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    Status regarding Budapest Convention

Status regarding Budapest Convention

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Cybercrime policies/strategies

The Israeli government, specifically the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Homeland Security, have taken a few measures on the matter of cybercrime in recent years.

The Israeli government has decided to establish the National Cyber Headquarters and the National Cyber Authority. These government agencies are dedicated to strengthen Israel's abilities on the matter of Cyber security and combatting Cybercrime. These agencies have been decided upon on three different government decisions – no. 2443, no. 2444 (from February 15th 2015) and no. 3611 (from August 7th 2011). Later, in 2017, the Israeli Government decided to unite these two agencies into one, called The Israeli National Cyber Directorate. The Israeli Government is currently working on a Government Bill that will address the National Cyber Directorate powers and assignments.

The Israeli government has also decided to take measures on the matter in order to provide incentives for entrepreneurs and economic growth in cyberspace, alongside reducing social inequalities and improving government services online. The project, called "Digital Israel", has been erected based on Israeli government's decision no. 1046 (from December 15th 2013), and promotes innovation on matters of digital education, digital health, digital welfare and digital economy.

On matters of law enforcement, the Ministry of Homeland security has founded the Cybercrime Division in LAHAV 433 on 2013. The Cybercrime Division is the leading Police force fighting against crimes in cyberspace. The Division is the investigative force responsible for the investigation of complex computer crimes on the national level, such as "hacking", viruses etc.

The Ministry of Justice has decided to establish the Cybercrime Department in the Israeli State Attorney's Office, on September 2015. The Cybercrime Department is part of the Israeli prosecution (the State Attorney's Office) and is responsible for the indictment and prosecution of criminals that have committed cybercrimes such as spreading viruses, "Trojan horses", information theft, money theft committed online etc. The Department is also responsible for "Alternative Enforcement", mostly against expression offenses, by reaching understandings with the Internet companies about the removal of content that violates the Israeli law and the companies' terms of service.

Additionally, in 2016 the Israeli Government established the Child Online Protection Bureau (The 105 Unit). The Bureau is dedicated to tackle online offences committed against minors. The unit includes a national call center; a special investigation unit which will focus on revealing and investigating such offences; activities in the field of education, welfare and suicide prevention; and activities on the matter of content removal.

On matters of Privacy protection, in 2006 The Ministry of Justice has founded the Israeli Law, Information and Technology Authority. The Authority's name was later changed to the Privacy Protection Agency. The Agency serves as the government's branch responsible for the protection of privacy and private information. Additionally, the agency is responsible for investigating criminal offences that have to do with the unlawful usage of databases.

Specialised institutions

The cybercrime in Israel is mostly dealt with by three main units, that have been presented above:

  • The Cybercrime Division in LAHAV 433 – investigating criminal offences.
  • The Cybercrime Department in the Israeli State Attorney's Office – prosecuting cyberoffences.

The Israeli Privacy Protection Agency– investigating database-related offences.

Jurisprudence/case law

On the matter of Ezra v. Israel (criminal appeal 8464/14), the Israeli supreme court discussed whether or not the offence stated on Article 4 to the Israeli Computer Law (1995), forbidding illegal access to computer material, is relevant only to cases in which the offender has overcome a "Digital Lock". The Supreme court decided that the offence is relevant to any case in which the access what "unlawful", meaning every time the offender did such an act without the proper consent of the legal owner or holder of the computer material.


Sources and links

The Cyber Division in LAHAV 433 website -


The Cybercrime Department in the Israeli State Attorney's Office website –


The Israeli Privacy Protection Agency's website –