Through the Lisbon Recognition Convention, the concept of ‟qualifications” based on learning outcomes is central to the work of the Council of Europe in higher education.

Qualifications, which reflect the knowledge, understanding, ability to do and willingness to do (or abstain from doing) developed through an education programme, are also described at national level through national qualifications frameworks. These are tools for transparency, comparability and compatibility between education systems, including at higher education level.