European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI)





  Bureau member from January 2011 to December 2012

Education and academic and other qualifications

Lauri Hannikainen graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki in 1966 (LL.M) and received a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy degree from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in Boston, in 1974. He received his Doctorate in Law (LL.D) from the University of Lapland (Finland) in 1989.

Professional activities

a) Present activities

Professor of International Law at the University of Turku from 2003 to 2009, retired in 2009. Member of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) of the Council of Europe since 2000.

b) Work and activities relating to human rights

A member of the Foreign Service of Finland (1966-1973), researcher at the Academy of Finland and researcher and teacher at various Finnish universities. In 1999-2001 Director of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, University of Lapland.

He was Vice-chairperson of the Finnish League for Human Rights in 1982-93 and Chairperson of the Finnish Branch of Minority Rights Group International in 1994-2004. In 2000-2002 he served as legal expert of both the national Advisory Board for International Human Rights Affairs and the National Board against Racism.

Publications (short list)


- Hannikainen L., “Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) in International Law - Historical Development, Criteria, Present Status”, 1988, 781 p.
- Hannikainen L. & Horn F. (eds.), “Autonomy and Demilitarization in International Law”
- Hannikainen L., The International Legal Basis of the Autonomy and Swedish Character of the Aland Islands, p. 57-84, in “The Aland Islands in Changing European Context”, 1997, 346 p.
- Hernesniemi P. & Hannikainen L.: “The Roma Minorities in the Nordic and Baltic Countries”, 2000, 100 p.
- Hannikainen L., The Rights of Minorities and Dialogue among Civilizations and Cultures, p. 133-155, in Hannikainen L. &: Sajjadpour K.S (eds.), “Dialogue among Civilizations — The Case of Finnish-Iranian Human Rights Expert Dialogue”, 2002, 175 p.
- Hannikainen L., The Status of Minorities, Indigenous Peoples and Immigrant and Refugee Groups in Four Nordic States, in “Nordic Journal of International Law”, 1/1996, p. 1-71.
- Hannikainen L., Self-Determination and Autonomy in International Law, in “Autonomy:
Applications and Implications”, Markku Suksi (ed.), 1998, p. 79-96.
- Hannikainen L., The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), in “New Trends in Discrimination Law”, 1999, p. 177-220.
- Hannikainen L., Article 19, in Weller, M. (ed.): “The Rights of Minorities in Europe — A Commentary on the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities”, 2005, p. 19-34.
- Hannikainen L, Legal Position of Asylum Seekers in Austria, in Grimheden, J. & Ring,
R. (eds.): “Human Rights Law: From Dissemination to Application”, 2006, p. 289-310.
- Hannikainen L, 2007, Legal Nature of Minority Rights as Part of Human Rights Limitations, Derogations, Reservations and Interpretative Statements, in Marc Weller (ed.), “Universal Minority Rights: A Commentary on the Jurisprudence of International Courts and Treaty Bodies”, p. 35-54.