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EG-S-NT (2002) 9 rev.
 
 
Strasbourg, 16 September 2003

PDF

 
 

Group of specialists on the impact of the use of new information technologies on trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation (EG-S-NT)

 

Final report

 

Introduction

I. The impact of the use of new information technologies on trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation: the scale of the phenomenon
A. A study of the users

1. The techniques used and how they work
2. The use of new technologies
3. The users

B. Role of marriage agencies in trafficking in women and trafficking in images for the purpose of sexual exploitation

1. Recruitment of Women by Marriage Agencies in Countries of the Former Soviet Union
2. Sexually exploitative services offered through marriage agencies
3. Marriage agencies recruitment of vulnerable populations
4. Trafficking in Images for the purpose of sexual exploitation
5. Conclusion
a. The Challenges
b. Denial of the harm
c. Disconnection between acts and images

II. Existing legislation in the different member States and the relevant international instruments
A. At national level

1. Major Tendencies of the Relevant Legal Frameworks Sexual majority
2. Major Tendencies of the Relevant Legal Frameworks
a. General Remarks
b. Specific Remarks Concerning Internet Law
3. General Proposals
4. Specific proposals concerning Internet

B. At international level
C. Combating the illegal or harmful use of the Internet: how can law intervene - the example of the Yahoo case

1. Technical problems
2. Law applicable
3. Enforcement of the decision
4. Freedom of expression

III. Protecting Human Rights and guaranteeing the use of new technologies: new challenges
A. Law enforcement and cases

1. Legislation
2. Problems which need to be solved
3. How the Internet is used
4. Retention of vital communication traffic data by telecommunication operators and telecommunication access and service providers
5. Why must traffic data be preserved?
6. Why is real-time or expedited traffic data collection not enough?
i) Vital traffic data
ii) Retention period

B. The effects on the use of new information technologies on the victims - Protection of the victims

1. Different types of victims
2. The effects on the use of new information technologies on the victims
3. Different types of perpetrators
4. Protection of the victims

C. Prevention
D. The role of the Mass Media

1. The money matters
2. The news values
3. New Approaches

E. Freedom of expression and the Internet
Conclusions and recommendations
Appendices
Appendix 1 - Terms of reference of the EG-S-NT
Appendix 2 - List of the members of the group of specialists EG-S-NT
Appendix 3 - List of international instruments
Appendix 4 - State of signature and ratification of international instruments on action against trafficking
Appendix 5 - Licra and UEJF vs. Yahoo! Inc. And Yahoo France order of november 20, 2000 by the Superior Court of Paris
Appendix 6 - Catalogue of vital and significant traffic data
Appendix 7 - Schematic representation of the layered approach to determine data traffic to retain
Appendix 8 - Chapter V - Recommendation no. R(2000)11 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on action against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation

Table 1

Women recruited by marriage agencies from countries of the Former Soviet Union

 

Armenia

23

 

Azerbaijan

204

Belarus

12,683

Estonia

551

Georgia

7

Kazakhstan

3037

Kyrgyzstan

4190

Latvia

1760

Lithuania

626

Moldova

884

Russian Federation

62,605

Tajikistan

8

Turkmenistan

25

Ukraine

31,837

Uzbekistan

1,139

Unknown

70

   

Total

119,649

Armenia

23

 

Azerbaijan

204

Belarus

12,683

Estonia

551

Georgia

7

Kazakhstan

3037

Kyrgyzstan

4190

Latvia

1760

Lithuania

626

Moldova

884

Russian Federation

62,605

Tajikistan

8

Turkmenistan

25

Ukraine

31,837

Uzbekistan

1,139

Unknown

70

   

Total

119,649

Table 2
Women recruited by marriage agencies in the Russian Federation by Oblast

 

Adygea

18

 

Moscow

3642

 

Alania

4

 

Murmansk

43

 

Altai

73

 

Nizhniy

178

 

Amur

253

 

Novgorod

502

 

Arkhangelsk

25

 

Novosibirsk

655

 

Astrakhan’

429

 

Omsk

731

 

Bashkortostan

440

 

Orel Oblast

72

 

Belgorod

86

 

Orenburg

96

 

Birobijan

3

 

Penza

311

 

Bryansk

69

 

Mordovia

14

 

Buryatia

15

 

Perm

221

 

Chelyabinsk

474

 

Primorskiy

645

 

Chita

3

 

Pskov

55

 

Chukot

2

 

Rostov

1044

 

Chuvashia

154

 

Ryazan’

282

 

Dagestan

8

 

Sakhalin

178

 

Irkutsk

133

 

Samara

1510

 

Ivanovo

32

 

Saratov

2344

 

Kabardino-Balkaria

22

 

Smolensk

23

 

Kaliningrad

295

 

St. Petersburg

15694

 

Kalmykia

2

 

Stavropol

365

 

Kaluga

72

 

Sverdlovsk

2003

 

Kamchatka

27

 

Tambov

111

 

Karachay-Cherkessia

4

 

Tatarstan

2165

 

Karelia

49

 

Taymyr

31

 

Kemerovo

173

 

Tomsk

235

 

Khabarovsk

313

 

Tula

43

 

Khakassia

7

 

Tuva

1

 

Khanty-Mansi

41

 

Tver

1373

 

Kirov

26

 

Tyumen

159

 

Komi

203

 

Udmurtia

317

 

Komi-Permyak

1

 

Ul’yanovsk

280

 

Kostroma

10

 

Vladimir

58

 

Krasnodar

834

 

Volgograd

4897

 

Krasnoyarsk

175

 

Vologda

60

 

Kurgan

82

 

Voronezh

121

 

Kursk

27

 

Yakutia

21

 

Lipetsk

82

 

Yamalo-Nenets

2

 

Magadan

22

 

Yaroslavl

64

 

Mari-El

1869

 

Not Known

14967

       
     

Total

62605

 
   

Table 3

Women recruited by marriage agencies in Ukraine, by Oblast

Cherkas’ka

149

 

Mykolayiv

533

Chernivhivs’ka

35

 

Odessa

3225

Chernivitsi

268

 

Poltava

368

Dnipropetrovsk

2742

 

Respublika Krym

5515

Donetsk

1055

 

Rivnens’ka

2

Ivano-Frankivsk

10

 

Sums’ka

1994

Kharkivs’ka

1188

 

Ternopil’

12

Khersons’ka

1053

 

Vinnytsya

440

Khmelnyts’ka

28

 

Volyns’ka

24

Kiev

3401

 

Zakarpats’ka

46

Kirovohrads’ka

10

 

Zaporizhzhya

539

Luhans’ka

281

 

Zhytomyr

125

L’viv

41

 

Unknown

8753

     

Total

31837

 

Table 4

Women Recruited by Marriage Agencies in Belarus, by Oblast

Brest

202

 

Homyel’skaya

4905

Hrodzyenskaya

33

Mahilyowskaya

229

Minsk

4303

Vitsyebskaya

740

Unknown

2271

Total

12,683

 

Belgium

France

Hungary

Italy

Moldova

Netherlands

Russia

Sweden

Switzerland

Seizure and blocking of data (art. 39bis CPC).

Extra-territorial research on the web (art. 88ter CPC).

Access to encrypted data (art. 8 quarter CPC).

Obligation to maintain files of identification data of users of telecommunication services (art. 109ter of the law of March 21, 1991).

Access to encrypted data (art. 230-1 to 230-5 CPC).

Cryptology service providers are required to provide disencryption keys (art. 11-1 of law no 91-646, of July 10, 1991 concerning the secrecy of messages transmitted by way of telecommunication).

Penalties for refusal to co-operate in respect of disencryption (art. 434-15-2 PC).

No specific penal legislation concerning the Internet.

No specific penal legislation concerning the Internet, or concerning the liability of the various persons active on the net.

No specific penal legislation concerning the Internet.

Rendering data inaccessible (project of law: art. 125o CPC).

No specific penal legislation concerning the Internet.

The law of 2002 on electronic commerce offers broad exoneration to technical intermediaries from all liability (art. 19).

The supplier of electronic bulletin board services, however, has an obligation to monitor the content of messages posted and to eliminate illicit messages (1998 Act on Responsibility for Electronic Bulletin Boards).

No specific law addressing the liability of providers.

Obligation to maintain files of identification data of users of telecommunication services (law concerning the monitoring of telecommunicatios, in force since January 1, 2002).

Belgium

France

Hungary

Italy

Moldova

Netherlands

Russia

Sweden

Switzerland

No specific provisions, however related provisions exist elsewhere:

Law of April 13, 1995 which provides for criminal penalties for slavery and child pornography amending the following:

Prostitution of minors (art 379 PC)

Living on the earnings of the prostitution of another person (art. 380 PC)

Access to the territory, visits, residence and deportation of foreigners (art. 77bis, law of December 15, 1980)

No specific provisions, however related provisions exist elsewhere:

Traffic in persons for sexual purposes (art. 225-5 et seq. PC)

Traffic in persons other than for sexual purposes concerning labour (art. 225-13 PC)

The purchase or sale of a child in connection with an adoption (art. 227-12 PC)

Traffic of foreign persons (art. 20bis of the ordinance concerning foreigners of November 2, 1945)

The following specific provision exists:

Trafficking in human beings (section 175/B PC)

Related provisions:

Alteration of family status by sale or purchase (section 193 PC)

Constraint (section 174 PC)

Promotion of prostitution (section 205 PC)

Living on the earnings of the prostitution of another person (section 206 PC)

The following special provisions exist:

Traffic in women for the purposes of prostitution (art. 3 n° 6 law 1958/75)

Traffic in minors for the purposes of prostitution (art. 601, al. 2 PC)

Slavery and slave trade (art. 600 to 602 PC)

Smuggling of persons into the State for the purposes of prostitution (art. 12 legislative decree 1998/286)

The following special provisions exist:

Slavery and traffic in slaves (art. 164 PC)

Pandering and sale of persons (art. 232 PC)

The sale, purchase or traffic of children for any purpose (art. 215 PC)

Taking children out of the country illegally (art. 216 PC)

The following special provisions exist:

Traffic of human beings (art. 197a PC)

Slavery and slave trade (art. 274-278 PC)

Traffic in persons for sexual purposes (art. 250a PC)

The following special provisions exist:

Trade in minors (art. 152 PC)

Substitution of a child (art. 153 PC) illegal adoption (art.154 PC)

The following special provisions exist:

New provisions specifically prohibiting the traffic in persons (in particular women and children) for the purposes of sexual exploitation (art. 1a chapter 4 of the PC, introduced on May 29, 2002)

The following special provision exists:

Traffic in persons for sexual purposes (art. 196 PC)

Belgium

France

Hungary

Italy

Moldova

Netherlands

Russia

Sweden

Switzerland

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following articles exist in the PC:

Prostitution of minors (art. 379)

Simple and aggravated living on the earnings of the prostitution of another person (art. 380)

Soliciting (art. 380bis)

Advertising to facilitate the prostitution of a minor (art. 380ter §1)

Living, by an association, on the earnings of the prostitution of another person (art. 381)

Additional penalties for the commission of a crime against a minor (art. 382bis )

Protection of witnesses (art. 706-57 to 706-63 CPC)

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following articles exist in the PC:

Art. 225-5 to 225-12 PC (most recent amendment to the law of March 4, 2002 inserting, after articles 225-12 et seq. PC a new section entitled obtaining sexual services from a minor by payment of value)

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following articles exist in the PC:

Promotion of prostitution (section 205)

Living on the earnings of the prostitution of another person (section 206) pandering (section 207)

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following articles exist in the PC:

Law on the exploitation of prostitution n° 1958/75 (art. 3 and 4)

Prostitution of minors (art. 600-bis PC)

Tourism connected with the prostit-
ution of minors (art. 600-quinquies PC)

There is criminal liability for:

Prostitution (art. 231 PC)

Pandering and sale of persons (art. 232 PC)

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following article exists in the PC:

Article 250a PC: ‘forced’ prostitution (section 1)

Soliciting prostit-
ution (section 2)

Living on the earnings of the prostitution of another person (sections 4 & 6)

Prostitution of minors (section 5)

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following articles exist in the PC:

Involvement in forced prostitution (art. 240)

Organization or maintenance of dens for engaging in prostitution (art. 241)

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following articles exist in the PC:

Living on the earnings of the prostitution of another person (art. 8 and 9, ch. 6)

Purchase of sexual services (law 1998:403)

Although prostitution is not per se illegal, the following article exists in the PC:

Exploitation of sexual activity / incitement to prostitution (art. 195 PC)

Belgium

France

Hungary

Italy

Moldova

Netherlands

Russia

Sweden

Switzerland

Pornography (art. 383 PC)

Representation of minors (art. 383bis PC)

Public outrage (art. 384 PC)

16 year-old minor as spectator (art. 385 PC)

Minor as spectator in a public place (art. 387 PC)

Dissemination of images contrary to public decency, art. R 624-2 PC

Child pornography endangering minors:

Minor an active participant (art. 227-23 PC)

Minor a mere spectator (art. 227-24 PC)

Obscenity (section 209 PC)

Display of sexu-
ality of minors in a gravely indecent manner or expos-
ure specifically for the purpose of arousing sexual demeanour (sect-
ion 195/A PC)

Obscene publications and theatrical productions (art. 528 PC)

Pornography concerning minors (art. 600-ter et 600-quarter PC)

The manufacture or sale of pornographic materials (art. 234 PC)

Pornography (art. 240 PC)

Under 16year old minor is a spectator (art. 240a PC)

Child pornography (art. 240b PC)

Virtual child porn-
ography (bill appr-
oved by the Dutch Parliament on July 9, 2002)

Illegal distribution of pornographic materials or objects (act or display of sexuality in a gravely indecent manner or exposure specifically for the purpose of arousing sexual conduct, art. 242 PC)

Manufacture and dissemination of child pornography and the repres-
entation of sexual acts committed with violence or by force (art. 10a-b, ch. 16, PC)

Possession, manufacture and dissemination of images and objects relating to hard core pornography (i.e. pornography involving children, animals, excrement or violence) (art. 197 PC)

Belgium

France

Hungary

Italy

Moldova

Netherlands

Russia

Sweden

Switzerland

Law of March 9, 1993 providing for regulat-
ion and supervision of the activities of matrimonial agencies and marriage brokers.

Article 10ter of the preliminary title of the CPC (extrater-
ritoriality clause)

Law 89-421 of June 23, 1989, art. 6 and 9 (marriage brokers)

Decree 90-422 of May 16, 1990

Unregulated area

No specific legis-
lation. Obligation to obtain a license.

Unregulated area

No specific criminal provision.

Hoge Raad’s Judgment (Dutch cassation court) of April 7, 1998: service of arranging fake marriages falls under the scope of article 197a PC (trafficking of human beings)

Unregulated area

Unregulated area

No criminal provisions.

Art. 406a-h of the Code of Obligat-
ions, which contains provisions concern-
ing both govern-
ment authorization and supervision of the agency which offers the conclus-
ion of a marriage where a foreigner is involved.

Belgium

France

Hungary

Italy

Moldova

Netherlands

Russia

Sweden

Switzerland

Law of January 11, 1993 concerning the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering

Simple and aggravated money laundering (art 324-1 et seq PC)

Obligations relating to the fight against money laundering (art. L 51-1 of the Monetary and Financial Code)

Criminal liability for financial operations with money illegally obtained (section 303 PC)

Criminal liability for money laundering (art. 648-bis and 648-ter PC)

Criminal liability for performing financial operations with illegally obtained money or other goods, as well as for using these resources for performing legal economic activity or other economic activity (art. 266 PC)

Criminal liability for money laundering (art 420 bis, ter, quarter PC)

Criminal liability for:

Illegal banking activity (art. 172 PC)

Legalization of money (money-laundering) or of any other assets acquired illegally (art 174 PC)

1993 Act concerning measures against money laundering

Art. 305bis PC (money laundering) applicable to crimes punishable by imprisonment of at least one year.

COUNTRY

SIGNED

RATIFIED

Albania

 

11 May 1994

Andorra

 

15 January 1997

Armenia

 

13 September 1993

Austria

17 July 1980

31 March 1982

Azerbaijan

 

10 July 1995

Belgium

17 July 1980

10 July 1985

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

01 September 1993

Bulgaria

17 July 1980

08 February 1982

Croatia

 

09 September 1992

Cyprus

 

23 July 1985

Czech Republic

 

22 February 1993

Denmark

17 July 1980

21 April 1983

Estonia

 

21 October 1991

Finland

17 July 1980

04 September 1986

France

17 July 1980

14 December 1983

Georgia

 

26 October 1994

Germany

17 July 1980

10 July 1985

Greece

02 March 1982

07 June 1983

Hungary

06 June 1980

22 December 1980

Iceland

24 July 1980

18June 1985

Ireland

 

23 December 1985

Italy

17 July 1980

10 June 1985

Latvia

 

14 April 1992

Liechtenstein

 

22 December 1995

Lithuania

 

18 January 1994

Luxemburg

17 July 1980

02 February 1989

Malta

 

08 March 1991

Moldova

 

01 July 1994

Netherlands

17 July 1980

23 July 1991

Norway

17 July 1980

21 May 1981

Poland

29 May 1980

30 July 1980

Portugal

24 April 1980

30 July 1980

Romania

04 September 1980

07 January 1982

Russian Federation

17 July 1980

23 January 1981

San Marino

   

Serbia and Montenegro

 

12 March 2001

Slovakia

 

28 May 1993

Slovenia

 

06 July 1992

Spain

17 July 1980

05 January 1984

Sweden

07 March 1980

02 July 1980

Switzerland

23 January 1987

27 March 1997

The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

 

18 January 1994

Turkey

 

20 December 1985

Ukraine

17 July 1980

12 March 1981

United Kingdom

22 July 1981

07 April 1986

COUNTRY

SIGNED

RATIFIED

Albania

14 December 2000

21 August 2002

Andorra

11 November 2001

 

Armenia

15 November 2001

01 July 2003

Austria

12 December 2000

 

Azerbaijan

12 December 2000

 

Belgium

12 December 2000

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

12 December 2000

24 April 2002

Bulgaria

13 December 2000

05 December 2001

Croatia

12 December 2000

24 January 2003

Cyprus

12 December 2000

22 April 2003

Czech Republic

12 December 2000

 

Denmark

12 December 2000

 

Estonia

14 December 2000

10 February 2003

Finland

12 December 2000

 

France

12 December 2000

29 October 2002

Georgia

13 December 2000

 

Germany

12 December 2000

 

Greece

13 December 2000

 

Hungary

14 December 2000

 

Iceland

13 December 2000

 

Ireland

13 December 2000

 

Italy

12 December 2000

 

Latvia

13 December 2000

07 December 2001

Liechtenstein

12 December 2000

 

Lithuania

13 December 2000

09 May 2002

Luxemburg

13 December 2000

 

Malta

14 December 2000

 

Moldova

14 December 2000

 

Netherlands

12 December 2000

 

Norway

13 December 2000

 

Poland

12 December 2000

12 November 2001

Portugal

12 December 2000

 

Romania

14 December 2000

04 December 2002

Russian Federation

12 December 2000

 

San Marino

14 December 2000

 

Serbia and Montenegro

12 December 2000

06 September 2001

Slovakia

14 December 2000

 

Slovenia

12 December 2000

 

Spain

13 December 2000

01 March 2002

Sweden

12 December 2000

 

Switzerland

12 December 2000

 

The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

12 December 2000

 

Turkey

13 December 2000

25 March 2003

Ukraine

12 December 2000

 

United Kingdom

14 December 2000

 

COUNTRY

SIGNED

RATIFIED

Albania

12 December 2000

21 August 2002

Andorra

12 December 2000

 

Armenia

15 November 2001

01 July 2003

Austria

12 December 2000

 

Azerbaijan

12 December 2000

 

Belgium

12 December 2000

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

12 December 2000

24 April 2002

Bulgaria

13 December 2000

05 December 2001

Croatia

12 December 2000

24 January 2003

Cyprus

12 December 2000

06 August 2003

Czech Republic

10 December 2002

 

Denmark

12 December 2000

 

Estonia

20 September 2000

 

Finland

12 December 2000

 

France

12 December 2000

29 October 2002

Georgia

13 December 2000

 

Germany

12 December 2000

 

Greece

13 December 2000

 

Hungary

14 December 2000

 

Iceland

13 December 2000

 

Ireland

13 December 2000

 

Italy

12 December 2000

 

Latvia

10 December 2002

 

Liechtenstein

14 March 2000

 

Lithuania

25 April 2002

23 June 2003

Luxemburg

13 December 2000

 

Malta

14 December 2000

 

Moldova

14 December 2000

 

Netherlands

12 December 2000

 

Norway

13 December 2000

 

Poland

04 October 2001

 

Portugal

12 December 2000

 

Romania

14 December 2000

4 December 2002

Russian Federation

12 December 2000

 

San Marino

14 December 2000

 

Slovakia

15 November 2001

 

Slovenia

15 November 2001

 

Spain

13 December 2000

01 March 2002

Sweden

12 December 2000

 

Switzerland

02 April 2002

 

The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

12 December 2000

 

Turkey

13 December 2000

25 March 2003

Ukraine

15 November 2001

 

United Kingdom

14 December 2000

 

COUNTRY

SIGNED

RATIFIED

Albania

 

02 August 2001

Andorra

   

Armenia

   

Austria

 

04 December 2001

Azerbaijan

   

Belgium

 

08 May 2002

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

05 October 2001

Bulgaria

 

28 July 2000

Croatia

 

17 July 2001

Cyprus

 

27 November 2000

Czech Republic

 

19 June 2001

Denmark

 

14 August 2000

Estonia

 

24 September 2001

Finland

 

17 January 2000

France

 

11 September 2001

Georgia

 

24 July 2002

Germany

 

18 April 2002

Greece

 

06 November 2001

Hungary

 

20 April 2000

Iceland

 

29 May 2000

Ireland

 

20 December 1999

Italy

 

07 June 2000

Latvia

   

Liechtenstein

   

Lithuania

   

Luxemburg

 

21 March 2001

Malta

 

15 June 2001

Moldova

 

14 June 2002

Netherlands

 

14 February 2002

Norway

 

21 December 2001

Poland

 

09 August 2002

Portugal

 

15 June 2000

Romania

 

13 December 2000

Russian Federation

   

San Marino

 

15 March 2000

Serbia and Montenegro

   

Slovakia

 

20 December 1999

Slovenia

 

08 May 2001

Spain

 

02 April 2001

Sweden

 

13 June 2001

Switzerland

 

28 June 2000

The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

 

30 May 2002

Turkey

 

02 August 2001

Ukraine

 

14 December 2000

United Kingdom

 

22 March 2000

COUNTRY

SIGNED

RATIFIED

Albania

23 November 2001

20 June 2002

Andorra

   

Armenia

23 November 2001

 

Austria

23 November 2001

 

Azerbaijan

   

Belgium

23 November 2001

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

   

Bulgaria

23 November 2001

 

Croatia

23 November 2001

17 October 2002

Cyprus

23 November 2001

 

Czech Republic

23 November 2001

 

Denmark

   

Estonia

23 November 2001

12 May 2003

Finland

23 November 2001

 

France

23 November 2001

 

Georgia

   

Germany

23 November 2001

 

Greece

23 November 2001

 

Hungary

23 November 2001

 

Iceland

30November 2001

 

Ireland

28 February 2002

 

Italy

23 November 2001

 

Latvia

   

Liechtenstein

   

Lithuania

   

Luxemburg

   

Malta

17 January 2002

 

Moldova

23 November 2001

 

Netherlands

23 November 2001

 

Norway

23 November 2001

 

Poland

23 November 2001

 

Portugal

23 November 2001

 

Romania

23 November 2001

 

Russian Federation

   

San Marino

   

Serbia and Montenegro

   

Slovakia

   

Slovenia

24 July 2002

 

Spain

23 November 2001

 

Sweden

23 November 2001

 

Switzerland

23 November 2001

 

The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

23 November 2001

 

Turkey

   

Ukraine

23 November 2001

 

United Kingdom

23 November 2001

 

numbers supplied by the AFA, cross-referenced with their personal experience, justify these experts in thinking that 70% of the IP addresses of French citizens or residents on French territory which may be correctly identified by specialized service providers such as info-Split, GeoNet or others, using specialized data bases.  

Carries out a posting of advertising banners targeting internauts which the company thinks are French and that it has available the technical means enabling it to identify them.

30% of the IP addresses attributed to French people may not be correctly identified using the above mentioned techniques.  

sites, most often relating to national defense (cryptography); do not authorize access to certain pages of the site or to downloading of software until a declaration of nationality has been obtained from the internaut.

are in general use and make it possible for certain information to be reseized by the internaut each time it consults a site. Anyone trying to destroy a cookie or to prevent its registering knows perfectly well that his consultations will be longer on the sites which transmitted them.  

nazi objects are generally described as such by the sellers using the word “nazi”, in the description of the object which appears as a sales argument.  


1 Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom.

2 J. Carbonnier, Sociologie juridique, PUF, 1978, p 401

3 D Hughes “The impact of the use of new communications and information technologies on trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in human beings for sexual exploitation.”

4 The terms of reference are set out in full in Appendix 1

5 See the list of experts in Appendix 2

6


7 These documents can be consulted at the Council of Europe, Division of Equality between women and men

8 the group widened its study to include all the new media offering Internet-television-mobile-phone links.

9 The following means were listed:

10 Interview, Raymond Smith, Fraud, Child exploitation and asset forfeiture group, Office of Criminal Investigations, US Postal Inspection Service, 7 May 2001

11 Interview, Smith, 7 May 2001

12 James F McLaughlin, “Cyber Child Sex Offender Typology”, 2001

13 Max Taylor, Ethel Quayle and Gemma Holland, “Child Pornography, the Internet and Offending”, 2000

14 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

15 McLaughlin, 2001

16 Karen Kaplan, “Pushing porn on DBVDs”, Los Angeles Times, 9 January 2001

17 Interview, Glenn Nick, US Customs Cyber Smuggling Centre, 17 May 2001

18 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

19 Interview, Jeff Middleton, Computer Focus, USA, 17 May 2001

20 “Gnutella-Welcome to Gnutella”, site accessed 1 May 2001

21 Ron Harris “Gnutella gives copyright holders headaches” Associated Press, 10 April 2000

22 Berst, 24 April 2000

23 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

24 “Konzeption zu der Herstellung von und des Handels mit Kinderpornografie"

25 See document EG-S-NT (2001)8

26 such as, for example, the number of complaints registered by the local police related to article 197 of the Penal Code (hard pornography)

27 Denmark Police, report on the “Fact finding mission” conducted in November 2000 by the National Commissioner of Police for the Baltic countries regarding trafficking in women, 2000

28 Interview, Lisbet Jörgensen, Denmark Police, 2 May 2001

29 Denmark Police, 2000

30 Commerce Net, “Chat room use in North America”, 30 August 2000

31 Internet Crime Forum, March 2001

32 Internet Crime Forum, March 2001

33 Internet Crime Forum, March 2001

34 Personal Communication, Balding, May 2001

35 Richard Barry, Chatroom danger – the making of the Tina Bell diaries, 15 March 2001

36 Barry, 15 March 2001

37 Barry, 15 March 2001

38 Barry, 15 March 2001

39 Interview, April Hindin, Postal Inspector, Tampa, Florida, 15 May 2001

40 Jill King Greenwood “Missing girl case points to Greece, 2 suspects charged”, Tampa Tribune, 27 January 2001, p. 12

41 “Missing teen found, says she doesn’t want to go home”, Athens News, 2 February 2001

42 “German man charged with luring Florida girl overseas”, Associated Press, 3 February 2001

43 “German man arrested”, 3 February 2001

44 “German suspected of links with pornography rings” Athens News, 6 February 2001

45 “Missing teen found, says she doesn’t want to go home”, Athens News, 2 February 2001

46 Eileen Gongora, “Pedophiles prey on children via Internet”, Star Banner, 17 May 2001

47 Toni Heinzl “Web site had “child porn” link, detective testifies “Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 29 November 2000

48 Interview, Marshal Heeger, US Assistant Customs Attaché, Moscow, Russia, 3 November 2000

49 Terry Frieden, “Russia, US arrest suspects in global child porn ring” CNN, 26 March 2001

50 Personal communication, Pumpurs, May 2001

51 “Immigration raid closes Internet porn site”, Associated Press, 15 January 2000

52 Interview, Omer Poirier, US Attorney, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1 May 2001

53 Interview, Chaparro, 1 May 2001

54 Interview, Omer Poirier, US Attorney, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1 May 2001

55 Interview, Jeff Middleton, Computer Focus, USA, 17 May 2001

56 Liz Kelly and Dianne Butterworth, “Women’s perspectives – pornography and the Internet”, Policing the Internet – Combating pornography and violence on the Internet – a European approach, conference, London, UK, 13-14 February 1999

57 “Questioning porn”, Los Angeles Times, 19 May 2001

58 Sara Gaines “Police are getting organised to catch crooks who thought the net offered a perfect forum”, The Guardian, 26 April 2001

59 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

60 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

61 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

62 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

63 Max Taylor “The nature and dimensions of child pornography on the Internet”, Combating child pornography on the Internet, Vienna, 29 September-1 October 1999, http://www.stop-childpornog.at

64 Press Release “Breakthrough cited in war against child porn”, 16 February 2001

65 Interview, Paul McCarthy, Assistant Attorney General, Attorney General’s Criminal Prosecutions Bureau, 21 May 2001

66 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

67 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

68 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

69 Taylor, Quayle and Holland, 2000

70 McLaughlin, 2001

71 McLaughlin, 2001

72 James M McLaughlin, “Technophilia: a modern day paraphilia” Knight stick: publication of the New Hampshire Police Association, Spring/Summer 1998, Vol 51, 47-51

73

74

75


76 Interview, Bruce Taylor, Director, National Law Centre for families and children, 16 May 2001

77 McLaughlin, 2001

78 “Epicentre of child porn – Eastern Europe and Russia”, site accessed 25 February 2001

79 James Geary “Sex, Lies and Budapest – as producers of sex films flock there, Hungary’s capital is becoming Europe’s porn capital as well”, Time, 24 March 1997, Vol 149, n° 12

80 See Chapter II of the report “existing legislation in the different Member States and the relevant international instruments”

81 F Rich, 20 May 2001

82 “Questioning porn”, 19 May 2001

83 Frank Rich “Naked capitalists – there’s no business like porn business”, New York Times, 20 May 2001

84 Datamonitor, UK

85 Rich, 20 May 2001

86 Rich, 20 May 2001

87 Rich, 20 May 2001

88 Natasha Singer “Blue Danube – The story of Budapest’s booming export: the skin flick”, site accessed 25 February 2001

89 “To its buyers and sellers, the sex trade is just another busine$$”, site accessed 25 February 2001

90 Geary, March 1997

91 Singer, February 2001

92 Updated Company Press Release, 10 May 2000

93 Singer, 25 February 2001

94 Singer, 25 February 2001

95 “To its buyers and sellers, the sex trade is just another busine$$, site accessed 25 February 2001

96 Fedor Lukyanov “Alive goods” is flow from the East, Rosiyskaya Gazeta (Budapest), 27 May 2000

97 Lukyanov, 27 May 2000

98 Max Taylor, Gemma Holland and Ethel Quayle, 2000 “Typology of paedophile picture collections”, COPINE project, Child Studies Unit, Department of Applied Psychology, University of Cork, Ireland

99 James F McLaughlin, 1998

100 “Workplace productivity”, 23 April 2001

101 Flores, 23 May 2000


102 Interview, St. Petersburg Psychological Crisis Center, 18 August 2001.

103 Interview, St. Petersburg Psychological Crisis Center, 18 August 2001.

104 This report is also mentioned in Ms Hughes’s study on the users

105 Interview, Lisbet Jörgensen, Denmark Police, 2 May 2001.

106 Jorgen Johannson, “Down at the love-trade hotel,” The Baltic Times, 10-16 May 2001.

107 Interview, Larisa Vasileyeva, 21st Century Women, Chelyabinsk, Russia, 15 August 2001.

108 Tibor Pszleg, National Police Headquarters, Internet Monitoring Service, Hungary, Spring 2001.

109 Interview, St. Petersburg Psychological Crisis Center for Women, 18 August 2001

110 Nada Kozhouharova, Animus Association, Bulgaria, Spring 2001

111 Reden, International Abolitionist Federation, Denmark, Spring 2001.

112 Interview, St. Petersburg Psychological Crisis Center for Women, 18 August 2001.

113 Ken Franzblau of Equality Now.

114 See report p.55

115 See document EG-S-NT (2002) 2 Comparative study on legislation on the use of Internet for the purpose of sexual exploitation.- Swiss Institute of Comparative Law, Lausanne


116 source : INHOPE, Association of Internet Hotlines Providers in Europe

117 Recommendation (2000) 11 on action against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation ; Recommendation (2001) 16 on the protection of children against sexual exploitation

118 A problem recognized by many, including certain politicians, themselves. The following example is from Belgium: Lors de la discussion du problème de l’audition des mineurs devant la commission de la Justice du Sénat, le ministre a en revanche regretté "que l’on règle à la hâte" ce problème. Ceci pour indiquer que la loi [N.d.l.r. la loi de 1995 relative aux abus sexuels commis sur des mineurs] a été votée dans la précipitation et présente manifestement des incohérences, des erreurs, voire de difficultés sérieuses d’application. Citations omitted.

119 Article 9 - offences related to child pornography

120 COUNCIL FRAMEWORK DECISION of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings (2002/629/JHA)

121


122 The European Convention on Cybercrime has been opened to signature on 23 November 2001 and its Protocol adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 7 November 2002.

123 See document EG-S-NT (2001) 8

124 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom

125 See document EG-S-NT (2001) 10

126 This case was also described by Ms Hughes in her study on the users.

127 This case is described by Mr Walraet in the chapter "Law enforcement and cases" of this report.

128 See document EG-S-NT (2001) 7

129 See document EG-S-NT (2001) 9

130 Information elements on the signal/data transmission needed to realise or to control the telecommunication; does not include the contents of the communication

131 Internet Access Providers are companies that provide access to the Internet, generally through dial-up access (modems), cable modems or wireless connections.

132 The device (computer, telephone, …) used by the final user (the client)

133 In most applications (mail-, newsgroup-, chat programs etc.), the user can put a false or non-existing E-mail address during the configuration of the application; when an E-mail, news message, … is sent, the false or non-existing E-mail address will then appear as the address of the sender, which makes it unusable for his identification

134 Companies that offer free web space or free E-mail addresses

135 Free web space (a number of megabytes) can be obtained on the Internet, in which it is possible to put information, images, video files etc. that can be accessed by anyone who has an Internet connection

136 An Internet channel (virtual room) through which people can communicate in real time using a computer; some chat programs also offer the possibility to exchange data (text files, images etc.) and/or to have a private chat session between 2 (or more) persons (if they are admitted)

137 Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session. In recent usage, peer-to-peer software is used to permit people to exchange files with each other directly or through a mediating server, using the Internet. The user must first download and execute a peer-to-peer networking program (e.g. Kazaa, Bearshare, Morpheus) that allows him to exchange all types of files. After launching the program, the user can connect to another computer connected to the network. Normally, the web page where the user got the download of his program will list several IP addresses (see 16) as places to begin.

138 Forums, or on-line discussion groups. On the Internet, there are thousands of newsgroups covering every conceivable interest (also child pornography, prostitution, drugs etc !!!). To view and post messages to a newsgroup, you need a “news client program” (e.g. Microsoft Outlook Express, Netscape Navigator), a program that runs on your computer and connects you to a news server on the Internet, where the messages can be read and posted

139 Private companies don’t have access to (government) databases that contain the identities and addresses of people; because the web space or other services are free, there is no payment data neither

140 A privacy service (web site) that is set up to allow users to post their E-mail or news message without leaving any trace; the anonymous remailer strips off all data in the header of the message that could lead to the identification of the sender. The remote server (where the mail or news message is sent to) receives information about the anonymizer server, in place of information about the expeditor’s computer. The information in the header is in most cases replaced by a code that allows the anonymous remailer to forward possible replies to the expeditor of the original message

141 Information and Communication Technology

142 On a network, the MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's unique hardware number. When you're connected to the Internet from your computer, a correspondence table relates your IP address (see 16) to your computer's physical (MAC) address on the network.

143 International Mobile Subscriber Identifier, a 15-digit number used within mobile phones that allows service operators to identify mobile terminals, for purposes of international roaming

144 Mobile Station ISDN Number, a dialable number, a 10-digit NANP (North American Numbering Plan) directory number assigned to address a wireless service subscriber

145 A 32-bit number (in the Internet Protocol Version 4 definition – 128-bit in version 6) that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent across the Internet. When connecting to the Internet, your computer is assigned a unique IP-address out of a list of addresses that belong to your provider. The IP-address, in the case of a dynamic IP, is assigned to your computer for the duration of your active connection to the Internet. When your connection is ended, the IP-address can be assigned to another user’s computer. In the case of a fixed IP, your computer has the same address during every one of your connections to the Internet.

146 Breaking into a system, with the purpose of stealing, deleting or altering information, taking over or using the system etc.

147 e.g. a hacker can break into a system in one country, from that system break into another system in a second country and so on, to finally arrive in the victim’s system. When trying to identify the hacker, the trace must be followed in reversed order. Only when the results have been obtained from the authorities of the last country in the chain, information can be requested from the authorities of the following country and so on

148 see Appendices nos 6 and 7 : scheme of the conceptual approach to determine the traffic data to retain, catalogue of traffic data (version 27/11/2001). Sources: “Expert statement of the Interpol European Working Party on Information Technology Crime”

149 Monika Gerstendörfer, psychologist, Lobby für Menschenrechte (lobby for human rights, NGO) Metzingen, Germany

150 Reden, International Abolitionist Federation, Denmark, Spring 2001.

151 See the study of ms Hughes on the users

152 See report, p 37

153 see document EG-S-NT (2001) 7

154

155

156

157

158

159


160 See report, p 84

161 see document EGS-NT (2000) 10 : Denmark, Russia, Finland, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Romania and the United Kingdom describe their national experiences

162 Summary and analysis, Last update : 24 April 2002, Group of Specialists on on-line services and democracy (MM-S-OD) Summary of the replies to the questionnaire on self-regulation and user protection against illegal or harmful content on the new communications and information services

163 Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom and Hungary in connection with a representative organisation; Spain again, Norway and Germany in connection with a regulatory body

164 Recommendation Rec(2001)8 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on self-regulation concerning cyber content (self-regulation and user protection against illegal or harmful content on new communications and information services) – Chapter 2 – Article 6: Member States should encourage the definition of a set of content descriptors, on the widest possible geographical scale and in co-operation with the organisations referred to in Chapter I, which should provide for neutral labelling of content, thus enabling users to make their own judgment concerning such content.

165 Dr Sigrun Stefansdottir, Informationschef, NMR/NR

166 held in Strasbourg, 28-29 September 1998, see document CDEG/CDMM (98) 10

167 see document EG-S-NT (2001) 9

168 See doc CDEG/CDMM (1998) 10

169 see doc CDEG/CDMM (1998) 10

170 LAITILA, Tiina; The Journalistic Codes of Ethics in Europe; Dept of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Tampere, 1995.

171 Council of Europe, Select Committee of Experts on sexual exploitation, pornography and prostitution of, and trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in, children and young adults.

172 SIGNORIELLI Nancy; Magazine Coverage; in Abuse, an Agenda for Action, Gerbner et al.

173 Loni Bramson, PhD, MAPP, February 2001 “Regulating the Internet and violence against women”

174 see report, p 51

175 see report, p 71

176 see report, p 73

177 Information elements on the signal/data transmission needed to realise or to control the telecommunication; does not include the contents of the communication

178

179

180


181 The use of new information technologies in the field of trafficking creates several kinds of victims. Internet is used by traffickers to "recruit" potential victims, but the following should also be mentioned: women/children who are directly abused through the production of videos; persons who have survived porn productions and become traumatised because of the new possibilities of Internet Relay Chat (IRC), the World Wide Web (WWW) and other tools (it becomes unbearable for them to imagine that their private documentation can be seen by millions of people all over the world); relatives of the victims who see these pictures while using Internet or WWW, etc.

182 Updated in February 2003