The Convention provides for the setting up of a monitoring mechanism capable of assessing and improving the implementation of the obligations contained in it.
A two-pillar system
The monitoring mechanism of the Convention consists of two distinct, but interacting, bodies:
- an independent expert body, the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA), which is composed of 15 members who sit in their individual capacity and are selected on the basis of their expertise in the areas covered by the Convention;
- a political body, the Committee of the Parties, which is composed of representatives of the Parties to the Convention.
The task of GRETA is to evaluate the implementation of the Convention by the Parties, following a procedure divided in rounds. The first evaluation round was launched in February 2010, and the second round, in May 2014. At the beginning of each round, GRETA defines autonomously the provisions to be monitored and determines the most appropriate means to carry out the evaluation, being guided by the Rules of Procedure for Evaluating Implementation of the Convention.
In carrying out its monitoring work, GRETA has the right to avail itself of a variety of means for collecting information. As a first step, GRETA sends a questionnaire to the authorities of the Party undergoing evaluation. The questionnaire is also sent to non-governmental organisations active in the field of action against trafficking in human beings. After receiving the authorities’ reply to its questionnaire, GRETA organises a visit to the country concerned in order to hold meetings with relevant governmental and non-governmental actors, collect additional information and evaluate the practical implementation of adopted measures.
Following the conduct of the country visit, GRETA draws up a draft evaluation report containing an analysis of the implementation of the Convention and conclusions concerning the action which the Party needs to take to deal with any problems identified. The draft report is discussed in a plenary meeting and, following its approval by GRETA, is sent to the relevant national authorities for comments. Following the receipt of these comments, GRETA draws up a final report which is discussed and adopted in another plenary session, and subsequently transmitted to the Party concerned and the Committee of the Parties to the Convention. GRETA’s final report is made public together with eventual comments by the Party concerned.
The Committee of the Parties to the Convention considers GRETA’s reports and, on the basis of them, adopts recommendations to the governments of the Parties concerned.