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    Status regarding Budapest Convention

Status regarding Budapest Convention

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Cybercrime policies/strategies

In 2015, the Government of Nepal, through its Ministry Of Communications And Information Technology, issued its National Information and Communication Technology Policy (ICT Policy 2072) (NE) which presents various objectives to guide the digitalization of the country. The document sets the targets of digitalization in terms of infrastructure and Internet access, implying a transition towards an e-administration and e-economy to follow in the upcoming years. In this context, fighting cybercrime, enhancing cybersecurity and data protection are mentioned as means to build confidence and security and increase the use of ICT among citizens.

To meet these expectations, in the ICT Policy 2072 the government commits to improve existing legislation on cybercrime and cybersecurity, and to increase the capabilities of law enforcement agencies and prosecution services on cybercrime matters. The policy establishes also new units within existing government institutions or agencies to enforce the law, such as the Computer Crimes Investigation Unit, the National Electronic Communication Security Centre and an Information Security Response Team (NPCERT).

The 2019 Digital Nepal Framework proposes to finish setting up the National Electronic Communication Security Centre by 2021. In general, cybercrime is subsumed under the umbrella of cybersecurity, which is evident in this most recent digital framework when it comes to developing relevant legislation.

Specialised institutions

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs: via diplomatic channels, seems to be the default Central Authority for mutual legal assistance and extradition matters. However, the Mutual Legal Assistance 2070 (2014) provides that the Central Authority for MLA would be decided for each bilateral treaty upon publication in the Nepal Gazette.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs: according to the Extradition Act, 2070 (2014) Section 9, once the request for extradition reaches the Ministry of Foreign Affairs through diplomatic channels, the request is then forwarded to the Ministry of Home Affairs for processing.
  • Cyber Bureau: part of the Nepali Police, the office was set up in 2018 to: (1) investigate cybercrimes (including on critical infrastructure); (2) undertake capacity building; (3) coordinate and cooperate on information exchange and cybercrime investigations with national and international organisations/bodies and security agencies; (4) form the national CERT. Contact information here.
  • Information Security Response Team Nepal (NPCERT): established in 2016, was created to deal with cyber security threats like hacking and phishing, to help identify and respond to cyber risks (and limit their impact on operations), and to coordinate with other domestic and international CSIRTs (Computer Security Information Response Team) and related organisations.

Jurisprudence/case law

Sources and links

ICT Policy 2072 (2015);

2019 Digital Nepal Framework;


Cyber Bureau;

President Yadav certifies 10 different Acts (27 Mar 2014), The Kathmandu Post;

Compendium of Bilateral and Regional Instruments for South Asia: International Cooperation in Criminal Matters (2015). United National Office on Drugs and Crime;

Cyber Security and Internet Governance in Nepal (Apr 2020), Manish Jung Pulami, Nepal Institute for International Cooperation and Engagement;

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bilateral Relations.

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