Reset of the password (expire every two months)
CRI (2003) 23
Annual report on ECRI’S activities covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 2002
Strasbourg, 20 March 2003
1. Country-by-country approach
2. Work on general themes
General policy recommendations
Collection and dissemination of examples of “good practices”
Relations with other Council of Europe bodies
3. Relations with civil society
Organisation of National Round Tables in member States
Co-operation with NGOs
Development of a communication strategy
Contacts with the youth sector
International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
Co-operation with the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
APPENDIX I - Membership of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance
APPENDIX II - Secretariat of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance
APPENDIX III - Meetings held by ECRI in 2002
APPENDIX IV - List of publications
The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) is a mechanism which was established by the first Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe member States. The decision to establish ECRI is contained in the Vienna Declaration adopted by the first Summit on 9 October 1993.
ECRI’s task is to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at the level of greater Europe and from the perspective of the protection of human rights. ECRI’s action covers all necessary measures to combat violence, discrimination and prejudice faced by persons or groups of persons, on grounds of “race”, colour, language, religion, nationality and national or ethnic origin.
ECRI's members are appointed on the basis of their in-depth knowledge in the field of combating intolerance. They should have high moral authority and recognised expertise in dealing with racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance. They serve in their individual capacity, are independent and impartial in fulfilling their mandate, and do not receive any instructions from their government.
ECRI’s programme of activities comprises three aspects: the country-by-country approach, work on general themes; and relations with civil society. ECRI’s strategy for constantly enhancing its activities is to take a step-by-step approach, building on the work it has already accomplished by evaluating, consolidating and extending its action.
The Political Declaration and the General Conclusions of the European Conference against Racism (Strasbourg, 11-13 October 2000) both called for the strengthening of the action of ECRI. On 13 June 2002, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a new Statute for ECRI, thereby consolidating its role as an independent human rights monitoring mechanism specialised in questions relating to racism and intolerance.
1. Each year, as an introduction to its Annual Report, ECRI outlines, in the light of the data compiled in the course of its various activities, some of the main trends reflecting the context in which it will need to continue its efforts and step up its action in the future. The precise characteristics and extent of these trends vary from region to region and from country to country. They are however sufficiently widespread to justify special mention.
2. The persistence of racial discrimination, which is closely-linked to the lack of effective anti-discrimination legislative provisions in most member States, is a fundamental problem in Europe, which is constantly highlighted in ECRI’s reports. This problem is compounded by the unsatisfactory implementation of existing anti-racist provisions, such that those provisions which do exist seem far removed from the everyday experiences of the persons they are designed to assist.
3. It is within this context that ECRI adopted, on 13 December 2002, its general policy recommendation No 7 on national legislation to combat racism and racial discrimination. In this text, ECRI calls for le-gal protection to be provided against racist acts and discrimination on the grounds of “race”, colour, language, religion, nationality or national or ethnic origin.
4. The inclusion of such a list of prohibited grounds of racism and racial discrimination is based on the experience developed by ECRI in the context of its analyses of manifestations of racism in the various member States of the Council of Europe.
5. ECRI, as a moral authority in the fight against racism in Europe, supports and promotes the principle that national legislations should offer sufficient protection against all contemporary forms of racism and racial discrimination. Today, these phenomena are based on a wide range of grounds, including “race”, colour and ethnic origin, but also nationality, language and religion. In reality, it is often impossible to separate these grounds one from the other.
6. The year 2002 sadly saw an increase in the dissemination of antisemitic ideas and in acts of violence perpetrated against members of Jewish communities and their institutions. ECRI also deplores the growing spreading dissemination of antisemitic material, both via the Internet and other channels of communication.
7. The problem of Islamophobia also became more serious in several countries following the terrorist at-tacks of 11 September 2001. ECRI is concerned at the increase in prejudice against Muslim communities, both within society in general and within certain public institutions. Such prejudices find their expression in acts of violence, harassment, discrimination, negative attitudes and stereotypes. In this context, ECRI recalls the importance of implementing its General Policy Recommendation N° 5 on combating intolerance and discrimination against Muslims, adopted on 16 March 2000.
8. Racism is an evil which evolves over time and which continually takes on new forms. One such face of racism is demonstrated in theories which present differences between cultural groups as being insurmountable, and cultures as being fundamentally opposed. ECRI rejects such dangerous theories and is more than ever convinced that today’s diversity en-riches our democratic societies. This diversity lies at the heart of a genuine culture of human rights which is the goal of such societies.
9. The audience given to political parties which spread a xenophobic ideology is a matter of grave concern. Any racist or xenophobic propaganda in politics is entirely unacceptable: however, in the present climate, not enough is done to oppose such phenomena. ECRI considers that politicians need to be made more aware of their responsibilities in this respect. ECRI calls on all democratic political parties to espouse the principles contained in the Charter of European political parties for a non-racist society.
10. Manifestations of xenophobia, discrimination and racist acts against migrants, refugees and asylum seekers are also most alarming. The anti-migrant and anti-refugee climate of public opinion is, in some cases, reinforced by the adoption of restrictive legislation and policies in the field of immigration and asylum. ECRI recalls that the human rights of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers form an integral part of the fight against racism and xenophobia, and that these rights are far from being respected in Europe today.
11. Roma/Gypsies are particularly the target of racism in many countries. They suffer from prejudices and discrimination in many fields of social and economic life and are also often the object of violent acts of racism and intolerance. Promoting the implementation of its General Policy Recommendation No 3 on combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies re-mains a priority for ECRI.
12. There continue to be complaints concerning racist attitudes and behaviour on the part of law enforcement officials, including both the police and border control officials. More generally, the presence of racism and prejudices in public institutions is to be deplored. ECRI regrets that not enough energy has been invested in combating these phenomena, and that there is a lack of relevant public policies in this field. It considers that governments should devote more attention – and the necessary resources – to these issues.
13. The negative trends outlined above should be closely monitored and additional measures taken at local, national and European level to combat manifestations of racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance.
14. ECRI draws attention to these trends since, as a Commission with the task of combating racism, it has the duty to describe the forms which racism takes to-day. ECRI wishes nevertheless to stress that not all the trends are negative, and that there are also some encouraging signs, at international, European and national level, which indicate that member States and civil society are determined to combat racism and intolerance.
15. ECRI welcomes the fact that most member States are currently involved in the process of revising their anti-discrimination legislation and that new provisions are being introduced at the national level to combat racism and racial discrimination. ECRI hopes in this con-text that its General Policy Recommendation N° 7 will be widely-used by all interested parties, and will serve as a source of inspiration for legislative reforms in this field.
16. Another positive step forward is the willingness shown at national level to identify ways to better implement the legal and policy measures which have been developed. ECRI stresses in this respect the importance of setting up national specialised bodies to combat racism and intolerance, and of strengthening the action of those bodies which already exist.
17. At the European and international level, ECRI welcomes the adoption and opening for signature of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cyber-crime concerning the criminalisation of acts of a racist or xenophobic nature committed through computer systems. ECRI is convinced that this instrument will lead to improved co-operation at the inter-national level in the fight against racism and xenophobia via the Internet.
18. ECRI also highlights the importance of the adoption of Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides a general prohibition of discrimination, and which represents a significant step forward in European law in this field. ECRI calls on all member States of the Council of Europe to sign and ratify this instrument as soon as possible.
19. The creation of ECRI itself was the expression of the political will of the heads of State and government of Council of Europe member States to develop a vigourous and long-term action against racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance. Since its creation, ECRI has given priority to obtaining rapid and concrete results, and the year 2002 represented a further stage in the strengthening of its action.
20. ECRI’s new Statute, which entered into force on 31 December 2002, consolidates its role as a monitoring mechanism in the field of human rights as regards the fight against racism and intolerance. The Statute guarantees the principle of the independence and impartiality of ECRI’s members. ECRI considers that the adoption of its new Statute by the Committee of Ministers demonstrates the determination of the member States to continue to co-operate in combating racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance within the framework of the Council of Europe.
1. The first aspect of ECRI’s activities concerns its country-by-country approach. This is a method whereby ECRI closely examines the situation in each of the member States of the Council of Europe and draws up, following this analysis, suggestions and proposals as to how the problems of racism and intolerance identified in each country might be overcome. The aim of this exercise is to formulate helpful and well-founded proposals which may assist governments in taking practical and precise steps to counter racism and intolerance.
2. ECRI’s reports are first transmitted in the form of draft texts to the member States concerned for a brief process of confidential dialogue with the national authorities of these countries. The content of the report is reviewed in the light of this dialogue. The report is then adopted in its final form and transmitted by ECRI to the government of the member State concerned, through the intermediary of the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers. The report is made public two months after the transmission, unless the government in question expressly op-poses its publication.
3. ECRI’s country-by-country approach concerns all Council of Europe member States on an equal footing. The reports for the first cycle were completed in late 1998. From January 1999 to the end of December 2002, ECRI worked on the second round of its country-by-country approach.
4. The second-round reports combine the monitoring of proposals set out in the first reports, the updating of the reports’ general content and an in-depth analysis of issues of particular concern in the various countries.
5. On the basis of an assessment of ECRI’s methods for producing its first round of reports and the results of the first stage of the procedure, new working methods have been introduced for the second round.
6. An important aspect of these new methods is that a contact visit to the country concerned is arranged be-fore the second report is drawn up. The aim of the con-tact visits is to obtain as detailed and complete a picture as possible of the situation regarding racism and intolerance in the countries being examined. The visits provide an opportunity for the rapporteurs and co-rapporteurs to meet officials from the various ministries and national public authorities dealing with issues within ECRI’s remit. They also allow the rapporteurs and co-rapporteurs to meet representatives of NGOs working in the field, as well as some of ECRI’s other partners and other parties concerned with matters within ECRI’s remit.
7. On 23 April 2002, ECRI published its second-round reports on Estonia, Georgia, Ireland, Italy and Romania. On 23 July 2002, it published its second reports on Finland, Latvia, Malta and Ukraine, and, on 4 November 2002, its second report on Portugal.
8. The publication of ECRI’s country-by-country reports is a stage in the development of an ongoing, active dialogue between ECRI and the authorities of member States with a view to identifying solutions to the problems of racism and intolerance with which the latter are con-fronted. The input of non-governmental organisations and other bodies or individuals active in this field is a welcome part of this process, and should ensure that ECRI’s contribution is as constructive and useful as possible.
9. ECRI attaches considerable importance to this dialogue with government authorities and non-governmental bodies as a means of following up the suggestions made in its country-by-country reports. Adequate dissemination of the results of its work in the member States is part of its strategy in this connection.
10. The eleven reports published in 2002 have all been translated into the national language(s) of the country concerned, and national NGOs have been encouraged to organise an event in the country concerned upon publication of the report as a means of raising aware-ness of its content. Steps have been taken to ensure that the report is circulated as widely as possible among relevant bodies at national level. A “dissemination plan” has been drawn up in conjunction with the relevant national member of ECRI.
11. As far as media coverage is concerned, a press release has systematically been issued and widely distributed each time a report is published. Most of these press releases have served as a basis for articles in the press and radio broadcasts.
12. In the year 2002, ECRI also carried out twelve contact visits and drafted eleven new reports on the following countries: Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. It is expected that these reports will be published in the course of 2003.
13. ECRI’s second-round reports and the methodology adopted to prepare them, have reached a high level of quality and are serving as a useful basis of discussion and action in the member States. For its third-round reports, ECRI’s aim is to achieve an even greater level of detailed and concrete analysis and proposals. Through-out 2002, ECRI actively prepared the organisation of the third round of its country-by-country work.
14. The third round of the country-by-country work will focus on implementation: the extent to which ECRI’s main recommendations from previous reports have been followed and implemented. The third round will also focus on particular issues, dealt with in a “specialisation” section: specific issues, chosen according to the different situations in the various countries, will be examined in more depth in each report.
15. The second aspect of ECRI’s programme includes work on general themes and activities specifically based on these themes, with a view to making a real contribution to the setting up and strengthening of those institutions which underpin the functioning of civil society.
16. On 13 December 2002, ECRI adopted its General Policy Recommendation N° 7 on national legislation to combat racism and racial discrimination.
17. This Recommendation was prepared by a “working group on anti-discrimination legislation” which drew up a draft text, which formed the basis of a consultation with relevant NGOs and national specialised bodies for combating racism and intolerance.
18. The General Policy Recommendation N° 7 contains the key elements of a comprehensive national legislation to effectively combat racism and racial discrimination. The scope of the Recommendation is very wide. It not only addresses direct and indirect discrimination but also other legal aspects of the fight against racism, including racist expressions, racist organisations and racially-motivated offences.
19. The Recommendation covers all branches of the law, i.e. constitutional, criminal, civil and administrative law. ECRI believes that only such an integrated approach will enable member States to address these problems in a manner which is as exhaustive, effective and satisfactory from the point of view of the victim as possible.
20. In preparing its Recommendation, ECRI took into account national legislation and existing international standards. However, in some aspects, the Recommendation goes further than the latter. Among the most significant additions are: the inclusion of nationality, religion and language among the grounds for which discrimination is prohibited; the application of the prohibition of discrimination to a very broad range of areas, including the activities of the police and border control officials; the attribution of more extensive powers to national specialised bodies to combat racism and racial discrimination; the establishment of a positive duty on public authorities to promote equality and to prevent discrimination in carrying out their functions.
21. Such an approach is particularly important at a time when a number of member States of the Council of Europe are engaged in a process of reforming their anti-discrimination legislation. In this respect, ECRI’s Recommendation may support all the stakeholders in this process, in pushing for further changes.
22. In 2002, ECRI widely distributed the most recent publication (October 2001) in its series of examples of good practices: “Practical examples in combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies”. This booklet presents selected examples from different member States of the Council of Europe of initiatives set up to combat racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies. The booklet focuses on the following three priority fields: (a) Roma empowerment, (b) education and youth and (c) policing and justice. A set of main examples have been outlined for each field, and contact details have been provided for further information. In general, examples have been chosen which could be adapted to other local and national contexts.
23. ECRI is kept regularly informed of the work of other Council of Europe bodies dealing with issues related to racism and intolerance. Its Secretariat regularly provides information on ECRI’s work to these bodies. In 2002, ECRI co-operated in particular with the Commissioner for Human Rights, the Advisory Committee of the Frame-work Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, and the Group of Specialists on Roma/Gypsies (MG-S-ROM). The Parliamentary Assembly is represented within ECRI and actively contributes to its work.
24. A successful strategy against racism and intolerance depends to a large extent in raising awareness of the threat posed by these phenomena and ensuring that the anti-racist message filters down throughout civil society in general. ECRI attaches increasing importance to this third aspect of its programme of activities and accordingly adopted on 20 March 2002 a programme of action for reinforcing its relations with civil society.
25. This programme falls within the framework of the global approach of the Council of Europe to promote tolerance. It is complementary to actions implemented in fields such as education and culture, as well as human rights awareness-raising. It also constitutes the basis for ECRI’s contribution to the implementation of the Conclusions of the European and World Conferences against racism, which stressed the importance of involving civil society in the fight against racism and intolerance.
26. The first National Round Table of the Programme of Action took place in Romania, Bucharest, on Wednesday 16 October 2002. This event brought together 85 participants, who discussed the following themes: ECRI’s report on Romania, Romania’s new anti-discrimination legislation; Romania’s strategy for improving the situation of the Roma; the role of the media in fighting racism and xenophobia. The Round Table aimed to contribute in a positive way to the debates on combating racism and intolerance in Romania and to encourage reflection on these issues among the relevant governmental and non-governmental circles.
27. ECRI develops contacts and exchanges information with national NGOs during contact visits prior to the drawing up of the country-by-country reports. As for international NGOs concerned by ECRI’s work, a consultation meeting with their representatives took place on 4 November 2002 in Strasbourg. This meeting allowed an in-depth discussion on priorities for future action and co-operation between ECRI and NGOs.
28. A communication “think tank” was established and set out the broad lines of the strategy to be developed by ECRI for better utilising the media for communicating the results of ECRI’s work and spreading the anti-racist message as widely as possible among the general public.
29. A meeting between ECRI members and representatives of the youth sector took place on 24 June 2002, in the European Youth Centre in Strasbourg. This meeting was the occasion for discussions on co-operation between ECRI and the youth sector and concerning the organisation of future joint actions.
30. ECRI marked the day of 21 March 2002 by organising a Round Table on “Dialogue against Violence”. The Round Table was opened by Ms Lydie POLFER, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Luxembourg, and allowed a pluridisciplinary group of experts to provide multifaceted perspectives on the situation in the aftermath of September 11th, from the point of view of intercultural dialogue.
31. On 10 February 1999, the European Community and the Council of Europe signed an Agreement to establish close co-operation between the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia and ECRI. Since that date, regular contacts have been maintained. The Bureaux of the two bodies held a joint meeting, in Strasbourg, on 2 October 2002, to discuss practical areas of co-operation.
(31 December 2002)
Mr Joan FORNER ROVIRA, Embajada del Principado de Andorra
Mr Vigen KOCHARYAN, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Yerevan State University
Professor Dr Stefan KARNER, Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Kriegsfolgen-Forschung
Professor Dr Gerald SCHÖPFER*
Mr Lätif H. HÜSEYNOV, Head of the Department on Constitutional Law of the National Assembly
Monsieur Johan LEMAN, Directeur du Centre pour l’Egalité des Chances et la Lutte contre le Racisme
Monsieur François SANT'ANGELO*
Monsieur Luben KOULICHEV, Assemblée Nationale de la République de Bulgarie
Ms Maja SERSIC,
Associate Professor, International Law Department at the Faculty of Laws of the Zagreb University
Ms Maro CLERIDES-TSIAPPAS, Counsel for the Republic of Cyprus, Office of the Attorney General of the Republic of Cyprus
Mrs Chrystalleni HOURI*
Mr Dalibor JÍLEK, Head of the International and European Law Department, Faculty of Law of the Masaryk University
Mr Miloslav PETRU*
Professor Eva SMITH ASMUSSEN, Retsvidenskabeligt Institut A
Mr Mart NUTT, Member of Parliament
Mr Lauri HANNIKAINEN, Senior Researcher, Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law
Ms Merja PENTIKÄINEN*
Madame Martine VALDES-BOULOUQUE, Inspecteur des Services Judiciaires, Ministère de la Justice
Professor Levan ALEXIDZE, Head of Chair of International Law
Mr Klaus STOLTENBERG, Ministerialdirigent, Bundesministerium der Justiz
Mr Nikos FRANGAKIS, Vice-Chairman of the National Commission for Human Rights
Mr Jenö KALTENBACH, Parliamentary Commissioner for National, Ethnic and Minority Rights, Parliamentary Commissioners’ Office
Reverend Baldur KRISTJÁNSSON
Mr Seamus CULLIMORE
Monsieur Vitaliano ESPOSITO, Magistrat
Mrs Ruta MARJASA, Lawyer
Monsieur Hans BRUNHART, Ancien Chef du Gouvernement, Euroconsult AG
Madame Christine STEHRENBERGER*
Mr Stanislav VIDTMANN, Deputy Director General of the Department of National Minorities and Lithuanians Living Abroad
Monsieur Roger LINSTER
Mr Godwin MUSCAT-AZZOPARDI,
Professeur Victor VOLCINSCHI, Universitatea de Stat din Moldov
Mrs Winnie SORGDRAGER, Senator, Former Minister of Justice
Mr Petter DREFVELIN, Director General, Department of Saami and Minority Affairs
Professor Andrzej SICINSKI, Foundation of Culture
Monsieur Fernando FERREIRA RAMOS, Juge de la Cour Suprême de Justice, Gabinete de Documentação e Direito Comparado
Professor Raluca BESTELIU, Professor in International Public Law, Former Judge of the European Court of Human Rights
Mr Felix STANEVSKIY
Professor Juraj SVEC, Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, St Elisabeth Institute of Oncology
Mrs Alenka PUHAR, Journalist-Publicist
Mr Tomás CALVO BUEZAS, Catedrático de Antropología Social, Facultad de Ciencia Políticas y Sociología – Universidad Complutense
Mr Secundino VALLADARES FERNANDEZ*
Ms Margareta WADSTEIN, Ombudsman against Ethnic Discrimination
Ms Ylva BRUNE*
Professeur Joseph VOYAME
Madame Doris ANGST YILMAZ*
“The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”
Dr Ljubomir DANAILOV FRCKOSKI, Professor of Public International Law
Professor Gün KUT, Bogaziçi University, Faculty of Political Science
Mr Victor NIKITIUK, Council of Europe Division, Department of European Integration, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Mr Michael HEAD
Committee on Legal Questions and Human Rights
Mr Kevin Mc NAMARA
Committee on Culture and Education
Ms Mirjana FERIC-VAC
Committee on Political Affairs
Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe
Commission of the European Community
Ms Barbara NOLAN,
Head of the Anti-Discrimination, Fundamental Social Rights and Civil Society Unit, Directorate General for Employment and Social Affairs, European Commission
Professeur Jean-Pierre MACHELON
(31 December 2002)
Mr Michael HEAD
member in respect of the United Kingdom
Mr Jenö KALTENBACH
member in respect of Hungary
Ms Alenka PUHAR
member in respect of Slovenia
Mr Roger LINSTER
member in respect of Luxembourg
Ms Winnie SORGDRAGER
member in respect of the Netherlands
Ms Martine VALDES-BOULOUQUE
member in respect of France
Ms Margareta WADSTEIN
member in respect of Sweden
Mme Isil GACHET, Directorate General of Human Rights, Executive Secretary to the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Conseil de l'Europe, 67075 STRASBOURG CEDEX, France
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 48
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mme Claudia SCIOTTI, Administrator
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 23 49
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Ms Louise BARTON, Legal and Policy Researcher
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 29 59
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
M. Giancarlo CARDINALE, Legal and Policy Researcher
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 42
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Ms Heike KLEMPA, Responsible for relations with civil society
Tel: + 33 (0) 3 90 21 51 55
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Ms Paula ECK-WALTERS, Documentalist
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 33 99
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mme Sylvia LEHMANN, Assistant
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 29 64
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
Mme Vincente MUSCATIELLO, Responsible for managing the web site
Tel: +33 (0) 3 88 41 25 05
Fax: +33 (0) 3 88 41 39 87
- 19-20 March 2002
- 25-28 June 2002
- 10-13 December 2002
- 18 March 2002
- 29 April 2002
- 24 June 2002
- 28-29 October 2002
- 9 December 2002
Meetings of CBC Working Groups
- CBC 1: 28 January 2002
- CBC 2: 3 July 2002
- CBC 3: 12 July 2002
- CBC 5: 19 July 2002
- CBC 6: 8 February 2002
- CBC 7: 5 July 2002
- CBC 8: 22 July 2002
- CBC 9: 24 January 2002
- CBC 10: 18 February 2002
- CBC ad hoc 2: 24 January 2002
Consultation meeting with NGO representatives
- 4 November 2002
Meetings of the Working Group responsible for preparing the third stage of ECRI’s country-by-country work
- 3 October 2002
- 5 November 2002
Joint meeting of the ECRI Bureau and the Bureau of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC)
- 2 October 2002
Meetings of the Working Group on relations with civil society
- 29 April 2002
- 24 June 2002
- 9 December 2002
Meeting of the communication “think tank”
- 1 October 2002
Meetings of the Working Group on anti-discrimination legislation
- 25 January 2002
- 14 March 2002
- 29-30 April 2002
- 21 May 2002
- 19-20 September 2002
- 16 November 2002
Meeting of the Working group on anti-discrimination legislation with NGO representatives
- 14 June 2002
- Strasbourg, 21 March 2002
- Bucharest, 15 October 2002
- Liechtenstein: 13-14 March 2002
- Azerbaijan: 26-29 March 2002
- Sweden: 8-11 April 2002
- Moldova: 15-18 April 2002
- Lithuania: 13-16 May 2002
- Andorra: 14-16 May 2002
- Iceland: 23-25 September 2002
- Luxembourg: 24-26 September 2002
- Armenia: 15-17 October 2002
- Slovenia: 21-23 October 2002
- Spain: 28-31 October 2002
- San Marino: 19-20 November 2002
- ECRI and its programme of activities (Strasbourg, 1st September 2001)
- Legal measures to combat racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, January 1998)
- Legal measures to combat racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe (revised version: Strasbourg, 2000)
- Examples of “Good practices”: Specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level (Strasbourg, September 1996)
- Examples of "Good practices" to fight against racism and intolerance in the European media (Strasbourg, April 2000)
- Practical examples in combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies (Strasbourg, October 2001)
- Legal instruments for combating racism on Internet (Strasbourg, August 2000)
- Compilation of ECRI's General Policy Recommendations (Strasbourg, January 2001)
- ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 1: Combating racism, xenophobia antisemitism and intolerance (Strasbourg, 4 October 1996)
- ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 2: Specialised bodies to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at national level (Strasbourg, 13 June 1997)
- ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 3: combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies (Strasbourg, 6 March 1998)
- ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 4: National surveys on the experience and perception of discrimination and racism from the point of view of potential victims (Strasbourg, 6 March 1998)
- ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 5: Combating intolerance and discrimination against Muslims (Strasbourg, 27 April 2000)
- ECRI General Policy Recommendation N° 6: Combating the dissemination of racist, xenophobic and antisemitic material via the Internet (Strasbourg, 15 December 2000)
- ECRI's country-by-country approach:
First round :
- Volume I (Strasbourg, September 1997)
- Volume II (Strasbourg, March 1998)
- Volume III (Strasbourg, 15 June 1998)
- Volume IV (Strasbourg, 26 January 1999)
- Volume V (Strasbourg, 13 March 1999)
- Volume VI (Strasbourg, 24 May 1999)
- Volume VII (Strasbourg, 9 November 1999)
Second round :
- Albania (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
- Austria (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
- Belgium (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
- Bulgaria (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
- Croatia (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
- Cyprus (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
- Czech Republic (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
- Denmark (Strasbourg, 3 March 2001)
- Estonia (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
- Finland (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
- France (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
- Georgia (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
- Germany (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
- Greece (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
- Hungary (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
- Ireland (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
- Italy (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
- Latvia (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
- Malta (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
- The Netherlands (Strasbourg, 13 November 2001)
- Norway (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
- Poland (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
- Portugal (Strasbourg, 4 November 2002)
- Romania (Strasbourg, 23 April 2002)
- Russian Federation (Strasbourg, 13 November 2001)
- Slovakia (Strasbourg, 27 June 2000)
- Switzerland (Strasbourg, 21 March 2000)
- “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
- Turkey (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001)
- Ukraine (Strasbourg, 23 July 2002)
- United Kingdom (Strasbourg, 3 April 2001)
- Activities of the Council of Europe with relevance to combating racism and intolerance (Strasbourg, October 2001)
- Recommendations adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in the field of com-bating racism and intolerance (Strasbourg, September 1998)
- Recommendations adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the field of combating racism and intolerance (Strasbourg, September 1998)
- Texts of international instruments relevant to the work of ECRI (Strasbourg, October 1999)