The issue of mental health is expected to be one of the biggest challenges facing healthcare systems in the future. Mental healthcare should be treated no differently to physical healthcare in that a human rights-based approach should be adopted in both. It is vital that the rights and self-determination of all patients, including persons with mental health difficulties, be promoted and that they may actively participate to the greatest possible extent in all decisions regarding their treatment and care. In this context, the development and use of voluntary measures and practices in mental healthcare should be promoted. 

The Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (CETS 164, Oviedo Convention) aimed at protecting the dignity and identity of all human beings and guarantee everyone, without discrimination, respect for their integrity and other rights and fundamental freedoms with regard to the application of biology and medicine.