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Annual Report on ECRI’s activities covering the period from 1st January to 31 December 1998
The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) was set up by the first Summit of Heads of State and Government of the member States of the Council of Europe, held in Vienna in October 1993.
ECRI's task is to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance at the level of greater Europe and in the perspective of the protection of human rights.
Its terms of reference, as determined by the Heads of State and Government, is to review member States' legislation, policies and other measures to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance, and their effectiveness; to propose further action at local, national and European level; to formulate general policy recommendations to member States; and to study international legal instruments applicable in the matter with a view to their reinforcement where appropriate.
ECRI's members are designated by their governments on the basis of their in-depth knowledge of the field of combating intolerance. They should have high moral authority and recognised expertise in dealing with racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance. They are nominated in their personal capacity and act as independent members.
ECRI's programme of activities comprises three aspects: country-by-country approach, work on general themes, activities in relations with civil society.
Following the decision of the second Summit of Heads of State and Government of the member States of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 10-11 October 1997) to strengthen ECRI's activities, ECRI reviewed throughout 1998 the work it has accomplished over the last four and a half years and formulated precise proposals as to how its activities could be strengthened.
These proposals were finalised by ECRI in March 1998 and subsequently examined by the Ministers' Deputies in a discussion marked by a widely-shared appreciation of ECRI's work and a generally favourable attitude to its proposals. ECRI's Chair and Vice-Chairs met the Ministers' Deputies in June 1998 and set out in more details ECRI's proposals concerning the strengthening of its activities.
ECRI's strategy in its proposals for the strengthening of its activities is to build on the work it has already accomplished, while consolidating and stepping-up its activities: over the next few years, ECRI will develop its country-by-country approach by identifying means of following up the conclusions of its reports while introducing some new elements in its country-by-country procedure. It will also continue work on general themes, covering the major themes of importance to combating racism and intolerance across national borders and drawing up practical recommendations and guidelines. ECRI will multiply its links with civil society with the aim of raising awareness of its work, and will make particular efforts to strengthen its ties with non-governmental organisations, both within member States and at the international level, thus encouraging an active involvement of these bodies in relevant aspects of its work programme and profiting from their assessment of the results of ECRI's work.
1. Four and a half years after its first meeting, held on 22 March 1994, ECRI has completed at the end of 1998 its first round of country reports concerning the fight against racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe, has developed a wide range of activities on general themes and has consolidated its links with civil society, with the aim of building up a stronger response to the manifestations of racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance across Europe.
2. In the light of the information collected in the course of its various activities, ECRI is now in a position to highlight some of the main trends which form the backdrop to its work and future initiatives. These trends vary from country to country as regards their detailed characteristics and their extent. ECRI considers, however, that, at the time of writing, these generally negative trends are sufficiently widespread to justify special mention.
3. The most striking feature of this European “stock-taking” is without a doubt the persistence of discrimination at various levels (employment, housing, provision of services, acquisition of citizenship, etc) as regards members of minority groups. This is compounded by a lack of effective anti-discrimination provisions in most member States.
4. There still exist in individual European countries legislative provisions which can be criticized on the grounds that they are discriminatory towards certain categories of people defined by race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, etc. However, in most cases, daily discrimination results rather from practices, on the part of both public instances and on the part of individuals. This is closely linked to an unsatisfactory implementation of existing anti-racist provisions (a recurrent feature in ECRI’s analysis of country situations).
5. Continued hostility towards immigrants, asylum-seekers and refugees is widely expressed in the media and by politicians. It is also reflected in restrictive legislation as well as in measures which do not always guarantee respect for human rights. The adoption of such measures is, generally speaking, favoured by the fact that democratic political parties - for fear of losing electoral support from wide segments of the population supposed to be hostile to foreigners - increasingly depart from a concept of society based on the principles of justice and solidarity.
6. Another issue of concern is the increase in manifestations of racial or ethnic violence and incitement to racial/ethnic intolerance or hatred.
7. The proliferation and growth of extremist far-right groups throughout Europe is a trend which plays a fundamental role in exacerbating these phenomena of hostility and violence.
8. The continuing presence of racism and prejudice in State institutions (within the judicial system, the police, schools, etc) is accompanied by a certain failure on the part of governments to give issues of racism and intolerance the necessary priority and adequate resources. The lack of an energetic response to such phenomena is reflected in the absence of consistent state policies on issues connected with racism and intolerance.
9. There seems to be a noticeable increase in complaints of racist attitudes and behaviours on the part of law enforcement officials. This includes border control personnel as well as police officers. In this context, recent years seem to have witnessed comparatively more episodes of brutality, sometimes resulting in death.
10. There is a tendency towards a certain normalisation of racism. The notion of racism as a theory based on the so-called “superiority of a racial or ethnic group over another”, has not entirely disappeared. However, these last years have seen a move towards another sort of theory, and contemporary racism in our societies increasingly seems to take the form of views, expressed in public or in private, concerning the supposedly insurmountable cultural differences between groups. This change probably results from the need felt by some people to make racism more "acceptable" and less incompatible with the notion of a society founded on democratic values. It constitutes a serious danger, since it allows people to behave in a racist, xenophobic and intolerant manner, without perceiving themselves to be "racist".
11. Religious intolerance seems to be on the rise. Prejudices against Muslim communities (Islamophobia) are particularly worrying and are expressed at all levels (violence, harassment, discrimination, general negative attitudes and stereotypes).
12. Violent acts against members of Jewish communities and dissemination of anti-Semitic material have not declined in recent years. The resurgence of the extreme right in Europe has intensified the spread of anti-Semitic ideas.
13. Roma/Gypsies suffer throughout Europe from persisting prejudice. This leads to discrimination against members of this group in many fields of social and economic life and to social exclusion. Roma/Gypsies are often also the target of violent manifestations of racism and intolerance.
14. Finally, one worrying phenomenon which should be mentioned is the growing use of new technologies of mass communication by racist individuals or groups (particularly the use of the Internet for the dissemination of racist messages).
15. ECRI considers that these negative trends should be closely monitored and further measures taken at local, national and European level to combat such manifestations of racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance. In this perspective, ECRI welcomes some encouraging signs that action is being taken and its effects felt. In many cases, new legislative provisions are being introduced to combat racism and discrimination, and a more effective implementation of legislative and policy measures is being sought. For example, the institution of the specialised body at national level to combat racism and intolerance is gradually being introduced or strengthened in a number of countries.
16. ECRI itself was created on the basis of a real political will among the member States of the Council of Europe to take firm and comprehensive action against racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance. From this standpoint, ECRI encourages European States to ensure that their commitment at European level is backed up with concrete and consistent action at national, regional and local level.
17. The first aspect of ECRI's activities concerns its country-by-country approach. This is a method whereby ECRI closely examines the situation in each of the member States of the Council of Europe and draws up, following this analysis, suggestions and proposals as to how the problems of racism and intolerance identified in each country might be dealt with. The aim of this exercise is to formulate helpful and well-founded proposals which may assist governments in taking concrete and precise steps to counter racism and intolerance.
18. The first round of country-by-country reports prepared by ECRI was completed in 1998. The procedure adopted for the preparation of these reports can be summarised thus:
19. The preliminary collection of information as well as the preparation of the texts of the preliminary draft reports are carried out in small working groups of ECRI. Preliminary sources of information used are wide-ranging, including, inter alia, replies provided by governments to a questionnaire sent out by ECRI, input from the relevant national members of ECRI, information on national legislation collected for ECRI by the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law (Lausanne), information from international and national non-governmental organisations, various publications and the media.
20. ECRI examines and discusses the preliminary draft reports on each country in plenary session and adopts a draft report.
21. The draft report is sent to the relevant government for a process of confidential dialogue conducted through a government-appointed national liaison officer. The draft country report is re-examined and possibly revised in the light of the comments provided by the latter.
22. The report is then adopted in its final form by ECRI in plenary session, and transmitted through the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to the government of the country in question. Two months after this transmission, the report is made public, unless the government of the country concerned expressly requests that it is not made public.
23. Three series of country-by-country reports have now been transmitted to the governments of the countries in question and made public: thus, as of the end of December 1998, the first-round ECRI country reports on 23 countries are available. It should be noted that this work is carried out for all forty member States of the Council of Europe and that the order in which the reports are produced has no significance other than these were the first reports to be completed.
24. The first series of eleven country-by-country reports, which were transmitted to the governments of the countries in question at the beginning of July 1997, were made public at the end of September 1997. The reports cover the following countries: Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta and Poland.
25. In January 1998, a second series of reports was transmitted to the governments of the countries in question, and was made public in March 1998. These reports cover: Germany, Liechtenstein, Norway, San Marino, Slovenia and Switzerland.
26. In April 1998, a third series of reports was transmitted to the governments of the countries in question, and was made public in June 1998. These reports cover: Bulgaria, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Slovakia.
27. A fourth series of reports was transmitted to governments in November 1998 (reports on Denmark, Estonia, the Russian Federation, Spain and the United Kingdom) and will be made public in January 1999, bringing the number of reports available to 28. The procedure will continue throughout 1999 for the remaining first-round reports, which are presently in the form of draft reports and which are in the process of being discussed confidentially with the relevant national liaison officers nominated by governments.
28. A press release is issued on each occasion when country-by-country reports are made public, and the reports are transmitted to a wide range of selected contacts among bodies and individuals dealing with issues of racism and intolerance in the countries concerned.
29. Although further efforts are still necessary to render ECRI and its work better known in member States, the year 1998 nevertheless saw a marked increase in the interest raised among the general public and concerned parties by the publication of ECRI's country reports. The last series of reports published in 1998 gave rise to significant radio and television coverage and a number of articles in the written press in various member States. It is also noteworthy that more and more references to ECRI's country-by-country analyses appear in specialised publications or are voiced in international fora.
30. All of ECRI's country reports which have been made public can be obtained from ECRI's Secretariat, either in a volume containing all the reports, or as separate country reports (available in English, French and the language of the country in question).
31. The publication of the country reports represents the start of an on-going and active process of dialogue between ECRI and the authorities of the member States, in order to identify solutions to the problems of racism and intolerance with which the latter are faced. The input of non-governmental organisations and other bodies or individuals working in the field is also most welcome in this process to ensure that ECRI's work is as constructive and useful as possible.
32. Thus, in 1998, alongside the preparation of its first-round reports, ECRI considered how to implement the second stage of its country-by-country approach and determined how this might be situated within its strengthened programme of activities. During its plenary sessions in 1998, ECRI prepared this second stage in detail, both as regards the goals to be attained and the working methods to be applied.
33. The second stage of the country-by-country work, which will start in January 1999, will not be a mechanical repetition of the country-by-country exercice carried out to date. The second stage will include new elements, combining a follow-up (monitoring) aspect of the proposals contained in ECRI's first reports with a more in-depth analysis of particular issues in each country.
34. The second stage will take place over four years and will cover all member States of the Council of Europe, with the aim of producing a minimum of some ten individual country reports annually. In order to obtain as detailed and clear a picture as possible of the situation as regards racism and intolerance in each country, a contact visit will be organised for the relevant ECRI rapporteurs before the preparation of the report on each country.
35. The countries to be covered in 1999 in the framework of this process of follow-up are: Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland.
36. The second aspect of ECRI's programme includes work on general themes and activities specifically based on these themes, with a view to making a real contribution to the setting-up and strengthening of those institutions which underpin the functioning of civil society.
37. ECRI adopted on 6 March 1998 two new general policy recommendations, dealing respectively with combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies and with national surveys on the experience and perception of discrimination and racism from the point of view of potential victims.
38. ECRI's general policy recommendation N° 3 on combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies takes as its starting point the fact that Roma/Gypsies suffer throughout Europe from persisting prejudices, are victims of a racism which is deep-rooted in society, are the target of sometimes violent demonstrations of racism and intolerance and that their fundamental rights are regularly violated or threatened. ECRI's general recommendation aims to encourage the adoption of a series of measures to combat manifestations of racism and intolerance and discriminatory practices against Roma/Gypsies.
39. This recommendation can be obtained from ECRI's Secretariat. It is available in English, French, Bulgarian, Czech, German, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovakian and Spanish.
40. Since its publication in the second half of 1998, this recommendation has been widely-disseminated to governmental and non-governmental bodies. ECRI wishes to thank in this respect the Group of Specialists on Roma/Gypsies (MG-S-ROM), which assisted in the preparation of the recommendation, and the Council of Europe's Co-ordinator on activities relating to Roma/Gypsy, who was particularly active in ensuring wide publicity for the recommendation.
41. ECRI's general policy recommendation N° 4 on national surveys on the experience and perception of discrimination and racism from the point of view of potential victims notes that the results of such surveys may be used in a variety of ways to highlight problems and improve the situation. The recommendation provides guidelines for the carrying-out of such surveys, particularly their practical organisation, design and follow-up. The recommendation, which can be obtained from ECRI's Secretariat, is available in English, French and Russian.
Organisation of activities on the implementation of general policy recommendations
42. ECRI's working group on specialised bodies has prepared proposals on its future work to promote the implementation of ECRI's general policy recommendation N° 2 on specialised bodies existing at national level to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance.
43. This recommendation, adopted on 13 June 1997, calls on governments of member States to carefully consider the possibility of setting up, if they have not already done so, a specialised body at national level to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance. Its appendix contains basic principles concerning these bodies, particularly as regards their statutes, alternative forms that they might take, their functions and responsibilities and their administration, functioning and style of operation.
44. The working group's proposals as concerns its future work deal with the possibility of setting up networks, standard-setting, specific practical assistance and mainstreaming.
45. ECRI played a major role in the organisation of a colloquy on "the place and role of national specialised bodies to combat racism", which took place in Lausanne on 22-24 October 1998. This colloquy was organised jointly by the Swiss Federal Commission against Racism and the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law, with the support of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and the Council of Europe.
46. The colloquy brought together 75 participants from 29 member States of the Council of Europe, including members and staff of specialised bodies, governmental representatives, representatives of non-governmental organisations and university professors.
47. The working group on "good practices" drew up a non-exhaustive list of themes which might form the object of future collections of good practices in coming years. This list was approved by ECRI at its 15th plenary session in June 1998, and it was agreed to prepare a collection of good practices devoted to specialised bodies at national level to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance, which would be published during the first half of 1999. At its 17th plenary meeting, in November 1998, ECRI decided to focus on good practices in the field of the police or the media as provisional subjects for a second publication which would be produced in the second half of 1999.
48. In June 1998, ECRI held a general exchange of views on the problem of the dissemination of racist messages via the Internet. An ad hoc working group was set up to present practical proposals to ECRI on what it could do in this area.
49. At the same session, ECRI also discussed the possible content of a research task which might be given to a consultant on cultures and religions, and agreed to return to this matter in the light of the results of a seminar on the religious aspects of integration which the European Committee on Migration (CDMG) was to hold from 24-26 November 1998.
Consultations with NGOs working in the field of combating racism and intolerance
50. On 6 March 1998, ECRI adopted a Policy and Action Statement on its relations with non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This text describes the ways in which ECRI hopes to co-operate actively and effectively with NGOs across its different spheres of action.
51. Two workshops were organised with NGOs during 1998 on the theme "Combating racism and intolerance: action at European and national level". The first workshop, held in Strasbourg from 30 September to 2 October 1998, brought together NGO representatives from the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland, along with members of ECRI's working group on relations with NGOs. The second workshop, held in Strasbourg from 16-18 November 1998, included NGO representatives from Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia and Slovenia and members of ECRI's working group on relations with NGOs.
52. These two workshops gave rise to exchanges of information and to an animated debate on issues of racism and intolerance. The work of the Council of Europe and more particularly ECRI's work were presented, and the NGO representatives were invited to share their current concerns and long-term strategies. The workshops also allowed NGOs to make recommendations for ECRI's future work and for co-operation between ECRI and NGOs.
53. Each of the two workshops included an evaluation session in which participants stressed the utility of such activities, both in terms of raising awareness of ECRI's activities and in terms of exchanges between the NGOs themselves on their activities to combat racism and intolerance and the particular problems they faced.
Follow-up to work on the broadening of the non-discrimination clause (Article 14) of the European Convention on Human Rights
54. Since the preparation of its reasoned report on the strengthening of the non-discrimination clause (Article 14) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), ECRI has been closely following the work carried out by the relevant bodies of the Council of Europe in response to ECRI's proposal on this matter, to which ECRI continues to attach great importance.
55. In March 1998, the Ministers' Deputies gave terms of reference to the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH) to draft, on the basis of its Final Activity Report concerning standard-setting solutions regarding equality between women and men/a legal instrument against racism and intolerance, an additional protocol or protocols to the European Convention on Human Rights broadening, in a general fashion, the field of application of Article 14, which would contain a non-exhaustive list of discrimination grounds.
56. The CDDH should finish the above-mentioned work by the end of 1999 and will submit a text to the Ministers' Deputies. Mr Joseph VOYAME, the Swiss member of ECRI (or his substitute Mr Godwin MUSCAT-AZZOPARDI, the Maltese member of ECRI) participates as ECRI's representative in this work within the CDDH and the Committee of Experts for the Development of Human Rights (DH-DEV), and regularly reports back on this matter to plenary sessions of ECRI. In October 1998, ECRI stressed again the importance it placed on the rapid and successful conclusion of the work being carried out by the Council of Europe bodies entrusted with this task, and its hope that such an Additional Protocol might be finished and adopted as soon as possible.
57. Aware of the fact that a successful strategy against racism and intolerance depends to a large extent on the filtering-down of the anti-racist message throughout civil society in general, ECRI attaches increasing importance to this third aspect of its programme of activities.
58. In 1998, ECRI has endeavoured as far as possible to improve its own communication and information initiatives in order to raise awareness of its activities and results.
59. Two Information Newsletters have been published and widely-distributed, in June and December 1998. These Newsletters, produced in a bi-lingual format, highlight recent developments within the Council of Europe in the field of combating racism and intolerance. They also provide information on progress made in ECRI's work at its plenary sessions, and contain the dates, places and themes of forthcoming events in the field, and details of new publications.
60. To disseminate its Information Newsletters and other publications, ECRI has compiled a targeted mailing-list, containing over a thousand addressees throughout Europe: intergovernmental organisations, national and local administrations, national specialised bodies, national institutions for the protection and promotion of human rights, Ombudsmen, universities and research institutes, contacts in the judicial system. The largest category is that of non-governmental organisations, some international but mainly national and local NGOs.
61. An important instrument in ECRI's communication strategy is its website on combating racism and intolerance. This is an independent, bi-lingual site (English/French) with more than 4000 pages, and is aimed at a wide public: organisations and individuals involved in combating racism and intolerance, researchers, students, journalists, young people etc.
62. In 1998, the site was consulted mainly from Western European countries, followed by a smaller number of Central and Eastern European countries, although it also saw a significant number of visitors from the United States and Canada. Apart from private individuals, users were mainly NGOs, governmental organisations, research institutes and universities. The pages which were consulted most frequently in 1998 concerned specific activities of ECRI (country reports and reports on legal measures within the member States prepared by the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law), and the educational material produced by the European Youth Campaign against Racism (education pack, Domino, guide to the cartoon book).
63. On the initiative of Professor Andrzej SICINSKI, the Polish member of ECRI, and Dr Hanna MACHINSKA, the Director of the Council of Europe's Information and Documentation Centre in Poland, ECRI held its first information session in Warsaw on 11 May 1998.
64. This information session, which had as its theme "Combating ethnic intolerance and xenophobia in Poland", brought together governmental representatives, representatives of national minorities, particularly Roma/Gypsy representatives, academics, educationalists, some parliamentarians and diplomatic representatives, as well as non-governmental human rights organisations.
65. The session gave rise to animated and informative debates. It also led to two concrete decisions: the Polish Commissioner for Civil and Political Rights (Ombudsman) has now instructed his staff expressly to monitor incidents of racial violence and discrimination, and participants agreed to co-operate in drawing up for presentation to the Polish Government a comprehensive plan of action for improving the situation of the Roma/Gypsies.
66. During 1999 and subsequent years, ECRI hopes to hold meetings of a similar nature in other countries, promoting discussion among representatives of government, actual or potential victims of racism or xenophobia and institutions of civil society.
- United Nations
67. Throughout 1998, ECRI was kept regularly informed of developments in the work of the Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), and continued to receive the reports of the latter body. Mr Régis DE GOUTTES, the French member of CERD, is the contact person for relations of this committee with ECRI.
68. ECRI also received detailed information from its Secretariat on developments as regards the Council of Europe's contribution to the World Conference on Racism which is to be organised by the United Nations in the year 2001. Mr Roger LINSTER, the ECRI member from Luxembourg, was nominated to represent ECRI at the meetings which will take place during the preparation process by governmental experts of the European Conference against Racism and Intolerance - the principal Council of Europe contribution to the World Conference.
- European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
69. Following her nomination as Director of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, Mrs Beate WINKLER was invited in June 1998 to hold an exchange of views with ECRI.
70. This exchange of views stressed the importance of putting together from the outset the different experiences recorded by ECRI and by the Monitoring Centre. Prior to the signature by the Council of Europe and the European Commission of an Agreement intended to formalise close co-operation between the Monitoring Centre and ECRI, the two bodies should seek practical ways of collaboration.
71. ECRI, for its part, prepared in November 1998 a range of concrete proposals for the reciprocal exchange of information and the organisation of joint activities of subjects of mutual interest. These proposals will be finalised and transmitted to the Monitoring Centre at the beginning of 1999.
Albanie / Albania:
Ms Admira SHEHU, Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, University of Malta
Andorre / Andorra:
Madame Patricia QUILLACQ, Représentante Permanente Adjointe d'Andorre auprès du Conseil de l'Europe
Autriche / Austria:
Professor Stefan KARNER, Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Kriegsfolgen-Forschung
Professor Dr. Gerald SCHÖPFER *, Vorstand des Instituts für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte der Universität Graz
Belgique / Belgium:
Monsieur Johan LEMAN, Directeur du Centre pour l'Egalité des Chances et la Lutte contre le racisme
Monsieur François SANT'ANGELO*, Collaborateur au Centre pour l'Egalité des Chances et la Lutte contre le racisme
Bulgarie / Bulgaria:
Monsieur Luben KOULICHEV, Assemblée Nationale de la République de Bulgarie
Croatie / Croatia:
Ms Maja SERSIC, Assistant Professor, International Law Department at the Faculty of Laws of the Zagreb University
Chypre / Cyprus:
Ms Maro CLERIDES-TSIAPPAS, Counsel for the Republic of Cyprus, Office of the Attorney General of the Republic of Cyprus
République Tchèque / Czech Republic:
Mr Richard KRPAČ, Human Rights Office, International Law Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Danemark / Denmark:
Professor Eva SMITH ASMUSSEN, Retsvidenskabeligt Institut A
Estonie / Estonia:
Mrs Aino LEPIK, Head of Human Rights Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Mr Mart NUTT*, Member of Parliament
Finlande / Finland:
Professor Karmela LIEBKIND, University of Helsinki, Department of Social Psychology
Mr Lauri HANNIKAINEN *, Associate Professor of International Law
Madame Martine VALDES-BOULOUQUE, Inspecteur des Services Judiciaires, Ministère de la Justice
Allemagne / Germany:
Dr Helga VOELSKOW-THIES, Ministerialdirigentin, Bundesministerium der Justiz
Mr Jürgen HABERLAND*, Ministerialrat, Bundesministerium des Innern
Grèce / Greece:
Mr Nikos FRANGAKIS, President of the Hellenic League on Human Rights
Mr Pericles PANGALOS*
Hongrie / Hungary:
Mr Jenö KALTENBACH, Parliamentary Commissioner for National, Ethnic and Minority Rights
Islande / Iceland:
Reverend Baldur KRISTJÁNSSON, Háaleiti
Irlande / Ireland
Italie / Italy:
Monsieur le Professeur Paolo UNGARI, Presidente della Commissione per i Diritti Umani della Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri
Lettonie / Latvia:
Mrs Ruta MARJAŠA, Deputy Chairman of the Legal Affairs Commission, The Saeima of the Republic of Latvia
Monsieur Hans BRUNHART, Ancien Chef du Gouvernement
Madame Christine STEHRENBERGER *, Collaboratrice diplomatique, Office pour les Affaires Etrangères
Lituanie / Lithuania:
Mr Vladimir YARMOLENKO, Member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Seimas
Monsieur Roger LINSTER
Monsieur Victor WEITZEL*, Attaché de presse, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères
Malte / Malta:
Dr Godwin MUSCAT-AZZOPARDI, Judge
Monsieur le Professeur Victor VOLCINSCHI, Academia de Studii Economice (ASE) dui Victor Volcinschi
Pays-Bas / Netherlands:
Mr Willem MIJNSSEN, Gerechtshof's-Gravenhage
Norvège / Norway:
Mr Petter DREFVELIN, Director General, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI)
Pologne / Poland:
Professor Andrzej SICINSKI, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Polish Academy of Sciences
Monsieur Fernando FERREIRA RAMOS, Juge de la Cour Suprême de Justice, Gabinete de Documentação e Direito Comparado
Monsieur José Antonio MESQUITA*, Juiz Conselheiro, Gabinet de Documentaçao e Direito Comparado
Roumanie / Romania:
Mr Aurel-Viorel CIOBANU-DORDEA, Assistant Professor in Public International Law
Fédération de Russie / Russian Federation:
Mr Alexander VLADYCHENKO, Doctor of History, Deputy Director, Ministry of Foreign Affairs – European Cooperation Department
Sain-Marin / San Marino:
Madame Federica BIGI, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères de Saint-Marin
Slovaquie / Slovakia:
Professor Juraj ŠVEC, Rector of the University Comenius
Slovénie / Slovenia:
Mrs Alenka PUHAR, Journalist-Publicist
Espagne / Spain:
Mr Tomás CALVO BUEZAS, Catedrático de Antropología Social, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología
Mr Secundino VALLADARES FERNANDEZ *, Facultad de Ciencias Politicas y Sociologia
Suède / Sweden:
Mrs Margareta WADSTEIN, Ombudsman against Ethnic Discrimination
Ms Heléne LÖÖW*, National Swedish Council for Crime Prevention
Suisse / Switzerland:
Monsieur le Professeur Joseph VOYAME
Madame Doris ANGST YILMAZ*, Chef du Secrétariat, Commission Fédérale contre le racisme
"L'ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine" / "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia":
Ms Elizabeta GORGIEVA, Senior Officer at the Human and Minority Rights Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Turquie / Turkey:
Professor Gün KUT, Boğaziçi University, Faculty of Political Science
Mr Oleg SEMENENKO, Second Secretary of the European and Transatlantic Integration Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Royaume-Uni / United Kingdom:
Mr Michael E. HEAD
* * *
Assemblée parlementaire / Parliamentary Assembly
Commission des questions juridiques et des droits de l'homme/Committee on Legal Questions and Human Rights
Monsieur José Luis LOPES HENARES, Sénateur
Commission de la culture et de l'éducation/Committee on Culture and Education
Mrs Anita Apelthun SAELE, Stortinget
Commission des questions politiques/Committee on Political Affairs
Mr András BÁRSONY, Vice-President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Congrès des pouvoirs locaux et régionaux de l'Europe / Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe
Monsieur Gianfranco MARTINI, Segretario Generale dell'Associazione Italiana del Consiglio dei Communi e Regioni d'Europa
Commission des Communautés Européennes/Commission of the European Community
Madame Annette BOSSCHER, Chef de Division Direction Générale V/D/4
Monsieur Joël-Benoît d'ONORIO, Directeur du Département des Sciences juridiques et morales, Institut Portalis
* * *
Composition of the Bureau of ECRI
Chair: Mr Nikos FRANGAKIS (Greek member of ECRI)
1st Vice-Chair: Mr Joseph VOYAME (Swiss member of ECRI)
2nd Vice-Chair: Mr Michael HEAD (British member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mr Godwin MUSCAT-AZZOPARDI (Maltese member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mrs Alenka PUHAR (Slovene member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mr Fernando FERREIRA RAMOS (Portuguese member of ECRI)
Bureau member: Mrs Eva SMITH-ASMUSSEN (Danish member of ECRI)
Mme Isil GACHET, Direction des Droits de l'Homme, Secrétaire de la Commission européenne contre le racisme et l'intolérance/Human Rights Directorate, Secretary of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Conseil de l'Europe, 67075 STRASBOURG CEDEX, France
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 48
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mrs Isobelle JAQUES, Administratrice / Administrator
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 49
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Ms Louise BARTON, Assistante Administrative/Administrative Assistant
Tel: +33 ( 0) 3 88 41 29 59
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mme Sylvia LEHMANN, Assistante/Assistant
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 29 64
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mme Vincente MUSCATIELLO, Responsable de la gestion du site web/Responsible for managing the web site
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 25 05
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
- 3-6 March 1998
- 16-19 June 1998
- 13-16 October 1998
- 24-27 November 1998
- 2 March 1998
- 15 June 1998
- 12 October 1998
- 23 November 1998
Meetings of the ad hoc group on strategy
- 30 January 1998
- 12-13 February 1998
Meetings of CBC working groups
- CBC 2 : 29-30 April 1998
4 August 1998
- CBC 3 : 2-3 February 1998
2 April 1998
- CBC 4 : 17 February 1998
19-20 May 1998
7 August 1998
- CBC 5 : 6 February 1998
- CBC 6 : 22-23 January 1998
2 April 1998
- CBC 7 : 15 May 1998
23 November 1998
- CBC 8 : 25 August 1998
- CBC 9 : 28-29 January 1998
6-7 April 1998
3 August 1998
Meeting of the working group on Roma/Gypsies
- 16 February 1998
Meeting of the working group on specialised bodies
- 24-25 September 1998
Meeting of the working group on « good practices »
- 24 April 1998
Meeting of the working group on relations with NGOs
- 18 May 1998
- 30 September – 2 October 1998
- 16-18 November 1998
* ECRI's guiding principles and future role
* Leaflet Combating racism and intolerance - European Commission against Racism and Intolerance
* Bulletin n° 1: Combating racism and intolerance
* Bulletin n° 2: Combating racism and intolerance
* Legal measures to combat racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe
* Combating racism and intolerance: A basket of good practices
* ECRI general policy recommendation n° 1: Combating racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance
* ECRI general policy recommendation n° 2: Specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level
* ECRI general policy recommendation n° 3: Combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies
* ECRI general policy recommendation n° 4: National surveys on the experience and perception of discrimination and racism from the point of view of potential victims
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Belgium
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Bulgaria
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on the Czech Republic
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Finland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on France
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Germany
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Greece
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Hungary
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Iceland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Ireland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Italy
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Liechtenstein
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Lithuania
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Luxembourg
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Malta
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on the Netherlands
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Norway
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Poland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Portugal
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on San Marino
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Slovakia
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Slovenia
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Report on Switzerland
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Volume I
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Volume II
* ECRI's country-by-country approach: Volume III
* Current activities of the Council of Europe in the field of combating racism and intolerance
* Recommendations adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in the field of combating Racism and Intolerance
* Recommendations adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the field of combating Racism and Intolerance
Strasbourg, 23 March 1999
* Suppléant / Substitute
* Suppléant / Substitute
* Suppléant / Substitute
* Suppléant / Substitute