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FEDERAL LAW
On Citizenship of the Russian Federation

Adopted by the State Duma on 19 April 2002
Approved by the Council of the Federation on 15 May 2002

CHAPTER I. GENERAL

Article 1. Subject of this Federal Law
This Federal Law shall contain the principles of the citizenship of the Russian Federation and rules governing the relations arising therefrom, and establish the grounds, conditions and procedure for the acquisition and termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
Article 2. Citizenship Legislation of the Russian Federation
Matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be regulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian Federation, this Federal Law, as well as normative legal acts of the Russian Federation adopted in compliance therewith.
Article 3. Basic Concepts
For the purposes of this Federal Law the following basic concepts shall be used:

      - citizenship of the Russian Federation - a person's stable legal link with the Russian Federation, as expressed in a set of their mutual rights and responsibilities;
      - another citizenship – the nationality of a foreign State;
      - dual citizenship - possession of the nationality of a foreign State by a citizen of the Russian Federation;
      - foreign national — a non-citizen of the Russian Federation possessing the nationality of a foreign State;
      - stateless person - a non-citizen of the Russian Federation who has no proof of possessing the nationality of a foreign State;
      - child - a person under the age of 18;
      - residence — a person's lawful residence within or outside the territory of the Russian Federation;
      - territory of the Russian Federation - the territory of the Russian Federation within the State border of the Russian Federation or the territory of the RSFSR within the administrative border of the RSFSR on the day of the emergence of circumstances relevant to the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation under this Federal Law;
      - general procedure for the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation - the procedure for considering citizenship matters and decision-making on matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation by the President of the Russian Federation in respect of persons covered by the general terms provided by this Federal Law;
      - simplified procedure for the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation - the procedure for considering citizenship matters and decision-making on matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation in respect of persons entitled to facilitated terms provided for by this Federal Law;

    - change of citizenship - acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation;

      - residence permit – a document certifying the identity of a stateless person, issued to the stateless person to certify permission for permanent residence in the territory of the Russian Federation and certifying his/her right to freely exit and return to the Russian Federation.

Article 4. Principles and Rules Governing Matters Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. The principles and rules governing matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall not include provisions which restrict citizens' rights on the grounds of social or national origin, race, language or religion.
2. The citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be single and equal, irrespective of the grounds for its acquisition.
3. A Russian Federation citizen's residence outside the Russian Federation shall not terminate his/her citizenship of the Russian Federation.
4. No citizen of the Russian Federation shall be deprived of the citizenship of the Russian Federation or the right to change it.
5. No citizen of the Russian Federation shall be expelled from the Russian Federation or extradited to a foreign State.
6. The Russian Federation shall encourage the acquisition of the citizenship of the Russian Federation by stateless persons resident in the territory of the Russian Federation.
7. Possession by a person of the citizenship of the Russian Federation or the fact of previous possession of USSR citizenship shall be determined on the basis of legislative acts of the Russian Federation, RSFSR or USSR and international treaties of the Russian Federation, RSFSR or USSR effective on the day of the emergence of circumstances to which the possession of the respective citizenship by the person is attributed.
Article 5. Citizens of the Russian Federation
The following persons shall be citizens of the Russian Federation:

      a) persons possessing the citizenship of the Russian Federation on the day of entry into force of this Federal Law;
      b) persons who have acquired the citizenship of the Russian Federation in compliance with this Federal Law.

Article 6. Dual Citizenship
1. A citizen of the Russian Federation who also possesses another citizenship shall be regarded by the Russian Federation as a citizen of the Russian Federation only, except for the cases specified in an international treaty of the Russian Federation or federal law.
2. The acquisition of another citizenship by a citizen of the Russian Federation shall not entail termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
Article 7. Protection of and Assistance to Citizens of the Russian Federation Outside the Russian Federation
1. Citizens of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation shall be extended protection and assistance by the Russian Federation.
2. State authorities of the Russian Federation, diplomatic missions and consular authorities of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation and their respective officials shall have the duty to make every effort to ensure that citizens of the Russian Federation be given the opportunity to fully exercise all the rights established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, by the generally accepted principles and rules of international law, by international treaties of the Russian Federation and by the laws and regulations of their host State, and the opportunity to protect their rights and legitimate interests.
Article 8. Citizenship of the Russian Federation and Marriage
1. Contraction or dissolution of marriage by a citizen of the Russian Federation with a non-citizen of the Russian Federation shall not entail the change of the said persons’ citizenship.
2. Change of citizenship by either spouse shall not entail change of the citizenship of the other spouse.
3. Dissolution of marriage shall not entail change of the citizenship of the children born into that marriage or adopted by the spouses.
Article 9. Citizenship of Children
1. The citizenship of a child upon the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation by his/her either or both parent(s) shall remain unchanged or change in compliance with this Federal Law.
2. The acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation by a child between 14 and 18 years of age shall be subject to his/her consent.
3. A child's citizenship of the Russian Federation shall not be terminated if such termination will result in his/her statelessness.
4. A child’s citizenship shall not change with the change of the citizenship of his/her parents deprived of their parental rights. The change of a child’s citizenship shall not require the consent of his/her parents deprived of their parental rights.
Article 10. Documents Certifying the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
The documents certifying the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be the Passport of a Citizen of the Russian Federation or another basic document indicating the person's citizenship. The types of basic documents certifying the identity of citizens of the Russian Federation shall be established by federal law.

CHAPTER II. ACQUISITION OF THE CIIZENSHIP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Article 11. Grounds for the Acquisition of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
The citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be acquired:

    a) at birth;
    b) on admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
    c) on reinstatement in the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
    d) on other grounds provided for by this Federal Law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

Article 12. Acquisition of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation at Birth
1. A child shall acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation at birth if on the date of the child's birth:

    a) his both parents or single parent possess the citizenship of the Russian Federation (irrespective of the place of the child's birth);
    b) one of his/her parents possesses the citizenship of the Russian Federation and the other is stateless or declared missing or his/her whereabouts are unknown, irrespective of the place of the child's birth;
    c) one of his/her parents possesses the citizenship of the Russian Federation and the other is a foreign national, provided that the child was born in the territory of the Russian Federation or if the child would otherwise become stateless;
    d) his/her both parents residing in the territory of the Russian Federation are foreign nationals or stateless persons, provided that the child was born in the territory of the Russian Federation and the States whose nationals his/her parents are do not grant his/her their citizenship.

2. A child found in the territory of the Russian Federation whose parents are unknown shall become a citizen of the Russian Federation if his/her parents do not turn up within six months after the child was found.
Article 13. Admission to the Citizenship of the Russian Federation under the General Procedure
1. Foreign nationals and stateless persons aged 18 or older and possessing legal capacity may apply for admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the general procedure provided that they:

    a) have resided in the territory of the Russian Federation for five uninterrupted years since being granted a residence permit and until the date of applying for admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation, except for the cases provided for in part two of this Article. The period of residence shall be deemed uninterrupted if the person travelled outside the Russian Federation for not more than three months in one year;
    b) undertake to comply with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and laws of the Russian Federation;
    c) have a lawful source of existence;
    d) applied to competent authority of a foreign State for renunciation of current another citizenship. The renunciation of another citizenship shall not be required if it is provided for by an international treaty of the Russian Federation or this Federal Law, or if the renunciation of another citizenship is impossible for reasons beyond the person's control;
    e) know the Russian language; the procedure for assessing the knowledge of the Russian language shall be determined by the rules on the procedure for considering matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation.

2. The period of residence referred to in item a) of part one of this Article may be shortened in the presence of at least one of the following grounds:

      a) birth in the territory of the RSFSR and previous possession of USSR citizenship;
      b) being married to a citizen of the Russian Federation for at least three years;
      c) being unemployable and having a capable son or daughter who has reached the age of 18 and possesses the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
      d) high achievements in science, technology or culture or possession of a profession or qualification of interest to the Russian Federation;
      e) political asylum granted in the territory of the Russian Federation;
      f) recognition as refugee according to the procedure established by federal law.

3. A person who has done special services to the Russian Federation may be admitted to the citizenship of the Russian Federation without complying with the requirements provided by part one of this Article.
Article 14. Admission to the Citizenship of the Russian Federation under the Simplified Procedure
1. Foreign nationals and stateless persons aged 18 or older and possessing legal capacity may apply for admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure without meeting the requirements referred to in item a) of part one, of Article 13 of this Federal Law, provided that they:

    a) have at least one unemployable parent possessing the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
    b) possessed USSR citizenship, resided and still reside in States that formed part of the USSR, received no citizenship of those States and remain stateless persons as a result.

2. Admitted to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure, without meeting the requirements referred to in part one of Article 13 of this Federal Law, shall be the following children or incapable persons who are foreign nationals or stateless persons:

    a) a child whose either parent possesses the citizenship of the Russian Federation - upon application by such parent and subject to the consent of the other parent to the acquisition by the child of the citizenship of the Russian Federation. Such consent shall not be required if the child resides in the territory of the Russian Federation;
    b) a child whose single parent possesses the citizenship of the Russian Federation - upon application by such parent;
    c) a child or incapable person placed under guardianship or trusteeship - upon application by a guardian or trustee possessing the citizenship of the Russian Federation.

Article 15. Reinstatement in the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
Foreign nationals and stateless persons who previously possessed the citizenship of the Russian Federation may be reinstated in the citizenship of the Russian Federation in accordance with part one of Article 13 of this Federal Law, with their required period of residence in the territory of the Russian Federation being reduced to three years.
Article 16. Grounds for the Rejection of Applications for the Acquisition of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
Applications for admission to or reinstatement in the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be rejected if filed by persons who:

    a) advocate violent change of the foundations of the constitutional system or act otherwise to jeopardise the security of the Russian Federation;
    b) within five years prior to applying for admission to or reinstatement in the citizenship of the Russian Federation were expelled from the Russian Federation under federal law;
    c) used forged documents or knowingly provided false information;
    d) are serving in the armed forces, security service or law enforcement agencies of a foreign State, unless otherwise specified by an international treaty of the Russian Federation;
    e) are not cleared of conviction record for intentional crimes committed within or outside the territory of the Russian Federation, recognised as such under federal law;
    f) subject to penal prosecution by competent agencies of the Russian Federation or those of foreign States for crimes recognised as such under federal law (pending the pronouncement of a sentence or judgement on the case);
    g) have been convicted and are serving a sentence of deprivation of liberty for actions prosecuted under federal law (until the expiry of the term of punishment);
    h) possess no lawful source of existence on the date of applying for admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation or within five uninterrupted years of residence in the territory of the Russian Federation, unless a different term of residence in the territory of the Russian Federation is established by this Federal Law as a condition for applying for admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation..

Article 17. Choice of Citizenship upon the Alteration of the State Border of the Russian Federation
Upon the alteration of the State border of the Russian Federation under an international treaty of the Russian Federation, persons resident in the territory whose state affiliation has been altered shall have the right to choose citizenship (option) under the procedure and within the periods established by the respective international treaty of the Russian Federation.
CHAPTER III. TERMINATION OF THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Article 18. Grounds for the Termination of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
The citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be terminated:

    a) in consequence of the withdrawal from the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
    b) on other grounds provided for by this Federal Law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

Article 19. Withdrawal from the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. Withdrawal from the citizenship of the Russian Federation by a person resident in the territory of the Russian Federation shall be subject to such person's own free will and shall be effected under general procedure except for the cases specified in Article 20 of this Federal Law.
2. Withdrawal from the citizenship of the Russian Federation by a person resident in the territory of a foreign State shall be subject to such person's own free will and shall be effected under the simplified procedure except for the cases specified in Article 20 of this Federal Law.
3. The withdrawal from the citizenship of the Russian Federation of a child whose either parent possesses the citizenship of the Russian Federation and the other one is a foreign national or whose single parent is a foreign national shall be effected under the simplified procedure upon joint application by the parents or application by the single parent.
Article 20. Grounds for Denying Termination of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
Withdrawal from the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall not be permitted if the citizen of the Russian Federation:

    a) owes an outstanding obligation to the Russian Federation established by federal laws;
    b) is under indictment in a criminal case in the Russian Federation or under a sentence of conviction which has taken effect and is pending execution;
    c) possesses no other citizenship or guarantee for the acquisition thereof.
    Article 21. Choice of Another Citizenship (Option) in Case of the Alteration of the State Border of the Russian Federation

In the case of territorial changes resulting from the alteration of the State border of the Russian Federation under an international treaty of the Russian Federation, citizens of the Russian Federation residing in the territory subject to the said changes shall be entitled to retain or change their citizenship under the terms of that international treaty.

CHAPTER IV. REVERSAL OF DECISIONS CONCERNING THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Article 22. Grounds for the Reversal of Decisions Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
A decision on the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be reversed should it be established that the said decision was based on forged documents presented or false information knowingly provided by the applicant. The fact of the use of forged documents or deliberate provision of false information shall be established in judicial proceedings.
Article 23. Procedure for and Consequences of the Reversal of Decisions Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. A decision concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be reversed by the President of the Russian Federation or another authorised agency dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation, which has taken the decision.
2. A decision concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation, if reversed in compliance with Article 21 of this Federal Law, shall be deemed invalid from the date when the decision was taken.

CHAPTER V. CITIZENSHIP OF CHILDREN UPON THE CHANGE OF THE CITIZENSHIP OF PARENTS, GUARDIANS AND TRUSTEES. CITIZENSHIP OF INCAPABLE PERSONS

Article 24. Change of the Citizenship of Children Upon the Acquisition or Termination of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation by Parents
1. A child shall acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation if his/her both parents or single parent acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
2. A child’s citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be terminated upon the termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation of his/her both parents or single parent, provided that the child will not become a stateless person.
Article 25. Citizenship of Children upon the Acquisition or Termination of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation by Either Parent
1. Where either parent possessing another citizenship acquires the citizenship of the Russian Federation, their child resident in the territory of the Russian Federation may acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation upon an application by the parent who acquires the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
2. Where either parent possessing another citizenship acquires the citizenship of the Russian Federation, their child resident outside the Russian Federation may acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation upon an application by both parents.
3. Where either parent possessing another citizenship acquires the citizenship of the Russian Federation and the other parent is a stateless person, their child may acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation upon an application by the parent who acquires the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
4. Where either parent acquiring the citizenship of the Russian Federation is a stateless person and the other parent possesses another citizenship, their child may acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation upon an application by both parents.
5. Where the citizenship of the Russian Federation of either parent terminates, and the other parent remains a citizen of the Russian Federation, their child shall retain the citizenship of the Russian Federation. The child's citizenship of the Russian Federation may be terminated simultaneously with the termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation of either parent subject to written consent of the other parent who is a citizen of the Russian Federation and provided that the child will not become a stateless person.
Article 26. Citizenship of Children upon Adoption
1. A child who is a citizen of the Russian Federation, on being adopted by foreign nationals or a foreign national shall retain the citizenship of the Russian Federation. The citizenship of the Russian Federation of a child adopted by a foreign national or foreign nationals may be terminated under the general procedure on the basis of an application by both adoptive parents or the single adoptive parent provided that the child will not become a stateless person.
2. A child adopted by a citizen of the Russian Federation or spouses who are citizens of the Russian Federation or spouses one of whom is a citizen of the Russian Federation and the other one is a stateless person, shall acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation from the date of his/her adoption, irrespective of the child’s place of residence, on the basis of an application by the adoptive parent who is a citizen of the Russian Federation.
3. A child adopted by spouses one of whom is a citizen of the Russian Federation and the other one possesses another citizenship may acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure on the basis of an application by both adoptive parents irrespective of the child's place of residence.
4. In the case specified in part three of this Article, in the absence of an application from both adoptive parents within one year of the date of adoption, the child shall acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation from the date of adoption, provided that he/she and his/her adoptive parents reside in the territory of the Russian Federation.
Article 27. Citizenship of Children and Incapable Persons Placed Under Guardianship or Trusteeship
1. Children and incapable persons placed under the guardianship or trusteeship of a citizen of the Russian Federation shall acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure upon an application by the guardian or trustee.
2. A child or incapable person who is under State care in an upbringing or health-treatment institution, social protection institution or another similar institution of the Russian Federation shall acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure upon an application by the director of the institution where the child or incapable person is residing.
3. A child or incapable person placed under the guardianship or trusteeship of a foreign national acquiring the citizenship of the Russian Federation may acquire the citizenship of the Russian Federation simultaneously with the said person upon his/her application.
4. A child or incapable person who is a citizen of the Russian Federation and is under the guardianship or trusteeship of a foreign national shall retain the citizenship of the Russian Federation.

CHAPTER VI. AUTHORIZED AGENCIES DEALING WITH CASES CONCERNING THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Article 28. Authorised Agencies Dealing with Cases Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. The authorised agencies dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be:

      - the President of the Russian Federation;
      - the federal executive agency for internal affairs and its territorial agencies;
      - the federal executive agency for foreign affairs, and diplomatic missions and consular authorities of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation.

2. The powers of the agencies dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be determined by this Federal Law.

      Article 29. Powers of the President of the Russian Federation

1. The President of the Russian Federation shall take decisions on the following matters:

    a) admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the general procedure under Article 13 of this Federal Law;
    b) reinstatement in the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the general procedure under Article 15 of this Federal Law;
    c) withdrawal from the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the general procedure in compliance with part one of Article 19 and part one of Article 26 of this Federal Law;
    d) reversal of decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation in compliance with Article 23 of this Federal Law;

2. The President of the Russian Federation shall approve the rules on the procedure for considering matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
3. The President of the Russian Federation shall ensure the co-ordinated functioning and co-operation of authorised agencies dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation in implementing this Federal Law.
4. The President of the Russian Federation shall issue decrees on matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
5. In the presence of circumstances indicated in items b) to g) of Article 16 of this Federal Law, the President of the Russian Federation shall be entitled, in exceptional cases, to consider the admission to or reinstatement in the citizenship of the Russian Federation of foreign nationals and stateless persons under Articles 13–15 of this Federal Law.
Article 30. Powers of the Federal Executive Agency for Internal Affairs and its Territorial Agencies
The federal executive agency for internal affairs and its territorial agencies shall exercise the following powers:

    a) determine possession of the citizenship of the Russian Federation by persons resident in the territory of the Russian Federation;
    b) accept from persons resident in the territory of the Russian Federation applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
    c) verify the facts and documents submitted in support of applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation and, if necessary, request additional information from the respective government agencies;
    d) submit applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation, documents and other materials provided in support thereof, and findings on the said applications, documents and materials to the President of the Russian Federation in the cases provided by part one of Article 29 of this Federal Law;
    e) execute decisions concerning citizenship adopted by the President of the Russian Federation in respect of persons resident in the territory of the Russian Federation;
    f) consider applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation from persons resident in the territory of the Russian Federation and take decisions concerning admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure in compliance with Article 14, part three of Article 19 and part three of Article 26 of this Federal Law;
    g) keep records of persons in whose respect decisions on the change of citizenship have been issued by the federal executive agency for internal affairs or its territorial agency;
    h) register the citizenship of the Russian Federation in the cases specified in part two of Article 12, parts two and four of Article 26 of this Federal Law;
    i) reverse decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation in compliance with Article 23 of this Federal Law.

Article 31. Powers of the Federal Executive Agency for Foreign Affairs and Diplomatic Missions and Consular Authorities of the Russian Federation Outside the Russian Federation
The federal executive agency for foreign affairs and diplomatic missions and consular authorities of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation shall:

    a) determine possession of the citizenship of the Russian Federation by persons resident outside the territory of the Russian Federation;
    b) accept from persons resident outside the territory of the Russian Federation applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
    c) verify the facts and documents submitted to support applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation and, if necessary, request additional information from the respective government agencies;
    d) submit applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation, documents and other materials provided in support thereof, and findings on the said applications, documents and materials to the President of the Russian Federation in the cases provided by part one of Article 29 of this Federal Law;
    e) execute decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation taken by the President of the Russian Federation in respect of persons resident outside the territory of the Russian Federation;
    f) consider applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation from persons resident outside the territory of the Russian Federation and take decisions concerning admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure in compliance with Article 14, parts two and three of Article 19 and part three of Article 26 of this Federal Law;
    g) keep records of persons in whose respect decisions on the change of citizenship were issued by diplomatic missions and consular authorities of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation;
    h) register the citizenship of the Russian Federation in the cases specified in part two of Article 26 of this Federal Law;
    i) reverse decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation in compliance with Article 23 of this Federal Law.

CHAPTER VII. PROCEEDINGS IN CASES CONCERNING THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Article 32. Procedure for Filing Applications Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. Applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be filed at the applicant's place of residence:

      a) by a person resident in the territory of the Russian Federation - with the territorial agency of the federal executive agency for internal affairs;
      b) by a person resident outside the territory of the Russian Federation and having no place of residence in the territory of the Russian Federation - with the respective diplomatic mission or consular authority of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation.

2. The application shall be delivered by the applicant in person.
3. Where the applicant is unable to personally deliver the application due to exceptional and documented circumstances, the application and supporting documents may be delivered for consideration by another person or sent by mail. In this case, the applicant's personal signature on the application and the authenticity of the copy of a document attached to the application shall be certified by notarial entries.
4. An application for the change of the citizenship of a child or incapable person shall be filed by his/her parents or other lawful representatives.
Article 33. Form of Applications Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. Applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be done in writing according to the established form. The personal signature of the applicant shall be certified by the duly authorised official of the authorised agency dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation who accepted the application.
2. Where the applicant is unable to sign application for reasons of illiteracy or physical disability, it shall, at his/her request, be signed by another person, with that person’s signature being certified with a notarial entry. Outside the territory of the Russian Federation such an entry shall be made on the application by a duly authorised official of the diplomatic mission or consular authority of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation.
3. The consent of the persons concerned to the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation in the cases provided for by this Federal Law shall be given in writing, with the said persons’ signatures being certified with notarial entries.. The signatures of persons residing outside the Russian Federation shall be authenticated by duly authorised officials of the diplomatic missions or consular authorities of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation.
4. The application form and the check-list of information to be stated therein and supporting documents applicable to specific grounds for the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be determined by the rules on the procedure for considering matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation to be approved by the President of the Russian Federation.
Article 34. Levying State Duties and Consular Fees
1. Upon the submission of applications for admission to, reinstatement in, or withdrawal from the citizenship of the Russian Federation, as well as upon determination of the possession of the citizenship of the Russian Federation as requested by the persons concerned, a State duty shall be levied in the territory of the Russian Federation, and a consular fee outside the territory of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
2. In the event the application concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation is rejected, the State duties or consular fees shall not be refunded.
Article 35. Procedure for and Duration of Decision-making Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. Decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the general procedure shall be taken by the President of the Russian Federation.
2. Applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be processed and decisions concerning admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the general procedure shall be taken within one year from the date when the application and all the required and duly executed documents were filed.
3. Decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure shall be taken by:

      - the federal executive agency for internal affairs and its territorial agencies;
      - the federal executive agency for foreign affairs and diplomatic missions and consular authorities of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation.

4. Applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be processed and decisions concerning admission to the citizenship of the Russian Federation under the simplified procedure shall be taken within six months from the date when the application and all the required and duly executed documents were filed.
5. Decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be issued in writing and indicate the respective motivations.
Article 36. Acceptance of Resubmitted Applications Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. A person in whose respect a decision concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation has been issued may resubmit an application concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation not earlier than one year after the pervious decision was taken.
2. In the presence of circumstances that were not or could not be known to the applicant, the resubmitted application may be accepted without complying with the term specified in part one of this Article.
Article 37. Date of the Acquisition or Termination of the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. The citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be acquired:

      - under Article 12 of this Federal Law, on the date of the child's birth;
      - under parts two and four of Article 26 of this Federal Law, on the date of the child's adoption;
      - in all other cases - on the date of the issue of the respective decision by the authorised agency dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation.

2. The citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be terminated on the date of the issue of the respective decision by the authorised agency dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
Article 38. Execution of Decisions Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
1. Authorised agencies dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation which accepted application concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall inform the persons concerned about the decision taken and issue them respective documents.
2. The federal executive agency for internal and the federal executive agency for foreign affairs shall exercise control over the execution of decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation and inform the President of the Russian Federation thereof within the time specified in the rules on the procedure for considering matters concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation, to be approved by the President of the Russian Federation.

CHAPTER VIII. APPEALS AGAINST DECISIONS OF AUTHORIZED AGENCIES DEALING WITH CASES CONCERNING THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ACTIONS BY THEIR OFFICIALS. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES CONCERNING THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Article 39. Appeals Against Decisions Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
A decision of an authorised agency dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation to reject an application concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be appealable in court under the procedure provided by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Article 40. Appeals Against Actions of Officials of Authorised Agencies Dealing with Cases Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
Refusal to consider an application concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation and other actions of officials of authorised agencies dealing with cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation that violate the procedure for cases concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation and the procedure for executing decisions concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be appealable before the superior official or in court.
Article 41. Settlement of Disputes Concerning the Citizenship of a Child or Incapable Person
Disputes between the parents or between a parent and a guardian or trustee about the citizenship of a child or incapable person shall be heard in judicial proceedings in the light of the interests of the child or incapable person.

CHAPTER IX. CONCLUDING PROVISIONS

Article 42. Validity of Documents Issued in Conformity with the Previous Legislation on the Citizenship of the Russian Federation
Documents issued in conformity with the previous legislation on the citizenship of the Russian Federation shall retain their legal force, provided they have been properly executed, and shall be considered valid on the day of entry into force of this Federal Law.
Article 43. Procedure for Considering Applications Concerning the Citizenship of the Russian Federation Accepted Prior to Entry into Force of this Federal Law
1. The examination of and decision-making on applications concerning the citizenship of the Russian Federation accepted prior to the entry into force of this Federal Law shall comply with this Federal Law, except for the cases specified in part two of this Article.
2. Where the Law of the Russian Federation "On Citizenship of the Russian Federation" established the procedure for the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation that is more preferential than in this Federal Law, the examination of and decision-making on applications referred to in part one of this Article shall be effected in accordance with the procedure established by the aforesaid Law of the Russian Federation.
Article 44. Bringing of Normative Legal Acts into Conformity with this Federal Law
1. From the date of entry into force of this Federal Law, the following acts shall be declared invalid:
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, ‘On the Procedure for Admission to the Citizenship of the RSFSR’ dated 29 June 1981 (Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1981, No. 26, i. 903);
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, ‘On Approving the Rules on the Procedure for Considering Matters Concerning Admission to the Citizenship of the RSFSR in the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR’ dated 29 June 1981;
Law of the RSFSR ‘On Approving the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, “On the Procedure for Admission to the Citizenship of the RSFSR”’, dated 8 July 1981 (Vedomosti Verhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1981, No. 28, i. 982);
Law of the Russian Federation No. 1948-1 "On the Citizenship of the Russian Federation" dated November 28, 1991 (Vedomosti Syezda narodnykh deputatov Rossiyskoi Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiyskoi Federatsii, 1992, No. 6, i. 243), except for items "a", "b" and "c" of Article 18, part three of Article 19, Articles 20 and 41, which establish a more facilitated procedure, as compared to this Federal Law, for the acquisition or termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation by persons whose applications concerning citizenship were accepted for processing prior to entry into force of this Federal Law;
Paras. 2 to 4 and 7 to 18 of the Law of the Russian Federation No. 5206-1 "On Introducing Amendments and Additions into the Law of the RSFSR "On Citizenship of the RSFSR" dated 17 June 1993 (Vedomosti Syezda narodnykh deputatov Rossiyskoi Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiyskoi Federatsii, 1993, No. 29, i. 1112);
Federal Law No. 13-FZ "On Introducing a an Amendment into the Law of the Russian Federation "On Citizenship of the Russian Federation" dated 6 February 1995 (Sobraniye zakonodatelstva Rossiyskoi Federatsii, 1995, No. 7, i. 496);
Article 11 of the Federal Law No. 99-FZ "On State Policy of the Russian Federation with regard to Fellow Countrymen Abroad" dated 24 May 1999 (Sobraniye zakonodatelstva Rossiyskoi Federatsii, 1999, No. 22, i. 2670).
2. The President of the Russian Federation and Government of the Russian Federation shall be requested to bring their normative legal acts into conformity with this Federal Law within six months of the date of its entry into force.
Article 45. Entry into Force of this Federal Law
This Federal Law shall enter into force on 1 July 2002.
President of the Russian Federation V. Putin