Status regarding Budapest ConventionStatus : NA See legal profile
The Kingdom of Bahrain published a National Cybersecurity Strategy in 2017, which addressed the threats, including cybercrime, which threaten the country’s interests in cyberspace. The strategy also announced the creation of a National Cybersecurity Committee.
State of cybercrime legislation
- Constitution of Bahrain (2002) – contains provisions on data protection and privacy
- Law No. 28 concerning Electronic Transactions (2002) [only in Arabic]
- Law No. 48 concerning Telecommunications (2002) [only in Arabic]
- Law No. 60 concerning Information Technology Crimes (2014) [only in Arabic] [unofficial translation]
- Law No. 16 concerning the Protection of State Information and Documents (2014) [only in Arabic]
- Law No. 60 concerning Information Technology Crime lists offences considered as cybercrimes. The first part of the law contains three sections: Crimes against IT systems (Art. 2 – Art. 6); Crimes related to the means of information technology (Art. 7 – Art. 9) and Crimes related to content (Art. 10) – including reference to child pornography offenses.
- The Law concerning Information Technology Crimes of 2014 includes implementation of the substantive law provisions, such as illegal access, data interference, illegal interception and misuse of devices, as well as content-related offences of fraud and child pornography.
- The same Law contains specific implementation of procedural powers referring mostly to preservation and production of data.
- Draft Law on Cybercrime introducing elements of the Budapest Convention has been discussed since 2014.
- Law No. 60 concerning Information Technology Crime contains procedural powers applicable to offenses listed in the same law, as well as offenses provided for any other law if committed using IT systems or in any criminal investigations where evidence is collected in electronic form. Chapter II: Procedures for IT crimes of contains reference to expedited data retention (Art. 12), production order (Art. 13), partial disclosure (Art. 14), search (Art. 15).
- International Human Rights Treaties ratified.
- The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bahrain (2002) contains some provisions on data protection, privacy and freedom of electronic communication.
Related laws and regulations
- Law No. 2 of 2017 for Ratifying the Arab Agreement in Combating IT Crimes
- Telecommunications Law (Legislative Decree No. 48 of 2002), which establishes Telecommunications Regulatory Authority
- Law No. 30 of 2018 regarding Issuing the Protecting Personal Data law
- Law No. 16 of 2014 regarding the Protection of Information and State Documents
- Decree/Law No. (54) for the year 2018 for Issuance of Letters and Electronic Transactions
- Decree of the Prime Minister No. 36 2018 regulating the technical requirements for sending, receiving and updating the electronic records and signatures of the public bodies
The Cyber Crime Directorate under The General Directorate of Anti-corruption and Economic and Electronic Security of the Ministry of Interior is responsible for investigating and reporting on cybercrime.
Bahrain has an officially recognized CERT (CERT.bh) mandated by Bahrain’s Supreme Council for Information and Communication Technology through Resolution No. 37-2/2013. However, CERT.bh is currently under formation.
Practical guides, templates and best practices
Signed and ratified Arab Contention on Combating Information Technology Offences (source: Chatham House publication 2018)
Sources and links
These profiles do not necessarily reflect official positions of the States covered or of the Council of Europe.
- Cybercrime website
- Template: Mutual Legal Assistance Request for subscriber information (Art. 31 Budapest Convention). Available in Albanian, Bosnian,
Serbian and Turkish
- Template: Data Preservation Request (Articles 29 and 30 Budapest Convention). Available in Albanian, Bosnian,
Serbian and Turkish