“Local and regional authorities have to respond to the needs of refugees often with only limited support from their national governments or at European level,” said Giuseppe Boschini (Italy, SOC), member of the Congress at the 2016 Lisbon Forum (24 to 25 November) focusing on Migration and human rights: how to structure effective collective action? “In order to respond to this crisis, our local authorities need clearly defined legal and financial frameworks, just as our national governments need European support and solidarity,” he added. He referred to the approach advocated by the Congress based on respect for the human dignity of all migrants, the construction of inclusive societies and co-operation between all levels of governance. Mr Boschini said that the local and regional authorities had a unifying role to play in reformulating the response to the migration crisis. “National governments must also play a key role in providing assistance to local and regional authorities, in particular by clarifying the legal framework in order to facilitate their action,” he concluded.