Politique des jardins : ESPAGNE


 Institution(s) in charge

Ministry of Culture and Sports
Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural y Bellas Artes
Subdirección General de Gestión y Coordinación de Bienes Culturales
Plaza del Rey nº 1 – 28004 Madrid


 Other actors


 Relevant legislation

The law of 16/1985, on Spanish Historical Heritage, dated 25th June 1985, is in charge of the declaration of cultural heritage. Historic gardens are covered by Article 15 of the above-mentioned Law. These Historic gardens are one of the cultural typologies included in the categories that can be listed at the highest possible national level (Bien de Interés Cultural) as regards the aforementioned law.

Besides this national law, each Regional Government has developed their own legislation regarding the subject. These offer a wide range of visions dealing with the meaning and protection of historic gardens.


 Protection measures

Under the title of “Historic Gardens” there are in the whole country of Spain one hundred and twelve gardens listed as such: https://www.culturaydeporte.gob.es/bienes/cargarFiltroBienesInmuebles.do?layout=bienesInmuebles&cache=init&language=es

Nevertheless, under different categories such as monuments, historical settings, archaeological remain, etc. (which comprise monasteries, abbeys, royal palaces, cultural landscapes, villas, etc.) many important gardens are included. There is therefore a second «hidden» listing of historic gardens to be found in listed properties in Spain.

Most of these gardens are privately owned. Likewise, the public institution "Patrimonio Nacional", manages its own historic gardens.


 Existing inventories

All the Historic Gardens, listed at the highest possible national level (Bien de Interés Cultural) or protected with another rank protection, are included in the Registro General de Bienes de Interés Cultural of the Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural y Bellas Artes.

In 2001, the Ministry of Culture promoted a Master Plan regarding the inventorying and listing of historic gardens in Spain. This Plan included the proposal of an inventory form which was the result of careful study of other registration forms in Europe and abroad.  This form was approved with the consensus of all the Spanish Autonomous Communities; the intention was to introduce this registration form to the European Community, so that common goals in the inventorying of historic gardens could be introduced throughout Europe.

This project served as a starter for other inventories in Regional Governments, as well as provinces. Spanish Autonomous Communities have developed quite satisfactory inventories of their historic gardens.

These are not centrally organised, but rather the State register includes only those that are listed as the highest possible level in the Registro General de Bienes de Interés Cultural of the Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural y Bellas Artes.


 Online information


 Specialised training

Within the framework of Bologna Plan, the first class of Landscaping Graduates in Spain was obtained in 2013.

There are currently three degrees in Landscaping that are taught in Spain: Grado en Paisajismo (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid), Grado Interuniversitario en Paisaje (Universidad de A Coruña), and Grado en Paisajismo (Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña).

Besides, there are various Master programs in landscape architecture at different universities in Spain (Cataluña, Granada, La Coruña, Madrid). The Polythecnic University of Madrid in collaboration with Patrimonio Nacional developed a Specialisation Course in Garden and Landscape management & conservation, with special emphasis on Garden Restoration: https://www.upm.es/Estudiantes/Estudios_Titulaciones/EstudiosPosgrado/form_esp?id=1211&fmt=detail

Short courses on specific subjects such as garden history, garden design, management, conservation, often take place led by many different institutions (universities, private organisation, administration bodies, etc.).


 Awareness-raising actions

Within the program of the Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe (in which 47 projects are included) the European Route of Historic Gardens was certified as of October 2020. It is made up of historic gardens and European institutions that share an interest in protecting and promoting the heritage of these specific sites. With the purpose of protecting and promoting the common heritage of the European green legacy and identity, the route also fosters the sustainable development by promoting a sensitivity towards natural heritage and education through cultural tourism visits.

As objectives of the Cultural Route we can mention:

  • Disseminate and promote historic gardens through the European Route of Historic Gardens.

  • Promote relations with the Council of Europe and the European institutions, collaborating closely with the European Institute of Cultural Routes.

  • Promote dialogue and exchange of good practices in the area of valorization of Cultural Heritage.

  • Promote the collaboration of public administrations and private organizations to promote joint actions related to this itinerary.

  • Promote and implement educational activities on the historical gardens that make up the itinerary, aimed at young people, in order to reinforce knowledge of their roots and consolidate the European identity.

  • Harmonize, within the scope of sustainable development, those cultural and tourist activities that might take place in the territory of the historic gardens.

Currently, 10 countries participate in this project: Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Belgium and Ukraine.


 Terminology tools

No specific dictionary or thesaurus exists dealing with garden terminology, though in Spain this is very rich because of our Arabic influence, as well as Persian, Greek, Roman or Muslim.



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  • A.A.V.V. Historia de los Parques y Jardines en España. Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas, S.A., Madrid 2001.
  • A.A.V.V. Jardines de España (1870-1936). Catálogo de la exposición “Jardines de España (1870-1936)” celebrada en Madrid bajo la dirección de los comisarios Lily Litvak y Juan Pérez de Ayala. Fundación Cultural Mapfre Vida, Madrid 1999.
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  • LUENGO, Ana, MILLARES, Coro, (eds.) Parámetros del jardín español, Ministerio de Cultura, Educación y Deporte, Madrid 2007.
  • MARTÍN CURTY, J. A. Los jardines cerrados. Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos de Galicia, Vigo 1987. PRIETO-MORENO, F. Los Jardines de Granada. Gabinete de Estudios de la Dirección General de Bellas Artes, Madrid 1973.
  • MARTÍNEZ-CORRECHER, C., The Gardens of Spain. Editorial Harry N. Abrams. New York. 1993.
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  • OZORES y SAAVEDRA, Mª Teresa de, Marquesa de Casa Valdés. Jardines de España, Ed. Aguilar, Madrid 1973.
  • PAU PEDRÓN, A. & ALMAGRO GORBEA, M., La protección jurídica del patrimonio inmobiliario histórico. Editorial Colegio de Registradores de la Propiedad y Mercantiles de España. 2005.
  • PAZ DE LA CADENA, F. Historia de los estilos de jardinería. Editorial ISTMO. 1995.
  • RUBIO Y TUDURÍ, N., El jardín meridional. Editorial Los Cinco Sentidos. 2006.
  • WINTHUYSEN, JAVIER DE, Jardines clásicos de España. 1930. Editorial Aranjuez Doce Calles.
  • Jardines Históricos. Monografías Universitarias. Alfonso VIII. Soria 2005.
  • Protección de los Jardines y Sitios Históricos. Normativa, Análisis de la Situación. Martínez Muñoz, Soledad. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2005.