Recognition of the Roma Genocide

 Recognition, official texts

According to the OSCE report, the Centre for Education Development reports that there is no commonly agreed definition of the Holocaust in school textbooks. However, the most popular definition explains the Holocaust as the planned and institutionally organised extermination of approximately six million European Jews by the German Nazis during World War II. (See Education on the Holocaust and on Anti-Semitism, page 104)

In 2011, the Sejm of Poland declared 2nd August as the official Roma and Sinti Genocide Remembrance Day.

Poland observes 27th January as International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust. The date is observed nationally as an official day of remembrance. The commemoration honours all those who perished in the Holocaust, in particular Jews and Roma and Sinti. The Day of Commemoration was established in 2005. 

In addition, the state instituted 19th April, the date of the start of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, as the Day of Remembrance for the Victims of the Holocaust and Prevention of Crimes against Humanity. The subject of the Holocaust is the primary issue for seven state or regional museums, memorial sites, and former concentration camps on the territory of Poland.

In 2007, the President of Republic of Poland, Mr. Lech Kaczynski, awarded Mrs Alfreda Markowska, Polish Roma woman born in 1926, with Commander’s Cross with Star of the Order of Polonia Restituta - the Polish second highest civil medal given by the President of Poland for rescuing approximately 50 children of Roma and Jewish origin during the World War II.

 Data (camps locations, Remembrance places, measures etc.)

Konzentrationslager Auschwitz - Concentration camp Auschwitz (information provided by the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum)
It was established by Germans in 1940, in the suburbs of Oswiecim, a Polish city that was annexed to the Third Reich by the Nazis. Its name was changed to Auschwitz, which also became the name of Konzentrationslager Auschwitz. Consisting originally of a single camp, Auschwitz expanded constantly until, at the peak of its growth in the summer of 1944, it had become a complex of about 40 camps, holding 135,000 prisoners. The two principal camps were located in Oświęcim (I) and Brzezinka (Auschwitz II-Birkenau). Founded in March 1942 and covering an area of about 150 hectares, Auschwitz II-Birkenau contained prisoner barracks, gas chambers, 4 crematoria with a daily throughput calculated by Nazi officials at 4,416 corpses, and a complex of 30 warehouses for the personal belongings confiscated from the victims. From 1944, a three-track railroad spur was operational inside the camp; this is where the selection of mass transports of Jews was carried out. The so-called sub-camps (KL Auschwitz III-Aussenlager) were scattered throughout the Upper Silesian Industrial Region. The Auschwitz prisoners in them performed unpaid slave labor, mostly in German coal mines, mills, armaments plants, and at the large building sites for new industrial facilities of importance to the German war economy. When the prisoners had been worked to exhaustion, they were sent back to Auschwitz-Birkenau and killed. At least 1,300,000 people were deported to the camp, of whom at least 1,100,000 perished. Some estimates of the number killed are as high as 1,500,000.

The Gypsies were the third most numerous group of victims. A small number of Gypsies, estimated at several hundred, were deported to Auschwitz in 1940-1942 and registered in the general series of prisoners. The number of Gypsies in the camp began to rise rapidly only as a result of a 29th January 1943 decision by the Main Reich Security Office to deport whole Gypsy families to Auschwitz. A total of about 23,000 Gypsies were incarcerated in Auschwitz. They were placed in a special camp in Birkenau (BIIe). About 20,000 Gypsies perished in the camp. About 6,500 were killed in the gas chambers. The largest group, consisting of about 3,000 men, women, and children were killed by gas on 2nd August 1944, during the liquidation of the Gypsy camp. The remainder was transferred to camps in Germany proper.

The extermination of Gypsies in Auschwitz was a fragment of the German Third Reich’s criminal plans for the almost total elimination of Gypsies. It is estimated that from 200,000 to 5000,000 Gypsies perished as a result of executions and imprisonment in various camps.

Roma and Sinti Genocide Remembrance Day is observed on 2nd August.

The main commemoration event is held at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum where a concentration camp used to be. The observance is organised by the Chancellery of the Prime Minister and/or the Chancellery of the President. The ceremony, which includes speeches by Polish and international leaders, laying wreaths and prayers, is attended by several hundred people, marking the anniversary of the liquidation of the "Gypsy Family Camp" at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Participants of the ceremony include former prisoners, members of Roma organisations, representatives of the Polish government, the Polish Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment, regional and local authorities, the diplomatic corps, members of the Jewish community, and the management and staff of the State Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau. The commemoration is publicised through the media. In former Auschwitz-Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Death Camp (1940-1945) there is permanent exhibition on Roma and Sinti extermination in the block 13.

There are several memorial sites in Poland commemorating Roma and Sinti Victims such as "Gypsy Camp" in Auschwitz-Birkenau, Łódź Ghetto Holocaust Memorial, the Gypsy Camp in Litzmannstadt Ghetto (there is a commemorative plaque on the wall of the old forge), Treblinka Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom, Memorial Site in Belzec (there is a monument commemorating the Roma and Sinti victims of former labour camp), Kulmhof Death Camp (there is a board at the entrance with information about Roma and other nationalities as victims of the death camp) and Memorial to the Murdered Roma of Szczurowa.

OSCE-ODIHR report “Holocaust Memorial Days: An overview of remembrance and education in the OSCE region”, page 82, provides the following information:

Official commemorations on 27th January take place at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, the Majdanek State Museum, the Sobibor Regional Museum, the Treblinka Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom, the Warsaw Ghetto Heroes Monument and the Radegast train station in Łódź, where the monument of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto is situated. Commemorative activities at these locations usually include speeches delivered by Holocaust survivors, those awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations, Polish and foreign government representatives, as well as representatives of the Jewish community in Poland and of Jewish diaspora organisations. In addition, memorial processions take place, wreaths are laid, candles lit and stones are placed on graves. Songs are performed in Polish, Yiddish, Hebrew and English, and Jewish and Christian prayers are recited. 

Commemorative activities are attended by high-level representatives, including the President of the Republic of Poland, the Prime Minister, the Special Envoy of the Government for International Dialogue and the Speaker (or Deputy Speaker) of the Senate. Members of the Polish parliament, the Minister of Culture and National Heritage, the Minister of Education, the Minister of Administration and Digitization and the Special Envoy of the Minister of Foreign Affairs for Relations with the Jewish Diaspora are also involved in the activities.

Groups involved in commemorative activities in Poland include survivors, the Association of "Children of the Holocaust" and those awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations from the Polish Society of Righteous Gentiles. Organisations involved in the events include the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, the Majdanek State Museum, the Sobibor Regional Museum, the Treblinka Regional Museum, the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, the Union of Jewish Religious Communities in Poland, a civic organisation Marek Edelman Dialog Center, the City of Warsaw, the Chancellery of the Prime Minister and the Chancellery of the President of Poland. Local governments are actively involved in commemorations and often initiate commemorative events at the local level. In 2009, the Ministry of Interior participated in the commemoration of Roma victims of the former German Nazi labour camp which took place in Ulez (Ryki district, Lubelskie region).

The Government of Poland promotes the commemorative events through announcements in the media and the live broadcasting of major events. It also works with civil society to organize the events. In addition to the official events, various unofficial commemorative events take place that are organized by local activists and priests.

 Specialised institution, commission, research centre etc., dealing with this issue

According to the available information, there is no specialised institution, commission or research centre specifically dealing with the issue of the Roma Genocide.

Auschwitz – Birkenau Memorial and Museum
Wiezniow Oswiecimia  Street No 20
32-603 Oswiecim. Poland

District Museum in Tarnów
Rynek Street No 20-21
33-100 Tarnow. Poland

International Youth Meeting Center (Miedzynarodowy Dom Spotkan Mlodziezy w Oswiecim)
ul. Legionów 11,
32-600 Oświęcim. Poland

Holocaust Research Center (Centrum Badań Holokaustu Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego)
ul. Jodłowa 13
30-252 Kraków. Poland

Jewish Historical Institute (Zydowski Instytut Historyczny)
ul. Tłomackie 3/5
00–090 Warsaw. Poland

Centre for Education Development (Osrodek Rozwoju Edukacji)
Aleje Ujazdowskie 28
00-478 Warszawa. Poland

 Official initiatives (campaigns, actions, projects, commemoration days, museums)

A several days event called “Dikh he na bister” takes place in Cracow during July/August. It consists of seminars, conferences, meetings, public debates, concerts etc. partly devoted to Roma and Sinti victims and the role of Holocaust of Roma and Sinti in modern Roma identity. The event includes the ceremony of 2 August commemoration in Auschwitz-Birkenau. “Dikh he na bister” is organised since 2011 by ternYpe – International Roma Youth Network and it gathers approximately 1 000 young Roma from all around Europe.

“Zalikierdo Drom - Interrupted Road” is a publication and exhibition featuring the works of Roma artists, it marks the 70th anniversary of the Genocide of Roma and Sinti, but it also marks a movement where Romani artists are addressing the attempted destruction of Roma by the German Nazis.

Caravan Memorial to commemorate the Romani Holocaust
In 1996, Adam Bartosz, curator of the Ethnographical Museum in Tarnów, created together with Adam Adrasz, President of the Roma Association in Tarnów, a Caravan Memorial - Tabor Pamieci to commemorate the Roma Genocide. In order to commemorate the Roma Genocide and Szczurowa massacre and, at the same time, to integrate Romani people into contemporary society, they teach Romani children and youth about their culture and history as well as to improve the image of Roma in Poland through the use of the internationally accepted Romani anthem and flag.  The organisers continue the tradition of a four-day trip which is popular with locals and the media. Starting in late July, the caravan leaves its starting point in Tarnów and makes symbolic stops along the way.

The Museum of Tarnow holds a permanent exhibition on Roma and their culture, with a part devoted to the Roma Genocide during WW II. In 2011, the Museum published a leaflet on the “Routes of Roma Martyrdom in Malopolskie Region” which comprises the map of sites of the Roma Genocide during the WW II in the region. The research programme on discovering these places is ongoing.

In 2015, the Museum of the Former German Kulmhof Death Camp in Chełmno on Ner implemented a project titled: “Jews, Gipsy, Lodzermensch – the Strangers” devoted to history and aiming on combating discrimination and intolerance. Every year on 2 August, the Museum is organising a commemoration of Roma victims.

Stutthof Nazi Concentration Camp plans to open a new exhibition in 2016.One of the sections is already prepared part devoted to Roma and Sinti victims. They were not the most numerous group of victims, nonetheless there is a part concerning general policy of Nazi Germans towards Roma and Sinti communities.

 Remembrance day

In Poland, the Roma and Sinti Genocide is officially commemorated on 2nd August.

 Teaching about the Roma Genocide

 Inclusion of the topic in the school curriculum

Teaching about the Holocaust is explicitly incorporated into the national school curriculum through a 2003 regulation of the minister of national education and sport.

The Centre for Education Development explained that the Holocaust is not taught as a separate subject, although it is incorporated into the history, Polish-literature and civic-education curricula of lower and upper secondary schools. It can also be elaborated in ethics and theology classes as well as through interdisciplinary activities. Students first learn about the subject at the age of 13 to 14 and again at 17 to 18. State legislation has not prescribed a fixed number of hours dedicated to teaching about the Holocaust; however, the Polish delegation to the ITF estimated that approximately 12 hours in total are allocated to teaching about the Holocaust. Teachers have the freedom to choose how much time they would like to devote to the issue.

 Inclusion of the topic in the school textbooks

The topic of holocaust is incorporated into history, Polish literature and civic education textbooks.

 Training of teachers and education professionals

Teacher training courses are provided by the Centre for Educational Development, regional teacher training centres, the Jewish Historical Institute, the Institute of National Remembrance, universities, the Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum and Memorial and other memorial sites as well as by non-governmental organisations.

The website "Learning from History" is a publication platform for educational projects (realized in schools and in out-of-school, youth education) dedicated to the history of Poland and its neighbours in the 20th century and human rights, such as “To learn from the history. Experiences of XX century totalitarian regimes

In 2014, Belzec Museum of former German Nazi Death Camp organised an educational event which included a conference and a workshop for Roma and non-Roma pupils devoted to Roma and Sinti victims of WWII.

Workshops for Roma school assistants were conducted from 2005 to 2011 on local level initiative with component devoted to the Roma and Sinti Genocide. They provided practical lessons on how to teach on Roma and Sinti Genocide.

 Particular activities undertaken at the level of education institutions

A programme titled “Preserve remembrance. History and culture of two nations” has been implemented by Yad Vashem and the Centre for Education Development, a national teacher-training institution, that aims to create a network of regional co-ordinators and teachers trained to teach about the Holocaust. Polish teachers also regularly participate in the seminars offered by Yad Vashem. The Ministry of Education also organises workshops for teachers in co-operation with the Council of Europe and other partners.

Informal Holocaust education is provided primarily by non-governmental organisations. As an example, the Forum for Dialogue Among Nations, a Polish non-governmental organisation, conducts youth meetings for Jewish and non-Jewish Poles that focus on co-operative learning techniques that aim to reduce prejudice between Jewish and non-Jewish students. The Polish-Israeli Forum of Dialogue is a one-week exchange project for university students that is held in Poland and Israel. The participants take part in the March of the Living and discussions on the Holocaust that aim to overcome stereotypes and misconceptions.

Polish schools observe 19th April as the Day of Remembrance of Holocaust Victims and for the Prevention of Crimes against Humanity. Commemoration of Holocaust Memorial Day in schools was introduced by the Minster of Education in 2005 as part of the “Remembrance for the Future” programme, which aims to prepare schools to organize educational events related to Holocaust Memorial Day.

Since 2004, Pedagogical University of Cracow conducts Postgraduate studies on Roma culture and history within the framework of governmental Program for Roma benefit, with a component devoted to the Roma Genocide.

Since 2013, the International Youth Meeting Center in Oswiecim/Auschwitz is organising a seminar “Roma and Sinti in Europe  - identity, history, memory” devoted, among others, to the process of gradual elimination of Roma and Sinti from the society in Nazi Germany.


The Institute of Romany Heritage and Memory and Holocaust’s Victims established and run by Polish Roma Union is situated placed in Szczecinek. The Institute is collecting the copies of documents concerning the Roma Genocide. Few articles are available on the site.

The Roma Historical Institute is placed in Oswiecim, and is run by Stowarzyszenie Romow w Polsce, The Association of Roma in Poland that collects materials, including victims' testimonies

On 2 August 2014, ternYpe- International Roma Youth Network, the Association of Roma in Poland and the Documentation and Culture Centre of German Sinti and Roma gathered around 1 000 young Roma and non-Roma from over 25 countries to participate in the Commemoration ceremony of the 70th anniversary of the liquidation of the “Zigeunerlager” in the former concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. The programme included the visit of young people and survivors to the Auschwitz Birkenau Museum, and a commemoration ceremony at the monument of the murdered Roma and Sinti. The ceremony took place at the Roma and Sinti Extermination Memorial.

The Roma Genocide Remembrance Initiative, organised by ternYpe network since 2010, aims at raising awareness among young Europeans, civil society and decision-makers about the Roma Genocide as well as about the mechanisms of anti-Gypsyism in a challenging context of rising racism, hate speech and extremism in Europe.

Another project that involved young Roma and non-Roma participants from Poland called Pravde Jakhenca (With Open Eyes) took place from 24 July to 04 August 2013 in Krakow/ Żywiec (Poland). 60 young Roma and non-Roma from Albania, Germany, Macedonia and Poland came together in Zywiec, Poland, to learn more about the Roma Genocide during World War II and to fight Anti-Gypsism and racism in present times.

Virtual Testemonial of Krystyna Gil who was able to escape the mass execution at Szczurowa.

In his speech during 2015 Roma and Sinti Genocide Remembrance Day ceremony that took place at the former German Nazi concentration and extermination camp Auschwitz II-Birkenau, the German Roma Siegfried Heilig, who lost eleven members of his family in Auschwitz and who survived the war in hiding, appealed primarily to the young generation never to forget the untold sufferings and persecutions that have become part of his community. "The youth of today is faced with the challenge to ensure that the events from the past will never be repeated", he stressed.

 Initiatives of the civil society

The educational activity „Rescue from the oblivion” devoted to the Roma and Sinti Genocide is organised annually for pupils of Elblag municipality. It comprises competitions, exhibitions, theatre performances, film presentations etc.

Institute of Romany Heritage and Memory and Holocaust’s Victims, established by the Polish Roma Union in 2001, is a documentation and scientific unit, which conducts research on holocaust, long-lasting persecution of Roma, their culture and social history with an emphasis on their extermination during the Second World War.


 Educational material

Bartosz, A. (2003). Tabor pamięci Romów = Roma caravan memorial. Tarnów: Gmina Miasta Tarnowa and Muzeum Okręgowe w Tarnowie. [It includes pictures, documents, and some summaries about the Samudaripen in Poland]

Bartosz, A. (2006). Jak nauczać historii Romów.

An online lesson "The Roma in Auschwitz concentration camp" is a part of "Resources for teachers" section of the AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU MEMORIAL AND MUSEUM web page dedicated to education.

 Information material


In the period from 2009 to 2015, at least 30 papers devoted strictly to the Roma Genocide during WWII were presented in the scientific conferences in Poland on the topic of WWII:

  • Polish year of 1939, WWII genesis in Polish perspective, 2-3 September 2009, Dobiegniew/ Mierzęcin;
  • From Westerplatte to Norymberg, WWII in contemporary historiography, museums and education, 2-5 September 2009, Sztutowo;
  • To remember or to forget… Memory sites in contemporary academic discourse, 24-26 June 2010, Cracow;
  • Around the Holocaust – new prospects of research, 3-4 November 2010, Lublin;
  • Polish interpretation of the authoritarianism and totalitarianism, 7-9 December 2010, Karpacz;
  • Auschwitz and Holocaust against the background of Genocides of XX century, 25-28 June 2012, Oświęcim;
  • Education for Remembrance of the Roma Genocide, 30 July– 4 August 2014, Kraków – Oświęcim;
  • Conference on 70th anniversary of Roma Genocide, 15 May 2014, Rzeszow

Hackl, E. (2000). Pożegnanie z Sydonią. Oświęcim: Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau. [Original in German]
Lakatos, M. (1979). Krajobraz widziany przez dym. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy. [Original in Hungarian]


The book Tabor pamięci Romów = Roma caravan memorial includes some poems written as a remembrance of the victims of the Samudaripen, such as "Prochy" (Ash) and "Prośba".

"Tabor pamięci Romów" (Roma Caravan Memorial):

La "Tabor pamięci Romów" ("Roma Caravan Memorial") is an annual event - since 1996 - in remembrance of the victims of the Samudaripen. The book Tabor pamięci Romów = Roma caravan memorial includes information about the route and many pictures.
Watch a video in Polish.
Watch some videos in English: video 1 and video 2.

Associations and institutions:

The "Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce" (Roma Association in Poland) in Auschwitz deals actively with the Roma Genocide in Poland. On the website there is a lot of information in Polish about the topic, under the title "Romsky Holokaust", as well as biographies, testimonies and videos. The association also organises events such as conferences or meetings with victims. The "Romskiego Instytutu Historycznego" (Institute for Roma History) is part of the association and conducts many different projects related to the Samudaripen.

The "Związek Romów Polskich z siedzibą w Szczecinku" ("Polish Roma Union") deals with the Roma Genocide. The research centre "Instytut Pamięci i Dziedzictwa Romów oraz Ofiar Holokaustu" ("Institute of Romany Heritage and Memory and Holocaust’s Victims") depends on this institution. The reports regarding the Samudaripen are on the website.

The "Fundacją 'Polsko-Niemieckie Pojednanie'" ("Foundation 'Polnish-German Reconciliation'") deals as well with the Roma Genocide.

There is also the "Polskiej Unii Ofiar Nazizmu" ("Polish Union of Nazism Victims").


The website of the "Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce" (Roma Association in Poland) in Auschwitz includes information in Ponish about the Samudaripen, under the title "Romsky Holokaust", as well as biographies, testimonies and videos.

Museum of the Former German Kulmhof Death Camp in Chełmno on Ner provides a leaflet with information on transports of the Roma from Litzmannstadt ghetto to death camp Kulmhof.

 Scientific publications

ADELSBERGER, L. (1995). Auschwitz: A Doctor’s Story. Boston: Northeastern University Press. [Original in German. There is a new reprinting in 2006]

ADELSBERGER, L. (2001). Auschwitz: ein Tatsachenbericht: das Vermächtnis der Opfer für uns Juden und für alle Menschen. Bonn: Bouvier. [This is a reprinting of the old edition. There is another edition in 2005. Also translated into English in 1995]

BABICKI, M. A. (2007). Ewidencjonowanie ludności romskiej w PRL w 1955 roku.

BARANOWSKI, J. (2003). Zigeunerlager in Litzmannstadt 1941-1942 = The gypsy camp in Łódź = Obóz cygański w Łodzi 1941-1942. Łódź: Archiwum Państwowe w Łodzi and Bilbo.

BARTOS, A. (2003). Tabor pamięci Romów = Roma caravan memorial. Tarnów: Gmina Miasta Tarnowa and Muzeum Okręgowe w Tarnowie.

BARTOSZ, A. (2006). Jak nauczać historii Romów.

BARTOSZEWSKI, W. and Lewin, Z. (1970). The Samaritans: Heroes of the Holocaust. New York: Twayne Publishers.

BUKOWSKI, K. (2006). Sterylizacja ludności romskiej w Złotowie.

CZEKAJ, T. and KWIATOWSKI, R. (2005). Zagłada Romów europejskich. Oświęcim: Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce.

DEBICKI, Edward (2007): The bird of death people/Ptak umarlych

DEBSKI, J. and Talewicz-Kwiatkowska, J. (2007). Prześladowania i masowa zagłada Romów podczas II wojny światowej w świetle relacji i wspomnień. Warszawa: Wydawn, Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce.

DLUGOBORSKI, W. (1994). 50 lecie zagłady Romów. Oświęcim: Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce.

DLUGOBORSKI, W. (ed.) (1998). Sinti und Roma im KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, 1943-44: vor dem Hintergrund ihrer Verfolgung unter der Naziherrschaft. Oświęcim: Verlag Staatliches Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau.

FICOWSKI, J. (1982). “The Fate of Polish Gypsies”. In: Porter, J. N. (ed.). Genocide and Human Rights: A Global Anthology. Washington, DC: University Press of America, pp. 166-177.

FRANKOWSKI, M. T. (2006). Mazowiecka katownia. Dzieje Fortu III w Pomiechówku. Warszawa: Wydawn. M. M.

FRANKOWSKI, M. T. (2007). Zagłada zakroczymskich Romów.

GANCARZ, Natalia & KARPOWICZ, Diana (2013): “Mietek on the war/Mietek na wojnie”

Los Cyganów KL Auschwitz Birkenau. Oświęcim: Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce, 1994.

KAPRALSKI Sławomir (2012): The nation from the ashes/Narod z popiolow

KAPRALSKI Sławomir, MARTYNIAK Maria, TALEVICZ-KWIATKOWSKA Joanna (2011): "Voices of Memory 7 - Sinti and Roma in Auschwitz", ISBN: 978-83-7704-029-4, Publication Department PMAB

LITVINOV, V. (1981). Operat︠s︡ii︠a︡ "Chernyĭ di︠a︡tel": Dokumentalʹnai︠a︡ povestʹ. Kiev: Izd-vo T︠S︡K LKSMU "Molodʹ"

MICHALEWICZ, B. (1986). “The Gypsy Holocaust in Poland”. In: Grumet, J. (ed.). Papers from the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter. New York: The Society, pp. 172-184.

OSTALOWSKA, Lidia (2011): Watercolours/Farby wodne

ROSE, R. (ed.) (2003). Der nationalsozialistische Völkermord an den Sinti und Roma: Katalog zur ständigen Ausstellung im Staatlichen Museum Auschwitz. Heidelberg: Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma.

ROSE, R. et al. (2003). Zagłada Sinti i Romów: katalog wystawy stałej w Państwowym Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau. Oświęcim: Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce - Romski Instytut Historyczny.

ROSENBERG, O. (1998). Das Brennglas. Berlin: Eichborn. [English version in 1999: A gypsy in Auschwitz. London: London House].

State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau (ed.) (1993). Memorial Book: The Gypsies at Auschwitz-Birkenau. München: K.G. Saur.

SZOSTAK, W. (2006). O eksterminacji Romów raz jeszcze.

WELNIAK, Renata (2014): “Zagłada Romów i Sinti w obozie Kulmhof” (Roma and Sinti Genocide in Kulmhof camp), Muzeum Martyrologiczne w Żabikowie

WILCZUR, J. E. (2006). Romowie w polskim ruchu oporu w latach drugiej wojny światowej i niemieckiej okupacji

 Multimedia material

Institute of Romany Heritage and Memory and Holocaust’s Victims:
The "Instytut Pamięci i Dziedzictwa Romów oraz Ofiar Holokaustu" (Institute of Romany Heritage and Memory and Holocaust’s Victims)is related to the "Związek Romów Polskich z siedzibą w Szczecinku" (Polish Roma Union). It is a research unit on the Roma Genocide during the Second World War. They also have a documentation centre on the topic.

"Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce":
The "Stowarzyszenie Romów w Polsce" (Roma Association in Poland) in Auschwitz organises conferences, for instance "Zagłada-Pamięć-Nadzieja" (Holocaust-Memory-Hope) (21-23 November 1996). With funds of the Foundation "Stiftung EZV", the association conducts the programme "Historia i Prawa Człowieka" (History and Human Rights), which allows meetings with victims of the Samudaripen. The "Romski Instytut Historyczny" ("Institute for Roma History") is part of the association and conducts several projects about the Samudaripen.

Sinti and Roma Extermination, the catalogue of exhibition in Auschwitz-Birkenau - German Nazi Concentration and Death Camp (1940-45), 2003

Studia Romologica no.3/2010


1980: “Schimpft uns nicht Zigeuner” (Do not scold us Gypsies). Documentary. Germany. Directors: Katrin Seybold and Melanie Spitta. 43 min.
About experiences in the concentration camp at Auschwitz.

1982: “Es ging Tag und Nacht, liebes Kind - Zigeuner (Sinti) in Auschwitz” (It was night and day, dear child – Roma in Auschwitz). Documentary. Germany. Directors: Melanie Spitta and Katrin Seybold. 75 min.
Some survivors explain their experiences in the concentration camps.

1985: “Verfolgt und Vergessen - Die Vernichtung der Sinti und Roma in Auschwitz und ihre Verfolgung bis heute” (“Persecuted and Forgotten: The Gypsies of Auschwitz”). Documentary. Germany. Directors: Reiner Holzemer, Jürgen Staiger and Hartmut Ühlein. 62 min.
Some Roma survivors from Germany visit the concentration camp which they left 40 years ago. The film also describes the fear of the Roma people, which has endured up to this day.

1988: “I skrzypce przestaly grac” (“And the Violins Stopped Playing”). Feature film. Poland and USA. Director: Alexander Ramati. 116 min. Language: English.
About a real story which depicts a group of Roma fleeing the Nazis during World War II.

1989:The Forgotten Holocaust”. Documentary. United Kingdom. Director: George Case. 50 min.
About the persecution and genocide of the European Roma. Some Roma survivors from Germany, Hungary, Austria, Poland, France and the Netherlands are interviewed about this topic.

1990: “Sidonie”. Feature film. Austria. Director: Karin Brandauer. 87 min.
About the life of a 15 year old Roma girl, Sidonie, who was killed by the Nazis at Auschwitz.

1992: “Sophie Wittich – Aber man kann des gar net so sagen, wie’s wirklich war...” (Sophie Wittich - But you cannot say how it really was). Documentary. Germany. Director: Loretta Walz. 28 min.
Sophie Wittich speaks about her experiences in Auschwitz and Ravensbrück, and also about her own sterilisation.

1993: “Latcho Drom” (Good journey). Documentary. Director: Tony Gatlif. Language: French. 103 min.
About the history of the Roma, depicted through music and dance. There is a survivor who explains her life in Auschwitz.

1997: “Szczurowa”. Documentary. Germany. Directors: Alexander von Plato and Loretta Walz. 20 min.
A Roma woman, who survived the 1943 Roma mass murder in Szczurowa, Poland, explains the events.

1997: “Ó, ty černý ptáčku” (“O You Blackbird of Death”). Documentary. Czech Republic. Director: Břetislav Rychlík. 58 min.
About the experiences in concentration camps of Roma people from Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.

1998: “Meine ‘Zigeuner’ mutter” (My Gypsy Mother). Documentary. Austria. Director: Egor Humer. 30 min.
About the relationship between a daughter and her mother, a Roma who was a survivor of different concentration camps. Her life-story influences this relationship.

1999: “Ceija Stojka - Portrait einer Romni” (Ceija Stojka – Portrait of a Roma). Documentary. Austria. Director: Karin Berger. 85 min.
It is the portrait of the Austrian Ceija Stojka, a 66 year old woman who survived the Nazi concentration camps.

2002: \"Romani Rat / La notte dei Rom” (\"Romani Rat / The Night of the Romany”). Documentary. Italy. Director: Maurizio Orlandi. Languages: Italian, Polish, Romani. 60 min.
A Roma Musician from Kosovo, a Polish photographer, and a social worker from an Italian camp for Travellers go on a trip to different villages and countries in Europe in order to find witnesses of the Porrajmos.

2005: “Unter den Brettern hellgrünes Gras” (Under the leaves light green grass)
Documentary. Austria. Director: Karin Berger. 52 min.
About Ceija Stojka’s life: she was a child in the concentration camps of Auschwitz, Ravensbrück and Bergen-Belsen, where she - and her mother - were liberated.