The wiki profiles provide an overview of a country's policy on cybercrime and electronic evidence. Every fiche includes a description of cybercrime policies/strategies, the state of cybercrime legislation, the channels of cooperation, international cooperation and case law.

For more information on a country's legislation, click on the legal profile in each country wiki.

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    Status regarding Budapest Convention

Status regarding Budapest Convention

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Cybercrime policies/strategies

The Australian Government published the Cyber Security Strategy: Enabling Innovation, Growth & Prosperity 2016, which addressed cybercrime and other cyber threats, as well as established strategic aims from 2016 to 2020. The strategy establishes five themes of action for Australia’s cyber security until 2020:

  1. A national cyber partnership: priority actions to focus on co-leadership, building stronger partnerships and understanding costs of malicious cyber activities to the economy.
  2. Strong cyber defences: priority actions to focus on detecting, deterring and respondoing top cyber threats, and raising the bar to make Australia a harder target against cyber threats
  3. Global responsibility and influence: priority actions to focus on championing open, free and secure Internet, shutting down safe havens for cybercrime, and building capacity
  4. Growth and innovation: priority actions to focus on enabling cyber security innovation, enabling cyber security businesses to develop and expand, and enabling cyber security research and development
  5. A cyber smart nation: priority actions to focus on developing the right cybersecurity skills and expertise, and raising national cyber security awareness.

The Attorney-General’s Department previously published a ‘National Plan to Combat Cybercrime’ in 2013, detailing legislative amendments and strategic objectives to counter cybercrime.


‘Australia’s International Cyber Engagement Strategy’ (2017) – contains a chapter on cybercrime, with the main goal of attaining stronger cybercrime prevention, prosecution and cooperation, with a particular focus on the Indo-Pacific. To this end, the measures taken are:

  • Raise cybercrime awareness in the Indo-Pacific;
  • Assist Indo-Pacific countries to strengthen their cybercrime legislation;
  • Deliver cybercrime LE and prosecution capacity building in the Indo-Pacific;
  • Enhance diplomatic dialogue and international information sharing on cybercrime.

Australia’s International Cyber Engagement Strategy emphasis the fact that cybercriminals attempts to exploit the vulnerabilities of states in the early stages of developing the legislative and technical capabilities necessary o combat cybercrime. Therefore, Australian government seeks to deepen bilateral, regional and global partnerships to increase cooperation and build on the capacities to combat this threat.


Specialised institutions

Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) – leading agency on the investigation and reporting of cybercrime and other cyber threats, at a national and transnational level. Part of the Australian Signals Directorate (ASD) - set up in 2017 to use its offensive cyber capabilities to disrupt, degrade, deny and deter organized offshore cybercriminals. This capability is subject to stringent oversight, and consistent with domestic law and obligations under international commitments.

CERT Australia – national Computer Emergency Response Team, part of ACSC.

The Australian Federal Police (AFP) High Tech Crime Operations (HTCO) is responsible for investigating serious cyber offences throughout the country, while the AFP’s Specialist Operations’ forensics unit is responsible for digital forensics.

Jurisprudence/case law

Kennedy v Baker (2004) - seizure of electronic evidence

R v Scerba (2015) – unauthorised disclosure of classified Department of Defence data

Kenworthy v The Queen (2016) - subscriber data and the transmission of child pornography

Tools on Cybercrime & Electronic Evidence Empowering You!

These profiles do not necessarily reflect official positions of the States covered or of the Council of Europe. 

* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSC 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.