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Israel: offline provisions for online cases

Israel also applies provisions of the Criminal Code and other laws, such as the Protection of Privacy Act (1982) or the Prevention of Sexual Harassment Act (1998) for conduct online. For example, article 3(a) of the Israeli Prevention of Sexual Harassment Act (1998) states that a sexual harassment may also be "a publication of a picture, a video or a recording of a person, focused on that person's sexuality, when the publication may humiliate or degrade that person, and when that person did not give his consent to the publication". The punishment on this conduct is five years imprisonment and the perpetrator is regarded as a sex offender if convicted. This article was enacted mainly in order to tackle the phenomenon known as "revenge porn". Usually the phenomenon includes the documentation of a sexual act that was performed with consent, and then one of the people involved in the act publishes that content without the consent of the second person. This "revenge porn" is regarded as a sort of cyberviolence towards the victim, and thus may be regarded as a type of "cyber-bullying".