Updated November 2023

Key recent developments (October 2021 – November 2023)

  • 26/10/2021 – A multistakeholder conference on “Current and Future Challenges of Co-ordinated Policies on AI Regulation” was held by the Hungarian Presidency of the Committee of Ministers and the Council of Europe. Speakers and attendees included numerous high-ranking representatives of international organisations, governments, NGOs and AI business community leaders. Conference conclusions are available.
  • 03/12/2021 – The Council’s Ad Hoc Committee on Artificial Intelligence (CAHAI) completed its mandate. The Committee of Ministers received the final deliverable titled “Possible elements of a legal framework on artificial intelligence, based on the Council of Europe’s standards on human rights, democracy and the rule of law”.
  • 10/01/2022 – First meeting of the Council’s AI Co-ordination Group held to ensure continued co-ordination on AI work between various sectors of the Organisation. This co-ordination will occur continuously, both on the way towards the first meeting of the Committee on AI (CAI) and subsequently.
  • 4-6/04/2022 - First CAI Plenary meeting held in Rome, Italy, preceded by a High-Level Segment co-organised with the Italian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers.
  • 17/05/2022 - Second meeting of the AI Coordination Group
  • 21-23/09/2022 - Second CAI Plenary meeting.
  • 18/10/2022 - Third meeting of the AI Coordination Group.
  • 11-13/01/2023 - Third CAI Plenary meeting.
  • 24/01/2023 - Fourth meeting of the AI Coordination Group.
  • 1-3/02/2023 - Fourth CAI Plenary meeting.
  • 29/03/2023 - Fifth meeting of the AI Coordination Group.
  • 19-21/04/2023 - Fifth CAI Plenary meeting.
  • 31/05 - 02/06/2023 - Sixth CAI Plenary meeting.
  • 27/09/2023 - Sixth meeting of the AI Coordination Group.
  • 24-26/10/2023 - Seventh CAI Plenary meeting.


1. Binding and non-binding legal instruments (standards)

  1. 1.1 Transversal
  1. 1.2. Privacy and Data Protection
  1. 1.3. Justice and public administration
  1. 1.4. Healthcare and Biomedicine
  1. 1.5. Non-discrimination, Gender equality
  1. 1.6. Social Rights
  1. 1.7. Education
  1. 1.8. Children’s rights
  1. 1.9. Freedom of expression and culture
  • [Ongoing] Guidelines on the use of digital tools including artificial intelligence for journalism/by journalists -  MSI-RES (by 2024)
  • [Ongoing] Guidance Note on countering the spread of online mis- and disinformation through fact-checking and platform design solutions in a human rights compliant manner - MSI-INF (by 2024)
  • [Ongoing] Development of Recommendation and Study on the impacts of digital technologies on freedom of expression - MSI-DIG
  • [Ongoing] Development of Recommendation on Combating Hate Speech - ADI/MSI-DIG
  • [Ongoing] Draft standard-setting instrument with guiding principles for media and communication governance in the context of the new media and information paradigm based on social media distribution, taking account of related risks (manipulation of public opinion, lack of public trust, information disorder) - MSI-REF
  • Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to member States on the roles and responsibilities of internet intermediaries - CM/Rec(2018)2

2. AI studies, reports and conclusions of key events

  1. 2.1. Transversal

Regulatory feasibility and similar studies

Other materials

  1. 2.2. Privacy and Data Protection
  1. 2.3. Justice and public administration
  1. 2.4. Democratic governance
  1. 2.5. Non-discrimination, Gender equality
  1. 2.6. Action against crime
  1. 2.7. Freedom of expression and culture
  1. 2.8. Youth policy

2.9. Education

  • Artificial intelligence and education – a critical view through the lens of human rights, democracy, and rule of law, November 2022


3. PACE Reports related to AI


4. Other AI initiatives, including future activities

  1. 4.1. Justice and public administration
  • [Ongoing] Development and operationalisation of the principles of the CEPEJ Charter on the use of AI in judicial systems and examination of the feasibility of a certification of AI tools and services, against the Charter's principles
  • [Ongoing] Development of tools with a view to offer a framework and safeguards to member States and justice professionals willing to create or use ICT and/or IA mechanisms in judicial systems in order to improve the efficiency and quality of justice – CEPEJ
  • Quarterly meetings of the “CEPEJ Artificial Intelligence Advisory Board” (AIAB) aimed at monitoring the emergence of AI in the justice system and advising the CEPEJ working groups accordingly - CEPEJ-GT-QUAL (2022)3rev1, 12 September 2022
  • Progressive updates of the “Resource Center on Cyberjustice and Artificial Intelligence”, providing an overview of AI systems used in the adjudication of justice.
  • Regular meetings of the “European Cyberjustice Network”, identifying and exchanging on emerging issues of Digitalisation and AI.
  • Revised roadmap for ensuring an appropriate follow-up of the CEPEJ Ethical Charter on the use of artificial intelligence in judicial systems and their environment - CEPEJ(2021)16, 9 December 2021 – CEPEJ
  • 2022 – 2025 CEPEJ Action plan: “Digitalisation for a better justice” CEPEJ(2021)12Final
  • [Planned] Factsheet on Generative AI and Justice, with the aim of guiding legal professionals on the responsible use of such publicly available tools in the administration of justice.
  • [Ongoing] Development on Online course on the efficiency and quality of justice, including a module on AI.
  • 19th European Conference of Electoral Management Bodies on “Artificial intelligence and electoral integrity - Venice Commission
  • [Planned] (By end of 2022) Discussions on the follow-up on AI work. (In 2023-2025) Potential setting up of a new drafting group or where relevant a subordinate body to the CDCJ to address the specific aspects of emerging new technologies and legal services in the areas of expertise of CDCJ (public and civil law) - CDCJ
  • The project Foster Transparency of Judicial Decisions and Enhancing the National Implementation of the ECHR (TJENI) aims to propose/test advanced technological solutions for publication and categorization of judicial decisions. Therefore, the testing of existing IT tools that support the summarisation process, with a specific focus on the Greek language was done under the project. On 18 and 19 November, a TJENI Hackathon on finding innovative tools to support the digitalisation of justice will be held in Paris. On 24 November, in cooperation with the French Institute for Research of Law and Justice, the Cyberjustice Laboratory, and with the support of the University of Strasbourg a conference on cyberjustice will be hosted in Strasbourg. Finally, TJENI project is supporting the development of the HELP course on AI.
  1. 4.2. Democratic governance
  •  (By 2024) Produce a handbook on the use of digital technologies and artificial intelligence by the public administration, identifying case studies, best practice and policy recommendations - CDDG
  1. 4.3. Healthcare and Biomedicine
  1. 4.4. Non-discrimination, Gender equality
  • Online course on AI and discrimination available for member States on the HELP platform, run in cooperation with the French Ombudsoffice.
  • [Ongoing] Addressing problems with respect to the use of AI tools in country monitoring activities - ECRI
  • [Ongoing] (By end of 2023) Study the impact of artificial intelligence systems, their potential for promoting equality - including gender equality - and the risks they may cause in relation to non-discrimination (a feasibility and scoping study for a possible specific legal instrument) - CDADI, GEC
  • [Planned] (By end of 2025) Based on the results of the work of CAI and in close co-operation with it, and subject to the result of the above-mentioned feasibility study, possible specific legal instrument - GEC/ADI-AI, CDADI
  1. 4.5. Social Rights
  1. 4.6. Education
  • [Ongoing] The State of Artificial Intelligence and Education Across Europe: the results of a Survey of Council of Europe Member States 
  • [Planned] Sectoral and specific legal instrument to regulate the use of artificial intelligence systems in education - Steering Committee for Education (CDEDU)
  • [Planned] CM Recommendation on teaching and learning about Artificial Intelligence
  • [Planned] Feasibility study for an international review system for EdTech solutions
  1. 4.7. Youth policy
  • [Planned] Youth policy standards and other institutional responses to newly emergent issues affecting young people’s rights and transition to adulthood, including AI - Joint Council on Youth
  • [Planned] Development of learning resources for AI literacy - Youth Department
  1. 4.8. Action against crime
  • [Ongoing] Groundwork to explore risks and benefits of AI (measures need be taken to prohibit the use of software algorithms with corrupt intent and great potential of AI to improve the effectiveness of steps taken to combat corruption, for instance in being used in complex investigations) - GRECO
  • [Ongoing] A comprehensive AI-related initiative is being developed by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) - of which MONEYVAL is an associate member - on the use of AI technologies to combat money laundering and terrorism financing - MONEYVAL
  • [Ongoing] Artificial intelligence and criminal law - legal instrument - CDPC
  1. 4.9. Freedom of expression and culture
  • Publication on E-Relevance of Arts and Culture in the Age of Artificial Intelligence - Culture and Cultural Heritage Division
  • [Planned] Further work on policy guidelines for member States addressing the challenges related to the digitalisation of culture, impact of AI, participation and inclusion. Creativity and innovation are specifically pertinent aspects to be dealt with in this work, given the CDCPP's realm (culture, heritage and landscape) and natural link to sustainable development and climate crisis topics - Steering Committee for Culture, Heritage and Landscape (CDCPP)
  • [Planned] Handbook on Human Rights and Artificial Intelligence - Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH)

     4.10. Children's Rights 


Towards an application of AI based on human rights, the rule of law and democracy



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