Free, independent and diverse media are essential for democracy. Blogs, social networks, content aggregators and search engines enable individuals to access information and communicate with thousands of people in completely new ways. Together with traditional media, these new media actors are today essential sources of information.

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that everyone has the right to freedom of expression and to access to information. This right applies equally offline and online, and should be balanced with other legitimate rights and interests. Existing standards developed for traditional media may well apply to new media, which means they may be entitled to rights, but also subject to responsibilities.

For individuals to fully enjoy freedom of expression and information online, the Internet needs to be stable and open. Technical failures and intentional disruptions can impact access to information regardless of frontiers. The Council of Europe has developed a framework of international cooperation to prevent and respond to eventual disruptions of the Internet.

The following are some of the key issues the Council of Europe is addressing in its work to protect and promote freedom of expression and free access to information online.

  • Developing standards based on human rights to protect and preserve free cross-border flow of legal Internet content.
  • Exploring the balance between safeguarding freedom of expression and protecting the honour and reputation of persons.
  • Developing – working with other stakeholders - a “framework of understanding and/or commitments” to protect the universality, integrity and openness of the Internet as a means of safeguarding freedom of expression regardless of frontiers and Internet freedom.
  • Drafting human rights policy principles on network neutrality to ensure Internet users have the greatest possible access to content, applications and services of their choice.
  • Promoting the accessibility of Internet content to all actual or potential users.
  • Developing guidelines and best practice to help governments and Internet intermediaries acting as media gateways to promote freedom of expression and access to pluralistic, quality-based and diverse sources of information.
  • Increasing the literacy of all social and age groups.
  • Promoting transparency and accountability in democracy by using the Internet to facilitate access to official documents as part of the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Access to Official Documents


Key standards

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers recommendations on:

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers declarations on:


Internet platform to protect journalism and promote safety of journalists

In April 2015 the Council of Europe has launched an Internet platform aimed at protecting journalism and promoting the safety of journalists in co-operation with Article 19, the Association of European Journalists, the European Federation of Journalists, the International Federation of Journalists and Reporters Without Borders.

These five partners issue alerts concerning media freedom threats in Europe - both online and offline - and bring them to the attention of the Council of Europe bodies so these can follow up on them and request information to the states concerned.