Direct democracy and participatory democracy can be, under certain conditions, a way of dealing with the citizen’s disengagement from representative politics. A range of other ways of involving citizens in governance has emerged, fuelled by web and social media applications: participatory budgeting and crowdfunding for government projects, for example, give community members a voice in the fiscal decision‑making processes and invite them to deliberate on the local authorities’ financial decisions. Citizen watchdogs are another relevant example of initiatives taken by citizens who wish to document a fact. They encourage both citizens to know more about their elected officials' conduct and the latter's responsiveness towards their votes, with the positive effect of reducing the level of corruption. Are these phenomena confined to a few pioneering cities or are they heralding a shift towards participatory democracy?

Changing the dynamics of politics. Citizenship as an engine of change, Coalició Compromís, Spain

Coalició Compromís is a political party from the Spanish region of Valencia. They think that the best way to combat populism in politics is by promoting transparency and ethics in the performance of public institutions, together with stimulating the participation of citizens in order to address their disaffection withpolitics. The party is based on the idea of political openness both in terms of its organisational structure and decision-making processes. They aim to perform with the utmost transparency and encourage citizen’s debate through education, i.e. explaining how policies are developed, and exposing alternatives to involve citizens, in order to find a general consensus.  As a consequence, party officials, militants and sympathizers decided together on the list of candidates for elections, the public salaries of their representatives were published online, etc. Since they participate in the regional government, the regional Ministry of Transparency, Accountability, Participation and Cooperation has been founded. Its main aims are to ensure transparency of public activity and to promote citizen participation.