2. Training of education professionals
Within the framework of the "Pestalozzi"
programme for the training of education professionals,
a number of European workshops
specifically devoted to Holocaust remembrance teaching and to
teaching with a view to preventing crimes against humanity
European seminar is held on a regular basis, bringing together many teachers
from Austria and member states, along with survivors (of the Holocaust and the
Samudaripen): the exchanges between them are very dispassionate but the wealth
of the information passed on orally is extremely valuable for teachers who can
subsequently either relate what they have learned to their pupils or invite the
survivors to their classrooms.
has been an annual European workshop held since 2007, when Croatian teachers
present their classroom teaching experiences. These workshops are noteworthy in
both quantitative and qualitative terms for not only the knowledge they transmit
but also the material which can be directly used by teachers and the emphasis
placed on Jasenovac, a genuinely historically symbolic site, as a teaching tool.
seminar to be held every two years was inaugurated in 2008 in conjunction with
the French Ministry of Education and the
Shoah Memorial in Paris. It focuses on teaching about the Holocaust and the
use of a range of innovative educational approaches (such as films, postcards,
cartoons, eye-witness accounts, comic strips, literature). The seminars have
been attended by participants from 15 member states and many teachers have
remained in contact following the event.
2008, a European workshop was held at the European Youth Centre in Budapest. It
was primarily devoted to the Samudaripen or Porajmos, the persecution and
genocide suffered by the Roma. A DVD on Roma culture in Hungary has been
released and the analysis of films and of written and oral eye-witness accounts
has provided material which can be directly used in the classroom. The seminar
also looked at the Holocaust in Hungary and a number of historically symbolic
sites were visited:
Holocaust Memorial Centre. Practical workshops with teachers focused
significantly on the preventive dimension.
Norwegian Ministry of Education organised a seminar at the
Centre for Holocaust Studies in Oslo in autumn 2007. The seminar focused on
the different approaches to teaching about the Holocaust by addressing the
following questions: should one adopt a comparative approach to genocides?
Should one teach about the Holocaust without analysing the mechanisms and teach
it only in history classes? Or should it be treated as a specific phenomenon
and on the basis of a conceptual analysis of its mechanisms, should one opt more
especially for a preventive approach in the context of education in democratic
citizenship? Various methodological approaches in the form of role playing, a
website and the analysis of films and audiovisual documents made it possible to
adopt an original approach to the issue.
The Polish Ministry of Education has,
since 2005, organised a biannual European workshop, one in
Auschwitz Birkenau, and the other in Warsaw, with the
aim of providing European teachers with in situ training to
enable them to use a genuine historically symbolic site as a
tool for teaching about the Holocaust. Most of these
teachers directly apply what they have learned by organising
a study visit to Auschwitz and occasionally ask for Council
of Europe oversight in carrying out the project.
The focus in Warsaw was not solely on the Holocaust period,
but also took into account the Polish Jewish heritage, the
history of minorities, Jewish-Polish relations and changes
in teaching about the Holocaust since 1945. Some 20 member
states have sent participants in the last four years
October 2009, a European seminar was held on Ljubljana entitled “From crimes
against humanity in European history to the birth of the European idea” which
looked at the specific features of Slovenian history in the period of the second
world war and on different recollections of that history. Concentration camp
survivors exchanged views with teachers.
Slovakian Ministry of Education held a European seminar in January 2006,
focusing on not only remembrance of the Holocaust in countries under communist
role post 1945 but also the rise of anti-Semitism in parallel to the process of
greater democracy and freedom of expression in the 1990s. The seminar addressed
the use of eye-witness accounts and the film “Kindertransport”. Exchanges of
views between teachers from the former Soviet bloc and from west European
countries on how remembrance has changed were very much appreciated.
Link to the Pestalozzi Workshops::
Ad hoc monitoring
Downloadable good practices