This section documents initiatives, policies and strategies both at domestic and also international levels. The inventory offers the possibility to search by the type of cyberviolence, measures to address it, as well as the geographical scope.

Andorra: National Plan on Prevention of Bullying and Harassment at School

Andorra has issued a National Plan of prevention of Bullying and Harassment at School 2016-2019, which identifies four typologies of harassment, namely physical, verbal, social exclusion and cyber harassment, and detailed instruments for prevention.

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Austria: Book for children on the Internet risks

Austria, with the help of the Association of Internet Service Providers (ISPA), has issued an informative book in German, English and Arabic for children in order to make them aware about the risks on the Internet.

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Austria: Criminalising cyberharassment

Austria criminalises in §107c of the Penal Code the “Persistent harassment involving telecommunication or computer systems”: “(1) Any person who, using a telecommunication or computer system in a manner that can cause unreasonable interference with the lifestyle of the other person, continuously...

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Chile: School violence law

Chile adopted in 2011 a “School violence law” amending the General Education Act to prevent psychological and physical violence in school, including bullying. The law does not impose criminal sanctions.

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Council of Europe: action against cyberviolence

The Council of Europe has been promoting the protection of children and their empowerment in a digital environment for many years, including through the current “Council of Europe Strategy for the Rights of the Child” which states that children: “... have the right to learn, play and communicate...

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France: Digital Republic Law sanctions against revenge porn

In 2016, France adopted the ‘Digital Republic Law,’ which entails a harsher sanctioning of those found guilty of revenge porn. Under the new legislation, perpetrators face a two-year prison sentence or a € 60 000 fine.

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France: Plan on mobilisation and fight against cyberviolence

In France, the Secrétariat d’État en charge de l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes has issued for 2017-2019 the 5ème plan de mobilisation et de lutte contre les violences. This plan aims to pursue three objectives: Secure and strengthen proven mechanisms to improve the path of women who are...

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Germany: action against cybermobbing

In Germany, the Government supports some initiatives in this area. For example, in 2016 the 2nd Cybermobbing Congress was hosted under the auspices of the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth. Besides, the private association “Alliance against Cybermobbing” is a...

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Germany: making use of not specific to the online environment provisions

Germany– like many other States – makes use of criminal law provisions that are not specific to the online environment, such as section 238 of the German Criminal Code (Stalking), section 240 (Using threats or force to cause a person to do, suffer or omit an act), section 241 (Threatening the...

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Hotlines: Protection of children and women

Hotlines to (a) receive complaints for child abuse and violence against women and leading to investigations or removal of content, or (b) serve as helplines to assist victims, have been available for many years. From the mid-1990s, hotlines began increasingly to address illegal material on the...

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INHOPE: Against illegal content and activity

A leading example of cooperation among national hotlines is INHOPE (International Association of Internet Hotlines). It is a network of associations focused on responding to criminally illegal content and activity, in particular concerning child sexual abuse material, online grooming and online...

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Israel: offline provisions for online cases

Israel also applies provisions of the Criminal Code and other laws, such as the Protection of Privacy Act (1982) or the Prevention of Sexual Harassment Act (1998) for conduct online. For example, article 3(a) of the Israeli Prevention of Sexual Harassment Act (1998) states that a sexual...

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Israel: Tackling offences against minors online

In Israel, the Ministry of Public Security, together with the Israeli Police, has recently founded a unit dedicated to tackle offences committed against minors online. The new unit, named "the 105 unit", will operate in four different levels: First, the unit includes a national call center...

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Italy: Campaign against cyberbullying

In Italy, the Ministry of Education has launched a specific campaign to address cyberbullying, creating a permanent observatory for every region of Italy and publishing educational materials (text and multimedia) on a specific website. Part of this plan was the establishment of a national...

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Italy: Regulation for the safeguarding of minors and the prevention and tackling of cyberbullying

Italy in May 2017 adopted law no. 71/2017, entitled “Regulation for the safeguarding of minors and the prevention and tackling of cyberbullying”. Article 1 of the law defines cyberbullying as “whatever form of psychological pressure, aggression, harassment, blackmail, injury, insult, denigration,...

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Japan: Anti-stalking Act

Japan has adopted theAnti-stalking Act which covers “Making silent calls, or calling, transmitting using a fax machine or sending text messages through any text messaging service persistently despite his/her rejections” …. “against a person, his/her spouse, lineal blood relatives or relatives...

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Japan: Comprehensive plan against child sexual exploitation

Japan has a comprehensive plan called ”Basic Plan on Measures against Child Sexual Exploitation” with 88 measures under six pillars, namely: Enhancement of public awareness for the eradication of child sexual exploitation, development of social awareness, and the strengthening of collaboration...

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Lanzarote Convention: protection of children against sexual exploitation and sexual abuse

Chapter IV of the Lanzarote Conventioncomprises protective measures and assistance to victims, requiring Parties to “establish effective social programmes and set up multidisciplinary structures to provide the necessary support for the victims, their close relatives and for any person who is...

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Liechtenstein: provisions applied to cyberviolence

Liechtenstein applies provisions of its Criminal Code, such as § 105 – Coercion, § 106 - Aggravated coercion, § 107 - Dangerous threat, § 107a - Persistent stalking, § 111 – Defamation, § 112 - False accusation, or § 115 – Insult, but also offences against computers and data.

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Mauritius: Awareness campaign on cyberbullying and cyberviolence

In Mauritius, the National Computer Board has issued a Guideline on Social Networks and a booklet entitled “Online Responsible Choices for Youngsters” that is an awareness campaign with considerations on combating cyberbullying and cyberviolence, focusing on the idea of respecting the rights of...

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Mexico: National Center for Attention to Cybercrimes against Minors

Mexico has established the National Center for Attention to Cybercrimes against Minors (CENADEM) within the Scientific Division of the Federal Police. The CENADEM is the unit in charge of collaborating with the executive, federal and judiciary authorities, social actors, academic institutions and...

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Mexico: National Cybersecurity Strategy and awareness campaign

Mexico has a National Cybersecurity Strategy promoted since 2017 by the Federal Government, and aligned with this strategy, the Federal Police has promoted a National Prevention Campaign called "Cybersecurity Mexico" that has reached directly more than 680,000 citizens and generated more than 48...

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Netherlands: Centre for expertise on online child sexual abuse

In the Netherlandsthe local branch of the INHOPE hotline (Expertise centrum online misbruik kinderen; Centre for expertise on online child sexual abuse) operates an actual hotline as well as a website with information and associated chat or other contact methods called “help wanted.” This website...

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Norway: Action against cyberviolence

In Norway, several public and private initiatives have been undertaken. This includes the partially publicly-financed service SlettMeg.no ("DeleteMe"). This service was started and formerly run by the Norwegian Data Protection Authority, but is now a separate entity. The main service is a website...

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Singapore: Cyber wellness

Singapore puts emphasis on promoting “cyber wellness” within the education system. Cyber Wellness (CW) refers to the positive well-being of Internet users. It involves an understanding of online behaviour and awareness of how to protect oneself in cyberspace. The Ministry of Education uses the CW...

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Slovakia: Criminal Code provisions applied to cyberviolence

Slovakia has no specific provisions on “cyberviolence” but applies a wide range of provisions of the Criminal Code such as Stalking (Section 360a of CC), Extortion (Section 189 of CC), Duress (Section 192 of CC), Sexual Exploitation (Section 201, Section 201a, Section 201b of CC), Defamation...

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UK: criminalising the sharing of private sexual content

In the UK, in April 2015 it became a criminal offence with a maximum of two years imprisonment to share private sexual photographs or videos without the subject’s consent with the intent of causing distress to those targeted. In September 2016 it was announced that more than 200 people had been...

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UK: Prosecution of hate crime

In the United Kingdom, for example, the Crown Prosecution Service published statements in August 2017 “on how it will prosecute hate crime and support victims in England and Wales”. Hate crime is defined as follows:[1] The police and the CPS have agreed the following definition for identifying...

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