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"WHY TERRORISM ? Addressing the Conditions Conducive to the Spread of Terrorism"

Strasbourg, 25-26 April 2007

Speakers

Terry Davis

Mr. Terry Davis is the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

Before taking up his current position at the Council, Mr Davis was the Leader of the UK delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly at the Council of Europe and the Chairperson of the Economic and Development Committee and the Political Affairs Committee.

Mr. Davis has further extensive political experience as a former UK Member of Parliament for 28 years, official spokesman for the Labour Party and participant in a number of Committees including Her Majesty’s Privy Council. In addition, he has also served as a councillor in local government.

He has been an active participant in numerous international organisations such as the United Nations, where he was member of the UK delegation to the General Assembly as well as at the Western European Union and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe. His other activities included being a member of Amnesty International, the United Nations Association, the International Institute for Democracy, Globe UK, Links Europa etc.

Prior to embarking on his political career, he had many years experience in the private sector in managerial positions at Leyland Cars, Chrysler Parts UK and Clarks Shoes as well as at Esso as an internal Auditor.

Peter Lizák

Ambassador Peter Lizák is the Permanent Representative of Slovakia to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and current Chairman of the Security Committee of the OSCE.

Ambassador Lizák has been with the Government Office of the Slovak Republic since 1990, firstly at the Department for International Relations serving as Head of Diplomatic Protocol, then as First Secretary at the Slovak Embassy in Bern. In 1998, he was appointed Head of Cabinet of the State Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, then took up the post of Minister Counsellor at the Slovak Embassy in Vienna. In 2002, Ambassador Lizák became the Director of the Department for EU External Relations and Institutions at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in 2003, he was one of the Slovak experts team for the EU Convention and IGC.

Ambassador Lizák was appointed Head of Cabinet of the Minister of Foreign Affairs in 2003 and then took up his current position of Head of Mission of the Slovak Republic to the OSCE in Vienna in 2005.

Prior to his diplomatic career, he worked in the private sector at the Foreign Trade department of AVEX.

Shamil Idriss

Mr. Shamil Idriss is the Acting Di rector of the Alliance of Civilizations.

Before joining the Alliance, Mr. Idriss served as Senior Advisor to the Council of 100 Leaders: West-Islamic World Dialogue Initiative (C-100) at the World Economic Forum and continues to serve on the Steering Committee for that initiative. Mr. Idriss led the establishment of the C-100 “Action Track” which provides a mechanism for the support and funding of initiatives that advance mutual understanding between Western nations and predominantly Muslim societies.

From 2000 to 2004, Mr. Idriss served as Chief Operating Officer of Search for Common Ground (SFCG), an international conflict resolution organization and pioneer in the use of media for conflict transformation. As COO, he managed the global programming of an organization consisting of 15 offices and 375 staff members, including its headquarters.

In previous positions at SFCG, he directed the first independent radio outlet in Burundi, Studio Ijambo, which was credited in independent evaluations for reducing inter-ethnic violence and advancing reconciliation between Hutus and Tutsis. Previously in 1998, Mr. Idriss managed SFCG’s US-Iran Program, an effort to improve American-Iranian cultural relations. The program was hailed for organizing the first public American delegation to visit Iran since the Iranian revolution in 1979: the US National Wrestling Team’s competition in the Takhti Cup Tournament.

Mr. Idriss serves on the Boards of several non-profit organizations and was appointed in 2005 to the Young Global Leaders Forum of the World Economic Forum.

Peter Neumann

Dr. Peter R. Neumann is Director of the Centre for Defence Studies, King's College London, and a member of the Club de Madrid’s expert advisory committee.

Dr. Neumann was the Academic Director of the Club de Madrid's International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security in Madrid in March 2005, and served as senior advisor to the National Policy Forum on Terrorism, Security and America's Purpose in the United States in 2005.

His latest book, The Strategy of Terrorism, will be published by Routledge later this year (co-authored with MLR Smith). Previously, he authored Britain's Long War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), the most comprehensive assessment of British strategy in the Northern Ireland conflict, as well as numerous articles on terrorism and counter-terrorism in journals like Survival, Foreign Affairs, Orbis, and Terrorism and Political Violence. Shorter analyses have been published in the New York Times, the International Herald Tribune, Prospect Magazine and others. Before becoming an academic, Dr Neumann worked as a radio journalist in Germany.

Robert Parsons

Mr. Robert James Parsons is a specialist i n international politics at France24.

Mr. Parsons is an independent journalist and writer. He is a correspondant at the Geneva Office of the United Nations for Le Courrier de Genève and for daily newspapers in English.

Prior to his current employment, Mr. Parsons was a correspondant for the BBC in Moscow from 1993 to 2002. He is a specialist of the Caucasus and Georgian nationalism, and was also head of service in Georgia for Radio Liberty. He has extensively written on post-Soviet countries and regularly moderates talk shows.

Rafael A. Benitez

Mr. Rafael A. Benitez is the Anti-Terrorism Coordinator of the Council of Europe.

Since 2001 he also leads the Counter-Terrorism Task Force of the Council of Europe where he has worked since 1994.

His reponsibilities include the Council of Europe’s Committee of Experts on Terrorism (CODEXTER), an inter-governmental committee responsible for the implementation of the Organisation’s activities against terrorism, particularly in the legal field.

He is also responsible for the Council of Europe’s Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI), which brings together the Legal Advisers of the Foreign Ministers of the member States of the Council of Europe and Observer States as well as a number of international organisations.

Mr. Benitez has written extensively on international law, administrative law, public ethics, corruption, and terrorism. He is a visiting lecturer at the Institute of International Relations (ITI-RI) and the International Human Rights Institute (IIDH) in Strasbourg and a member of the recruitment jury of the French Ecole nationale d’administration (ENA).

Prior to joining the Council of Europe he worked in the private sector, both in a law firm and a business association.

Anatoly Safonov

Mr. Anatoly Safonov is the Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation on International Co-operation in Combating Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime.

Since 1992 Mr. Safonov has been among the top leadership of Counter-intelligence of the Russian Federation, firstly as the First Deputy Director of the Federal Security Service of Russia in 1994, then the Chairman of the Committee on Security of the Union State of Russia and Belarus since 1997. Between 2001-2004, he served as Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation, and since October 2004 he has been the Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation for International Co-operation in Combatting Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime. His military rank is Colonel-General, and his diplomatic rank is Ambassador Extraordinary & Plenipotentiary.

Mr. Safonov took an active part in the work of numerous governmental committees and peacekeeping operations, including the inter-ethnic conflicts in Southern and Northern Ossetya, Ingushetia, Georgia, other regions of North Caucasus, Republic of Tadjikistan and Abkhazia. As a deputy of the Minister of Security of the Russian Federation and Director of the Federal Security Service of Russia, he was responsible for the area of counter-terrorism, drug trafficking and organized crime, as well as the development of international cooperation with special services of foreign states. He has been awarded with governmental decorations of the USSR and Russia, honorary staff-member of the Counter-intelligence service of the Russian Federation, and has been a corresponding member of the International Academy of the Information technologies.

Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni

Mrs. Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni is the Director General of Education, Culture and Heritage, Youth and Sport at the Council of Europe and Coordinator for Intercultural Dialogue of the Council of Europe.

Mrs. Battaini-Dragoni is the first woman ever to be nominated to the rank of Director General in the Council of Europe. She joined the organisation in 1976 as an Educational Adviser with the European Youth Centre. In 1981, she joined the Directorate of Social Affairs and Health, and from 1991 to 1994 she worked as Head of Service with the Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport of the Council of Europe. In 1994, she joined the Research and Planning Unit of the Council of Europe, responsible for the planning of the Programme of Activities of the Organization.

In 1998, Mrs. Battaini-Dragoni was appointed Director of the Directorate General of Social and Economic Affairs. In this capacity, she succeeded to develop a long-term, synergic human-rights based approach to social development. She implemented technical assistance activities and her Directorate developed policy recommendations promoting access to basic social rights and fighting social exclusion.

In 2001, Mrs Battaini-Dragoni was appointed Director General of Social Cohesion and in 2004, at a crucial moment in the reform process of the organisation, Ms Battaini-Dragoni was appointed Director General of Education, Culture and Heritage, Youth and Sport. Her objective is modernising the European social model with due regard to cultural factors, citizenship issues, diversity policies and the potential of intercultural dialogue.

In November 2005, Mrs Battaini-Dragoni was nominated Coordinator for Intercultural Dialogue of the Council of Europe, responsible for monitoring all activities of the Council of Europe in the area of intercultural dialogue and for the coordination with external partners, including UNESCO, ALECSO, Anna Lindh Foundation.

Mrs. Battaini-Dragoni has published widely on a variety of social policy topics. Her most recent articles on social cohesion, migration issues, and social security and she recently contributed to two World Bank Publications on social exclusion and social standard issues. She was recently featured in the Economic Section of the French newspaper Le Monde.

Mrs. Battaini-Dragoni is a frequently invited guest speaker at UN, EU, OECD, World Bank, WHO and ILO meetings. In 2001, she lectured at World Bank meetings in the US, Asia and Europe on the European Social Model and its standard setting instruments. In 2001 she participated as member of the drafting group of the Committee on Social Affairs and Employment of the European Parliament and contributed to the report on “illiteracy and social exclusion”. In Strasbourg, she is a member of the Academic Steering Group of the Centre of European Studies, responsible for planning the Center’s academic curricula.

Rosa Guerreiro

Mrs. Rosa Guerreiro is the Programme Specialist for the Intercultural and Interreligious Dialogue of the Organization in the Division for Intercultural Dialogue at UNESCO.

Mrs. Guerreiro was associated researcher at the CNRS (National center for Scientific Research - Laboratory Lenain de Tillemont, History of Religions Department) at the University of Paris IV Sorbonne. Invited by the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) School of High Studies in Social Sciences, she taught as senior lecturer on the transmission of knowledge and cultures among the three cultural communities of the Iberian peninsula (Jews, Christians and Muslims), the circulation of manuscripts and the intellectual work in the medieval Scriptoria.

She joined UNESCO in 1995 appointed as Programme Specialist for the Intercultural and Interreligious Dialogue of the Organization in the Division for Intercultural Dialogue, where, among other things, she organized several international Meeting in central Asia, Africa and around the Mediterranean.

Stein Villumstad

Mr Stein Villumstad, Deputy Secretary General of Religions for Peace.

Mr. Villumstad has extensive experience in international humanitarian and development assistance and conflict transformation. Before joining Religions for Peace he held several positions in Norwegian Church Aid, including those of deputy general secretary, director of emergency and humanitarian response, and regional representative for Eastern Africa.

Mr. Villumstad brings history of partnership with religious communities, many of whom he has worked with in conflict and post-conflict situations. He has been a close partner with the religious leaders in Sierra Leone and Ethiopia-Eritrea in their conflict transformation efforts. In 1995, Mr. Villumstad became the first co-chair of the Action by Churches Together (ACT International) Executive Committee, charged with coordinating church based emergency relief for more than one hundred organizations worldwide. Until 2006, he was a member of the World Council of Churches’ (WCC) Commission on International Affairs. His writing includes the book, Reconstruction of Africa: Perspectives from Within and Without (2005), and a number of articles in periodicals and newspapers.

Gaspar Martinez

Mr Gaspar Martinez is a Catholic priest of the Diocese of Bilbao.

Mr Martinez trained as economist, he was involved for several years in managerial and organizational matters. After further managerial studies at London Business School (Sloan Fellow 1988), he earned a Phd in Theology from the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. He is currently Secretary General of the Diocese of Bilbao and teaches theology at the University of Deusto (Bilbao). He is member of the Scientific Committee of the Jacques Maritain International Insitute (Rome).

He is the author of the book Confronting the Mystery of God: Political, Liberation, and Public Theologies (Continuum: New York, 2001) and of the article “Liberation and Political Theologies”, in The Cambridge Companion to Karl Rahner. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 2005. He has published several articles in different reviews and periodicals.

Among other activities, he co-founded the “Haretxa” association for intercultural and interfaith dialogue (Bilbao) and co-organized the International Congress on Intercultural and Inter-religious Dialogue, New Challenges in a World Longing for Peace (Bilbao, December 2005). Last year, he was a panellist on Interfaith Understanding at the Larnaca (Cyprus) Second ASEM Interfaith Dialogue, as well as speaker and panel moderator at the Pamplona (Spain) First ASEM Youth Interfaith Dialogue.

Bruno Gain

Ambassador Bruno Gain is the Permanent Representative of France to the Council of Europe.

In the Council of Europe he currently chairs the Committee of Ministers’ Rapporteur Group responsible for terrorism.

After joining the diplomatic service in 1973, Mr Gain was appointed Vice-Consul at the French Consulate General in New York from 1974 to 1976, then Second Secretary at the French Embassy in Bahrein from 1976 to 1979. Between 1980 and 1984, he was working in the Department of Political Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs where he was in charge of European relations in particular issues related to atomic energy and space. He was then appointed First Secretary at the French Embassy in Australia from 1984 to 1987 and then Advisor to the French Embassy in Japan from 1987 to 1990. He then took on the position of Deputy Director of Human Rights at the Department of Legal Affairs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1990 to 1993 and then assumed the role of Director of Service Apparatus and Communications at the same Ministry from 1993 to 1997. He served as a Ministerial Advisor at the French Embassy to Saint-Siège from 1997 to 2001, followed by his appointment to Ambassador as Permanent Representative of France to the Pacific Communities and Permanent Secretary for the Pacific (Paris-Nouméa) from 2002 to 2006.

Mr Gain is a Knight of the Légion d`Honneur and a Knight of the National Order of Merit. Since the 10th of March 2006, he has been the Permanent Representative of France to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg.

Ortwin Hennig

Ambassador Ortwin Hennig is the Vice-President of the East-West Institute and Director of the Conflict Prevention Programme.

In addition to his diplomatic posting in Afghanistan, Russia, with the German Representation to the European Commission and the OSCE in Vienna, Ambassador Hennig also served at the Office of the German Federal President as a foreign policy advisor. His last assignment before joining EWI was as Commissioner for Civilian Crisis Prevention, Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Peace Building for the German Federal Foreign Office in Berlin.

With an academic background of Political Science at the Free University of Berlin and the London School of Economics and as an alumnus of the NATO defence college in Rome, Ortwin has specialized in arms control and security policy matters.

Ortwin Hennig has published on arms control, the OSCE and conflict prevention.

James A. Goldston

Mr James A. Goldston is the Executive Director of the Open Society Justice Initiative, an operational program of the Open Society Institute that promotes rights-based law reform and the development of legal capacity worldwide.

Previously, as Legal Director of the Budapest-based European Roma Rights Center, Mr. Goldston spearheaded the development of ground-breaking civil rights litigation before the European Court of Human Rights, United Nations treaty bodies, and domestic courts in 15 European countries.

In 1996, Mr. Goldston served as Director General for Human Rights of the Mission to Bosnia-Herzegovina of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, where he oversaw monitoring, reporting and individual protection activities nationwide.

For five years, Mr. Goldston was a prosecutor in the office of the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, where he specialized in the prosecution of organized crime. He previously worked for Human Rights Watch.

A graduate of Columbia College and Harvard Law School, Mr. Goldston has written widely on issues of human rights and racial discrimination. He has engaged in law reform fieldwork and investigated rights abuses in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. Furthermore, he is a Lecturer on Law at Columbia Law School.

Thomas Hammarberg

Mr Thomas Hammarberg is the Commissioner for Human Rights at the Council of Europe.

He was elected Commissioner for Human Rights on 5 October 2005 by the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly. He took up his position on 1 April 2006, succeeding the first Commissioner, Mr Alvaro Gil-Robles.

Mr Hammarberg was nominated for the post of Commissioner for Human Rights by the Swedish government.

Prior to his appointment, he spent several decades working on the advancement of human rights in Europe and worldwide. He has held the key posts of Secretary General of the Stockholm-based Olof Palme International Center (2002-05), Ambassador of the Swedish Government on Humanitarian Affairs (1994-2002), Secretary General of "Save the Children" Sweden (1986-92), and Secretary General of the London-based Amnesty International (1980-86).

Mr Hammarberg also held several special positions during these years. In 2001-03, he served as Regional Adviser for Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. For several years, he was the Swedish Prime Minister's Personal Representative for the UN Special Session in Children, as well as the Convener of the Aspen Institute Roundtables on "Human Rights in Peace Missions". Between 1996 and 2000, he was Kofi Annan's appointed representative (SRSG) for human rights in Cambodia. He also participated in the work of the Refugee Working Group of the multilateral Middle East Peace Process.

Over the past 25 years, Mr Hammarberg has published widely on various human rights issues, particularly on children's rights, refugee policy, minority issues, xenophobia, Roma rights as well as international affairs and security. He is also well known for his presentations and lectures on human rights at various governmental and academic institutions.

Alexander P. Schmid

Professor Alexander P. Schmid holds a chair in International Relations at the University of St. Andrews, where he is the Director of the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV).

Prior to this current appointment in May 2006, Professor Schmid served as Officer-in-Charge of the United Nations’ Terrorism Prevention Branch in Vienna, where, from 1999 to 2005, he held the position of a Senior Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Officer. Before joining the United Nations, Prof. Schmid held the Synthesis Chair on Conflict Resolution at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. He also taught International Relations at the Department of Political Sciences of Leiden University where he acted as Research Coordinator of the Interdisciplinary Research Programme on Causes of Human Rights Violations (PIOOM).

He was an Einstein Fellow at the Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, and served on the Executive Board of the International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council (ISPAC) of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme. Furthermore, he is a member of the World Society of Victimology and a Senior Fellow of the Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism. Prof. Schmid is also a Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Netherlands and a Member of the European Commission’s Expert Group on Violent Radicalisation.

Professor Schmid is the joint editor of Terrorism and Political Violence, a leading journal in the field. He has also written and edited more than 150 reports and publications, including the award-winning ‘Political Terrorism’. Currently he works on a Handbook of Terrorism Research.

Marja Lehto

Mrs Marja Lehto is Director in the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Chairperson of the Council of Europe’s Committee of Experts on Terrorism (CODEXTER).

Before assuming her current function as the head of the Unit for Public International Law, in 2000, she worked for more than 15 years at the Ministry occupying various functions, including five years as the legal adviser of the Permanent Mission of Finland to the UN in New York.

Her other positions at the Council of Europe have included membership in the Bureau of CODEXTER in 2004-2005 and in the Bureau of the Multidisciplinary Group on International Action against Terrorism (GMT) in 2002-2003. Furthermore, in the UN, Marja Lehto was chairperson of the Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organization in 1999, coordinator of the consultations on the definition of crime in the negotiations on the International Convention for the Suppression of Nuclear Terrorism in 1998, and chairperson of the informal consultations on oceans and the law of the sea of the UN General Assembly in 1998 and 1999.

Mrs Lehto has been Finnish representative in several international conferences and meetings, including such as negotiations on the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings in 1997, the International Convention for the Suppression of Nuclear Terrorism in 1998, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism in 1999, the (draft) International Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism in 2000-2002, and the European Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism in 2004-2005.