Georgia, a mountainous country in South Caucasus, lies to the north of Turkey and Armenia, west of Azerbaijan and south of Russia. Its border on the west is formed by the Black Sea, and in all the country covers a total area of 69,700 sq km. From the Kolkhida Lowlands on the coast where the sub-tropical climate is favourable for agriculture, the elevation rises in the mountains north and west. Many peaks measure more than 4,000 m; the tallest is Mt'a Shkhara at 5,201 m. Its principal river, the Mtkvari, flows from Turkey where it arises, through Georgia and into Azerbaijan, where it is known as the Kura River.
Georgia signed the Bern Convention on 18 May 2009, which entered into force in 2010. Up to 2010, the country listed more than 160 flora and fauna species and 15 different habitats in need of protection. Of the species, Georgia lists, among others, animals that live in its seas, rivers and wetlands such as the white pelican, Pelecanus onocrotalus, and the European sea sturgeon, Acipenser sturio. Two different types of Habitats are identified as present in the country and in need of protection, Spiny Mediterranean heaths to Beech forest.
20 sites in Georgia have been officially nominated as candidate Emerald sites by the Standing Committee to the Bern Convention (in December 2012).