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National level
Local/regional level

The good practices identified in this booklet are initiatives focussing on a specific subject: policing and justice, education and youth, and Roma empowerment. In order to have maximum benefit, such initiatives need to form part of a wider strategy to combat systemic, institutional discrimination and to promote Roma inclusion. For example, Roma-oriented education initiatives that are not supported by wider strategies to combat underlying poverty and to increase employment opportunities will have only a limited impact. Experience of tackling discrimination and exclusion of other minorities and migrant groups across Europe and elsewhere in the world supports this view strongly.

In a number of countries, integrated strategies are now beginning to be developed, at national and/or local and regional levels. Experience of implementation of integrated strategies, however, is still limited. NGOs frequently express concern at the failure of governments to proceed with implementation quickly and effectively, and the unwillingness to establish structures and to provide adequate resources to support such implementation. A further limitation is the lack of adequate monitoring systems - both for recording incidents of racism and discrimination, and for evaluating the impact of policies on the situation of Roma. The collection of statistical data which can be analysed by ethnic group is an essential requirement for the formulation and evaluation of strategies on Roma and minority issues, and ways must be found to overcome legal and constitutional obstacles to the collection of such data.

National level 

Examples of integrated strategies at national level include the following:

Also, in the five transition countries of Central/Eastern Europe that have the largest Roma populations, comprehensive national-level strategic plans for the integration of Roma are currently being developed and implemented, with substantial EU and international donor support:

Local/regional level 

Examples of integrated strategic approaches at the municipal and regional levels include the following:

All of the above examples incorporate initiatives focussing on the three areas covered by this booklet. Further information can be obtained from the relevant national, regional and municipal authorities.