Teachers play a major role in improving the abilities of students to interpret and create digital media and helping pupils understand their rights, and the boundaries to being a responsible digital citizen. They are in the ideal position to guide young people and provide them with opportunities for active participation in society, while emphasising the value of learning and the role of technology in their lives.

Implication for Policy or Practice

If educators were guided by outlines of achievement level as well, their task would be made easier and assessment made possible. There could be links to guidelines on formative assessment in the four areas of digital citizenship competences. To this end, they also need to be equipped with the competences required for implementing and assessing CDC.

Given that teacher education will be at the centre of successful solutions to preparing European students for the skills and capacities for 21st century citizenship — global awareness, creativity, collaborative problem-solving, and self-directed learning — it is clear that the core practice of teaching and learning must include the tools and resources used commonly by most of the population.

Emphasis should be placed on lesson scenarios conducted by teachers. In fact, publishing educational materials or narrative teaching solely based on textbooks are no longer sufficient. New teaching methods which meet the need of students should be embedded in the curricula to develop an effective approach on privacy education at large. Creating personalised and real-world lesson scenarios can capture children’s interest and enhance their engagement besides providing context and skills to help prepare them to use what they have learned in future situations.