assemblée Nationale de la République de Bulgarie
Croatie / Croatia:
Ms Nina VAJIĆ, Professor of Public International Law, Law Faculty, University of Zagreb
Chypre / Cyprus:
Ms Maro CLERIDES-TSIAPPAS, Counsel for the Republic of Cyprus, Office of the Attorney General of the Republic of Cyprus
République Tchèque / Czech Republic:
Mr Richard KRPAĆ, Human Rights Office, International Law Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Danemark / Denmark:
Professor Eva SMITH ASMUSSEN, Retsvidenskabeligt Institut A
Estonie / Estonia:
Mrs Aino LEPIK, Head of Human Rights Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Finlande / Finland:
Professor Karmela LIEBKIND, University of Helsinki, Department of Social Psychology
Mr Lauri HANNIKAINEN *, Associate Professor of International Law
Madame Martine VALDES-BOULOUQUE, Premier Substitut du Procureur de la République auprès du Tribunal de Grande Instance de Paris
Allemagne / Germany:
Dr Helga VOELSKOW-THIES, Ministerialdirigentin, Bundesministerium der Justiz
Mr Jürgen HABERLAND*, Ministerialrat, Bundesministerium des Innern
Grèce / Greece:
Mr Nikos FRANGAKIS, President of the Hellenic League on Human Rights
Hongrie / Hungary:
Mr Jenö KALTENBACH, Parliamentary Commissioner for National, Ethnic and Minority Rights
Islande / Iceland:
Reverend Baldur KRISTJÁNSSON, Special Assistant to the Bishop of Iceland
Irlande / Ireland
Italie / Italy:
Monsieur le Professeur Paolo UNGARI, Presidente della Commissione per i Diritti Umani della Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri
Lettonie / Latvia:
Mrs Ruta MARJAŠA, Deputy Chairman of the Legal Affairs Commission, The Saeima of the Republic of Latvia
Monsieur Hans BRUNHART, Ancien Chef du Gouvernement
Madame Christine STEHRENBERGER*, Représentante Permanente Adjointe du Liechtenstein auprès du Conseil de l'Europe
Lituanie / Lithuania:
Mr Vladimir YARMOLENKO, Member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania
Monsieur Roger LINSTER, Ambassadeur, 1er Conseiller de Gouvernement, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères
Monsieur Victor WEITZEL *, Attaché de presse, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères
Malte / Malta:
Dr Godwin MUSCAT-AZZOPARDI, Judge
Monsieur le Professeur Victor VOLCINSCHI, Academia de Studii Economice (ASE) dui Victor Volcinschi
Pays-Bas / Netherlands:
Mr Willem MIJNSSEN, Gerechtshof's-Gravenhage
Norvège / Norway:
Mr Petter DREFVELIN, Director General, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI)
Pologne / Poland:
Professor Andrzej SICINSKI, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Polish Academy of Sciences
Monsieur Fernando FERREIRA RAMOS, Procureur-Général Adjoint
Roumanie / Romania:
Mr Aurel-Viorel CIOBANU-DORDEA, Assistant Professor in Public International Law
Fédération de Russie / Russian Federation:
Mr Mark ENTINE, Doctor in international law and human rights, Visiting Professor of the Moscow University of International Relations, 1st Director-deputy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Sain-Marin / San Marino:
Madame Federica BIGI, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères de Saint-Marin
Slovaquie / Slovakia:
Professor Juraj ŠVEC, Rector of the University Comenius
Slovénie / Slovenia:
Mrs Alenka PUHAR, Journalist-Publicist
Espagne / Spain:
Mr Tomás CALVO BUEZAS, Catedrático de Antropología Social, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología
Mr Secundino VALLADARES FERNANDEZ *, Facultad de Ciencias Politicas y Sociologia
Suède / Sweden:
Mr Frank ORTON, Ombudsman against Ethnic Discrimination
Suisse / Switzerland:
Monsieur le Professeur Joseph VOYAME
"L'ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine" / "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia":
Ms Elizabeta GORGIEVA, Senior Officer at the Human and Minority Rights Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Turquie / Turkey:
Mr Gün KUT, Boğaziçi University, Faculty of Political Science
Mr Vladyslav ZOZULYA, Third Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Mr Oleg SEMENENKO*, Second Secretary of the European and Transatlantic Integration Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Royaume-Uni / United Kingdom:
Mr Michael E. HEAD
Assemblée parlementaire / Parliamentary Assembly
Commission des questions juridiques et des droits de l'homme/Committee on Legal Questions and Human Rights
Monsieur José Luis LOPES HENARES, Sénateur
Commission de la culture et de l'éducation/Committee on Culture and Education
Mrs Josephine VERSPAGET, Deputy
Commission des questions politiques/Committee on Political Affairs
Mr András BÁRSONY, Vice-President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Congrès des pouvoirs locaux et régionaux de l'Europe / Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe
Monsieur Gianfranco MARTINI, Segretario Generale dell'Associazione Italiana del Consiglio dei Communi e Regioni d'Europa
Commission des Communautés Européennes/Commission of the European Community
Madame Annette BOSSCHER, Chef de Division Direction Générale V/D/4
* * *
Monsieur Joël-Benoît d'ONORIO, Directeur du Département des Sciences juridiques et morales, Institut Portalis
Mme Isil GACHET, Direction des Droits de l'Homme, Secrétaire de la Commission européenne contre le racisme et l'intolérance/Human Rights Directorate, Secretary of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Conseil de l'Europe, 67075 STRASBOURG CEDEX, France
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 48 Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mrs Isobelle JAQUES, Administratrice / Administrator
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 49 Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Ms Louise BARTON, Assistante Administrative/Administrative Assistant
Tel: +33 ( 0) 3 88 41 29 59 Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mme Sylvia LEHMANN, Assistante/Assistant
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 29 64 Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mme Vincente MUSCATIELLO, Responsable de la gestion du site web/Responsible for managing the web site
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 25 05 Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
* ECRI's guiding principles and future role
* Leaflet Combating racism and intolerance - European Commission against Racism and Intolerance
* Legal measures to combat racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe
* Combating racism and intolerance: A basket of good practices
* ECRI general policy recommendation n° 1: Combating racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance
* ECRI general policy recommendation n° 2: Specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Belgium
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on the Czech Republic
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Finland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Greece
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Hungary
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Iceland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Ireland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Lithuania
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Luxembourg
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Malta
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Poland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Volume I
* Current activities of the Council of Europe in the field of combating racism and intolerance
* Recommendations adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in the field of combating Racism and Intolerance
· Recommendations adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the field of combating Racism and Intolerance
* A document entitled "ECRI's guiding principles and future role", prepared after ECRI's sixth plenary session, contains a summary of its work up to December 1995.
* The document on ECRI's internal organisation and operating methods can be obtained from the Secretariat.
* The recommendation exists in English, French, German, Polish and Russian
* A collection of the "Recommendations adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in the field of combating racism and intolerance" can be obtained from the Secretariat.
* This report can be obtained from ECRI's Secretariat
* Suppléant / Substitute
* Suppléant / Substitute
* Suppléant / Substitute
* Suppléant / Substitute