Tečaji in testiranje

Prevod v slovenščino: Ina Ferbežar, članica delovne skupine LAMI (ALTE)

Jezikovni tečaji in jezikovno testiranje sodijo v jedro ukrepov za priseljence, ki si želijo izboljšati svoje znanje jezika dežele, v katero so se priselili. Priprava in kakovost tečajev in testov so odločilnega pomena tako za same priseljence kot tudi za nacionalne oz. regijske/pokrajinske oblasti, ki postavljajo cilje in pogosto zagotavljajo finančna sredstva za njihovo izvedbo.

Ta del predstavlja tri med sabo povezana področja – organizacijo in izvedbo tečajev, jezikovnih testov in drugih oblik preverjanja znanja priseljencev ter zagotavljanje njihove kakovosti. Za vsako področje so bili pod okriljem Sveta Evrope pripravljeni različni pripomočki, in sicer

  • dokumenti z analizami in usmeritvami,
  • študije primerov, ki opisujejo posebne pristope k poučevanju in testiranju,
  • orodja, ki jih lahko uporabljajo učitelji in vodje.
     

Priprava jezikovnih tečajev za odrasle priseljence

Države članice Sveta Evrope od priseljencev vse bolj zahtevajo, da pridobijo določeno minimalno raven jezikovnega znanja, preden jim izdajo dovoljenje za dolgotrajno prebivanje ali jim podelijo državljanstvo. V prid takim politikam številne države članice organizirajo ali financirajo jezikovne tečaje za odrasle priseljence, ki še niso dosegli določene ravni jezikovnega znanja. To zahteva razmislek o različnih vidikih organizacije in izvedbe tečajev, na primer kako ugotoviti potrebe posameznih priseljencev in jih upoštevati pri določanju ciljev in vsebin ponujenih jezikovnih tečajev.
 

Resources relating to needs analysis and course design:

Learning the language of the host country for professional purposes - Outline of issues and educational approaches: this paper focuses in particular on adult migrants’ need to be supported in acquiring the necessary language skills to enter the job market. It examines various approaches that have been taken to providing language training for this purpose.

Language learning, teaching and assessment and the integration of adult immigrants - The importance of needs analysis: this paper proposes a model for analysing the individual needs of migrants and proposes a task-based approach to their language training and to assessment.

European Language Portfolio (ELP) for Adult Migrants learning the language of the host country – A guide for Teachers – chapter 7: this chapter of the guide outlines how individual profiles of students entering language courses can be drawn up and how the profiles can then be drawn on in course planning.

Tailoring language provision and requirements to the needs and capacities of adult migrants: this paper discusses the language learning needs of adult migrants arising from their particular social needs and their background prior to migration.
 

Resources in the form of case studies that examine language provision for adult migrants in different contexts and from different points of view:

Responding to the language needs of adult refugees in Ireland: an alternative approach to teaching and assessment – this case studies looks at an innovative solution to the provision of language support for a diverse group of migrants and refugees in Ireland.

The role of literacy in the acculturation process of migrants  – this case study discusses the impact of low literacy and different educational backgrounds on adult migrants attending courses in France, and describes some of the difficulties students encounter and the implications of these for policy makers and providers.

Language learning in the context of migration and integration – Challenges and options for adult learners: this case study considers the situation of illiterate migrants in Austria and the approaches used to help them to acquire basic literacy in the context of their language courses

Education: Tailor-made or one-size-fits-all? A project commissioned by the Nederlandse Taalunie: this case describes a project in which techniques were successfully designed and used for drawing up individual profiles of adult migrants in the Netherlands, as well as to provide guidance and motivation in their language courses
 

Preverjanje znanja odraslih priseljencev pred tečajem, med njegovim potekom in po njem ter testiranje odraslih priseljencev v deželah, kjer so testi pogoj za prebivanje in pridobitev drugih dovoljenj ali državljanstva

Preverjanje znanja odraslih priseljencev se izvaja z različnimi nameni in ima lahko različne oblike.

i) V kontesktu jezikovnih tečajev za odrasle priseljence so glavne vloge preverjanja znanja

  • oceniti jezikovno raven in jezikovne potrebe učečih se pred tečajem, da so lahko uvrščeni v ustrezno skupino.
  • izmeriti napredovanje učečih se na tečaju in prepoznati težave, ki jih imajo posamezni učeči se, tako da je poučevanje dejansko prilagojeno njihovim potrebam. To je mogoče storiti na številne različne načine, in sicer lahko napredovanje učečih se učitelj meri kontinuirano, med njihovim izvajanjem jezikovnih nalog itd.
  • Na koncu številnih tečajev se uspešnost učečih se testira tako, da dobijo ustrezno spričevalo.

Institucije, ki testirajo na tak način, morajo poskrbeti, da so njihovi testi veljavni in zanesljivi.
 

ii) Tudi samoocenjevanje učečih je lahko uporabno in spodbuja motivacijo. Ena od različic Evropskega jezikovnega listovnika je bila razvita prav za odrasle priseljence, dodani so tudi navodila za učitelje in samoocenjevalne lestvice. Listovnik odraslim priseljencem omogoča oceniti in beležiti svoj napredek v kateremkoli jeziku njihovega repertoarja, tudi jezika dežele, v katero so se priselili.

iii) V nekaterih deželah morajo priseljenci opravljati uradne teste, da dokažejo raven jezikovnega znanja, ki se zahteva za pridobitev dovoljenja za prebivanje, za pridobitev državljanstva ali celo za združevanje družine. V vse več državah morajo jezikovne teste opravljati, še preden zapustijo domovino. Seveda je mogoče, da so takšni testi nesorazmerni in diskriminirajo. Poleg tega izpitne institucije ponujajo javne izpite, ki naj bi jih opravili odrasli priseljenci, da bi tako dokazali ustrezno raven jezikovnega znanja. Kot to velja za vse  teste in izpite, je treba tudi v teh primerih zagotoviti, da so veljavni, pošteni in zanesljivi ter da imajo priseljenci zagotovljen dostop do izobraževanja, ki jim bo pomagalo pri pripravi na izpit.
 

Resources relating to tests of a formal nature:

Language tests for social cohesion and citizenship – an outline for policymakers: this is a paper prepared by the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) provides a useful overview of policy considerations to ensure that tests are valid, reliable and fair.

Language learning, teaching and assessment and the integration of adult immigrants. The importance of needs analysis : this paper proposes a model for analysing the individual needs of migrants and proposes a task-based approach to their language training and to assessment (also referred to under ‘provision of language courses)
 

Resources relating to self-assessment by adult migrants of their developing language proficiency:

European Language Portfolio (ELP) - Learning the language of the host country - Adult Migrants: this version of the ELP has been created specifically with the needs and situation of adult migrants in mind to enable them to consider their existing skills in various languages, and to track and reflect on their progress in learning the language of the host country. It is generic in the sense that it is designed to be adapted to suit the needs of particular contexts.

European Language Portfolio (ELP) for Adult Migrants learning the language of the host country – A guide for Teachers : this provides teachers with detailed guidance on how to use this version of the ELP. It also contains a chapter on profiles and levels (also referred to under ‘provision of language courses’) and on how to create an ELP for low-level learners.

The ELP for adult migrants is accompanied by two documents: i) an Introduction to the ELP and ii) 'Goal-setting and self-assessment checklists'.
 

Zagotavljanje kakovosti jezikovnih tečajev in testov

Ponudba jezikovnega izobraževanja za odrasle priseljence je po državah različna, tako po količini in ceni kot po ciljih, enako pa velja tudi za teste in druge oblike preverjanja znanja odraslih priseljencev. Jezikovno izobraževanje je za odrasle priseljence ključnega pomena, tako kar zadeva družbeno in ekonomsko integracijo kot tudi količino denarja in truda, ki ju vložijo vanj. Zato je treba zagotoviti, da je ponudba jezikovnih tečajev in testov relevantna in učinkovita, da prinaša želene rezultate, da pa hkrati ostaja kakovostna ter da ustrezno prepoznava možnosti za kontinuirano izboljševanje in se nanje odziva. Nacionalne izobaževalne oblasti organizirajo „inšpekcije“ ali druge oblike zunanje evalvacije na šolski ravni, manj sistematično pa se kakovost spremlja v nadaljnjem izobraževanju in v izobraževanju odraslih – ne glede na to, ali je organizirano na ravni države ali gre za nevladni sektor. Evalvacija in zagotavljanje kakovosti jezikovnih tečajev in testov za odrasle priseljence sta ključna, tako za dobro udeležencev kot tudi za oblasti, ki so odgovorne za organizacijo in financiranje teh tečajev –  v številnih državah v celoti ali delno z davkoplačevalskim denarjem.
 

Resources relating to the quality of language course provision:

Providers of courses for adult migrants - Self-assessment Handbook is a tool in the form of an extended questionnaire designed to help managers and staff working in centres providing courses for adult migrants to look in depth at and reflect on all areas of their work with a view to assessing whether quality improvements are desirable or indeed necessary. It may also be useful for those in state authorities charged with overseeing the provision.

Quality assurance in the provision of language education and training for adult migrants – guidelines and options – this paper examines the reasons for a quality approach and the main areas which need to be considered when assessing and assuring the quality of language courses.
 

Resources relating to the quality of tests and other forms of assessment:

Language tests for social cohesion and citizenship – an outline for policymakers, which was prepared by the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) provides a useful overview of policy considerations to ensure that tests are valid, reliable and fair (also referred to in section iii)

Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: : Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) - A manual is to be found in a dedicated section of the Council of Europe’s website. It sets out procedures for linking language tests to the levels of the Common European Framework of Reference, and is accompanied by The Toolkit – the CEFR and Language Examinations, The Manual for Language Test Development and Examining, and various other documents relating to language tests.

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