A robbery was carried out by three people wearing blue and white balaclavas. Vladimir Laska and Artur Lika were arrested by police, but protested their innocence. The police put Mr Laska and Mr Lika in a line-up for witnesses, but made them wear blue and white balaclavas – the colour worn by the criminals. Other people in the line-up wore black balaclavas.
Witnesses identified Mr Laska and Mr Lika as the robbers. This “identification” was then used to convict them in court.