Other international and regional standards for protection

The United Nations

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is the most influential and comprehensive legal instrument on children's rights. It makes states responsible for protecting children from all actions contrary to human values, including sale, exploitation and unlawful sexual activity.

The Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2000) was drafted in response to an increase in child trafficking, prostitution and the availability of child pornography on the Internet. It gives states more detailed guidance on explicit measures for implementation. States are required to criminalise and punish the sale of children, child prostitution and pornography, and related activities, such as accepting to use the services of child victims.

Paulo SÚrgio Pinheiro's Report of the independent expert for the United Nations Study on Violence against Children, commissioned by the UN Secretary General, is the most comprehensive study on child violence realised to date.

UN Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against transnational organised crime (2003)

Additional Protocol to the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime on the prevention, suppression and punishment of trafficking in persons, especially women and children (1999)

The International Labour Organization Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour (1999)

Programme of Action for the Prevention of Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. Established by the UN Commission on Human Rights working group on slavery to investigate child prostitution, pornography and trafficking (1992)

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979)

Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949)

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