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COUNCIL OF EUROPE
COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS

RECOMMENDATION No. R (88) 15

OF THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS TO MEMBER STATES

ON THE TRANSPORT OF PIGS

(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 22 September 1988
at the 419th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)

Table of Contents

RECOMMENDATION No. R (88) 15

APPENDIX I: CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT OF PIGS
General statement
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport
IV. Post-transport

Appendix A: Transportation by rail
II. Loading
III. Transport
IV. Post-transport

Appendix B: Transportation by road
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport

Appendix C:Transportation by air
Introduction
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport
Appendix C.1: Design and construction of containers for transportation by air

Appendix D: Transportation by sea
Introduction
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport

Appendix II: International Animal Transport Certificate

___________

RECOMMENDATION No. R (88) 15 

OF THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS TO MEMBER STATES

ON THE TRANSPORT OF PIGS

The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe,

Aware that man has a moral obligation to respect all animals and to have due consideration for their capacity for suffering;

Convinced that the requirements for the transport of pigs are not incompatible with their welfare;

Recalling the adoption of common provisions, laid down in the European Convention for the Protection of Animals during International Transport, concluded in 1968;

Recalling also the additional protocol to this convention, concluded in 1979 to enable the European Economic Community to become a Party to this instrument;

Motivated by the desire to safeguard, as far as possible, pigs in transport from suffering;

Anxious to encourage full respect of the provisions of the convention by all people directly involved in the transport of pigs in the member states;

Considering that the Code of Conduct for the International Transport of Pigs, as reproduced in Appendix I to this recommendation, constitutes a series of guidelines which together can ensure the protection of the welfare of pigs during such transport;

Believing that it may be appropriate, under certain circumstances, to apply relevant sections of this code of conduct to pigs being transported within national boundaries,

Recommends the Governments of the member states:

i. if they have not already done so, to sign and/or ratify, at their earliest convenience, the European Convention for the Protection of Animals during International Transport, as well as the additional protocol to this instrument;

ii. to ensure that adequate publicity is given to the Code of Conduct for the International Transport of Pigs, in particular amongst the persons concerned with such transport;

iii. to encourage these persons to take account of the guidelines set out in this code of conduct when they prepare or carry out such transport;

iv. to ensure that the certificate which should accompany pigs in international transport takes the form and follows the arrangements of the International Animal Transport Certificate, appended to Directive 81/389 of 12 May 1981 of the Council of the European Communities and reproduced in Appendix II to this recommendation;

v. to encourage their nationals to ensure, when concluding contracts which result in a transport of pigs from non-member states, that before the departure of such transport the conditions have been met for the respect, throughout the trip, of the principles set out in the European convention and of the guidelines listed in the Code of Conduct for the International Transport of Pigs.

APPENDIX I TO RECOMMENDATION NO. R (88) 15: CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT OF PIGS 

General statement

In the best welfare interests of the animals, long-distance transport of pigs for slaughter should be avoided whenever possible and be replaced by the transport of carcase meat.

Every effort should be made to avoid any unnecessary delay in the transport of pigs and a consignment of pigs should be detained only when it is strictly necessary for the welfare of the animals.

I. Pre-transport

I.1. Preliminaries

I.1.1. Enquiries. As a first operation, preliminary to any transport, the person wishing to carry one or more pigs from one country to another shall enquire from the authorities in charge in the country concerned about the conditions in force for importation or transit, such as serological tests, vaccination, quarantine, customs, etc.

I.1.2. Planning of the journey. Careful planning of any journey is essential ; the route, time, distances. stages and stopping places must be considered beforehand, as well as any facilities which might be required for tending and feeding the animals if such facilities are not carried on the transport unit. Care must also be taken to ensure that all the necessary health certificates have been obtained and that the route followed does not jeopardise the health certification in any way.

I.1.3. Notification. Early notification of the expected time of arrival at control posts will help minimise delays. Therefore, consignor, carrier and consignee should make every effort to ensure that this is done.

I.2. Preparation of the animal

I.2.1. Disease. For pigs not intended to be slaughtered directly, vaccination and/or medication should be considered well in advance of any export. If vaccinations are required, they should be administered in accordance with the national regulations in the country of destination, taking into account the period which will elapse before a full immunity can develop.

I.2.2. Acclimitisation. Pigs are very susceptible to transport stress and steps should be taken to minimise such stress by maintaining social groups. When the mixing of social groups proves necessary, this should be carried out at least twenty-four hours prior to transport. Where possible, the animals should be acclimatised to the type and size of pen, crate or box in which they will be transported.

I.2.3. Group size. The size of the groups within the transport unit should not be too large and should be determined in relation to the facilities available, the means of transport used, and the need to avoid such problems as instability of the means of transport and smothering of the animals. Adult boars for breeding must be transported singly, but entire males for slaughter may be carried together if they have been reared in compatible groups.

I.2.4. Feeding and watering, It is necessary to prepare animals for the journey ahead of them by suitable feeding. They should be accustomed to the food which will be supplied during the journey. Before embarking on a journey, pigs should be given only a small amount to eat, and a moderate amount to drink.

I.2.5. Identification. Each pig must be identifiable and recorded accurately on the certificate.

I.2.6. Rest. Apart from journeys of a short duration, all animals should be allowed a period free from outside disturbance before they are loaded for international transportation.

I.2.7. Sedation. Tranquillisers should not be used. If they cannot be avoided, care must be taken to ensure that the pigs are not harmed, for example by the effects of the motion of the transport or by their being smothered if they become recumbent. The pharmaceutical name of the drug, dosage rate, dates and times of administration should be noted on the documents accompanying the animal, such as the International Animal Transport Certificate (IATC). Drugs should be administered only under veterinary supervision or by a competent person under veterinary guidance.

It should be borne in mind that not all pigs react in the same way to sedation.

I.3. Preparation of the transport unit

I.3.1. Cleanliness. It is important that any part of the transport unit which has been or shall be in contact with animals, including any receptacle, equipment or fitting be cleaned and, if necessary, disinfected before loading and after unloading. Care should also be taken by all personnel in contact with animals during international carriage that their outer clothing and footwear are changed, washed or cleaned at the end of the journey and before contact with other animals.

I.3.2. Accommodation in the transport unit. The accommodation in the transport unit and the loading conditions should be in accordance with the requirements for the welfare of the animals to be transported, as set out in II and III hereafter.

I.4. Designation of the person in charge

I.4.1. Attendant. Each consignment of pigs should be accompanied by an attendant who is in charge of looking after the animals and feeding and watering them. However, an attendant is not required when the sender and/or receiver have ensured that the animals will be looked after, fed and watered at the stopovers throughout the journey. The attendant should be suitably trained in how to ensure the welfare of the animals in his charge and conversant with legal requirements and other formalities. If large numbers are being carried, then there should be a sufficient number of attendants to care for them, with one person in charge of the whole consignment. When the attendant considers that veterinary assistance is needed, he should obtain it as quickly as possible.

I.5. Tasks of the official veterinarian

I.5.1. Documents. Since incomplete documents can cause considerable delay, they must be completed legibly and with absolute accuracy. It is not acceptable to alter official documents, but errors or proper erasures must be stamped and initialled by the official veterinarian. As far as possible, documents should be completed in a way which makes them understandable in the country of destination and in any country of transit.

I.5.2. Fit animals. Only animals which are fit for the intended journey shall be subjected to international transportation.

Sows which are likely to give birth during transport shall not be considered fit for transportation. Sows which have given birth shall not be transported within the following forty-eight hours.

I.5.3. Stocking density. The official veterinarian must be prepared to give advice and require the off-loading of some animals if he thinks that overcrowding will result in unnecessary suffering.

1.5.4. Emergency killing. The official veterinarian should satisfy himself that, in accordance with the requirements of Point III.4, an instrument in working order for the emergency killing of animals is at hand in the transport unit, where applicable, and that the person in charge understands how and in what circumstances to use it.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

II.1.1. Means of loading. Loading should take place from a properly constructed ramp, lift or loading bay, though manual lifting is permissible if the animals are small enough, and even desirable in the case of piglets which might have difficulty in negotiating a ramp. All loading facilities should be suitable for their purpose, stable and maintained in a good state of repair.

All ramps and walking surfaces should be of an anti-slip design. Foot battens or a sufficient covering of sand or litter may be used as necessary. Efforts should be made to minimise the slope of the ramp; horizontal loading is preferable.

II.2. Light

II.2.1. Lighting. The interior of the transport unit should be well lit at loading so that the pigs can see where they are going.

II.3. Handling

II.3.1. Treatment. Loading and unloading are the activities during which injuries and stress are most likely to occur. Noise and harassment during loading should be avoided as should the use of excessive force. Pigs must be treated calmly and gently in order to keep the inevitable unrest and agitation within limits, and in order to protect the animals from unnecessary pain. distress and injury. Electric goads or instruments based on the electric shock principle should not be used. The use of hand-held loading boards is strongly recommended.

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

III.1.1. Construction and design. Containers, receptacles, vehicles, fittings, etc. must be strong enough to contain the animals' weight, to prevent the animals escaping or falling out, and to withstand the stresses of movement. Fittings should be designed for quick and easy operation.

Any transport unit should have the means to provide adequate protection from the weather.

Floors should be designed to ensure that the bedding is maintained reasonably clean and dry, and if necessary be fitted with drainage and with a system to contain faeces and urine. The materials used for construction shall be such that they are not liable to corrosion.

The parts of the aircraft, vessel, receptacle, vehicle, etc. in which pigs are accommodated or through which they are moved should be free of obstructions and hazards which could cause injury. Deck and floor surfaces should provide a good foothold.

Absorbent litter should be used in areas where pigs are accommodated for prolonged periods.

Each pig shall have sufficient room to stand and lie down in its natural position. There should be adequate clear space above each pig when standing for air circulation/ventilation.

Adequate ventilation/fresh-air supply should be provided taking account of the number and size of the pigs being carried and the climatic conditions expected for the journey. It is necessary to ensure an exchange of air by mechanical means when pies are carried in a fully enclosed space.

III.1.2. Securing. Containers, receptacles and pens must be so secured as to prevent their being displaced by the movement of the transport.

III.1.3. Lighting. There should be a means of lighting, fixed or portable, sufficient for general inspection of the animals when this is necessary during loading, carriage and unloading, and for feeding and watering

III.1.4. Stocking densities. Animals must be provided with adequate space. When calculating space requirements, the size and condition of the animals, the weather, and the nature and length of the journey must be taken into account.

Figures which have been found to be satisfactory are given in the appendices to this code of conduct.

III.1.5. Ventilation. The air circulation in transport units should be such as:

- to provide enough oxygen for the animals,
- to remove smell and gases, and
- to control temperature and humidity.

The supply of fresh air must be checked regularly and adjusted when necessary, but the animals should not be placed in excessively strong draughts. It should be borne in mind that solid partitions can prevent the loss of heat produced by the animals and interfere with the circulation of air.

III.1.6. Temperature. Pigs are very susceptible to heat stress.

When deciding whether to transport animals in very hot or cold conditions, due consideration should be given to the length of the journey, the construction of the transport unit, its ventilation, the speed of travel, the number of stops to be made en route as well as the number and age of the animals to be carried.

Transport units which include a temperature-regulating mechanism are advisable on long journeys if the ambient temperatures are likely to fall below O C or exceed 25 C during the journey.

In hot conditions, affected animals may be revived by lightly spraying their bodies with water.

III.1.7. Feeding and watering. All animals shall be fed and watered at least once in every twenty-four-hour period.

Young animals may require feeding and watering more frequently. Weather conditions may also warrant other feeding and watering intervals. When calculating these intervals, account should be taken of the last feed and watering before loading, and the first possible feed and watering after unloading.

As pigs are particularly susceptible to water deprivation, frequent or continuous access to water is advisable.

The type of food provided must be suitable for the age of the pigs being transported and fed in quantities that will not perturb their digestion.

An adult pig may drink up to ten litres of water per day.

Sealed transports

If the transport unit is sealed for customs purposes, then, either suitable access must be available for the introduction of food and water, or the seals must be removed, and subsequently replaced, in the presence of an officer of the competent authority so that feeding and watering can take place.

III.1.8. Positioning of animals. Animals being carried together (apart from sows with piglets at foot) should be of approximately equal size and weight, and different animal species should always be separated from each other during the transport. In the transport unit, the following animals should be carried separately

a. adult boars for breeding and, unless they have been reared in compatible groups, entire males for slaughter

b. a sow travelling with her young;

c. any animal which is antagonistic to other animals.

III.1.9. Equipment. During transportation, adequate and suitable bedding material shall be supplied. This should have absorbent properties, particularly where straw is used as the upper layer.

III.1.10. Facilities for feeding and watering during transport. At posts where sanitary control is exercised and animals in significant numbers are regularly transported, sufficient facilities shall be available for the resting, feeding and watering of the number of animals which may be expected.

III.1.11. Unloading and reloading en route. If the transport unit is not equipped for feeding and watering the pigs over a long period of time, provision should be made for unloading and reloading route for that purpose (see also III. 1.7). The pigs should be allowed a period free from outside disturbance.

III.1.12 Access. Provision should be made for the possibility of observing the animals and, depending on the means of transport and the conditions in which the transport is being carried out, of having access to them at suitable intervals. Access to the pens may be required either through side-doors, passageways or walkways, and it has been found that access through one group of animals to reach another group is not satisfactory.

III.2. Duration and interruption of the journey

III.2.1. Duration. Subject to careful planning and all facilities being available, pigs can be transported for long periods without any problem. It is recommended, however, that they be inspected approximately every six hours and especially when the welfare of the animals could be in doubt. Every opportunity should also be taken to inspect the animals, for instance at customs posts and whenever the transport unit or weather conditions change.

III.2.2. Delays. Pigs shall be transported to their destination as quickly as possible and delays, particularly in transhipment and marshalling yards, shall be reduced to a minimum. If delays occur, adequate care shall be given to the animals, particularly in relation to feeding, watering and ventilation.

Consignments of animals shall be given priority at frontier posts, in ports, at airports and in other places where delays may be expected to occur.

III.3. Care during transport

III.3.1. Care. The attendant should remain with the transport, or be available at the designated stopping places. All attendants should be trained to have a sufficient knowledge of feeding and watering, tending the animals and regulating the air-circulation devices in different climatic conditions.

III.3.2. Treatment. Whenever possible, sick and injured animals shall be separated, unloaded and treated under veterinary supervision or by a competent person.

III.4. Emergency killing

111.4.1. Air and sea. In aircraft and ships transporting pigs, an approved and effective means for the emergency killing of animals should be at hand and in working order.

III.4.2. Rail and road. If during rail or road transport animals need to be killed, a veterinarian or competent person should be called upon.

III.5. Tasks of the official veterinarian

III.5.1. Interruption of the transport. When during transport an official veterinarian becomes aware of problems, he must not allow the transport to proceed unless measures have been taken to ensure that the welfare of the pigs is protected.

IV. Post-transport

IV.1. Unloading

IV.1.1. Care. On arrival at their destination, the pigs should be unloaded as soon as possible and, if necessary, offered food and water and be allowed to rest. All pigs should be examined closely at unloading and veterinary assistance obtained if necessary.

After prolonged periods of transport (thirty-six hours or more), the health of the animals should be monitored for four or five days - except where they are to be slaughtered on arrival or shortly afterwards.

If at the destination a new diet is given, a gradual change-over is recommended.

IV.1.2. Responsibility. The attendant must bring to the attention of the person in charge at the destination any aspect of the journey which might affect the future welfare of the pigs : the last feeding and watering times, full details of any treatment carried out, and any withdrawal period which might affect meat quality in pigs intended for slaughter. The attendant should not leave the premises of destination until he is satisfied that a suitable person has taken charge of the pigs.

IV.1.3. Report. The consignee should report back to the authorities of his country on any problems relating to a consignment of pigs so that international transportation can be kept under constant review and the welfare of pigs improved as more information becomes available.

IV.2. Facilities

IV.2.1. General. Similar facilities are required for unloading to those required for loading. Efforts should be made to minimise the slope of the ramp. Where sides are fitted to ramps, these should preferably be made up of solid boards.

IV.2.2. Care. If rest and recovery are needed for the pigs after transport, suitable facilities should be provided for these, as well as for feeding and watering.

IV.3. Tasks of the official veterinarian at unloading

IV.3.1. Liaison. The official veterinarian should notify any problems which arose during the journey to the authorities of the countries of transit and destination, who should then report back to the authorities in the country of origin.

Close liaison between the importer and his veterinary authorities and between the different veterinary authorities involved is also essential.

Appendix A: Transportation by rail

Introduction

As far as the welfare of pigs is concerned, the existing regulations of the International Union of Railways (IUR/UIC-Codex) are included in the general part of the code of conduct or in this appendix. In some cases, the following guidelines may be more precise or more restrictive than the IUR/UIC-Codex.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

Pigs should be loaded and/or unloaded at railway stations which are adequately equipped for that purpose. Railway stations where pigs are regularly loaded and/or unloaded must be equipped with adequate ramps or bridges (fixed or movable), whilst enclosures or pens must be available which have an even, solid floor, facilities for feeding and watering pigs; an adequate part of the enclosures must be covered.

II.1.1. Means of loading

Where animals are walked aboard the wagon, the ramps should have side protection of sufficient height and sufficiently covered at the bottom so as to prevent injuries. The side protection must consist of walls or railings at least 75cm high.

The surface of loading ramps must be covered with non-slip material and must be provided with horizontal square-edged slats approximately 4,5cm high at intervals of approximately 25cm;

The following criteria have been found satisfactory for the construction of loading facilities:

External ramps

Side gates (where fitted for
ramps or lifting gear)

Step from top of ramp to wagon

Space between top of ramp
and wagon

Slope not to exceed 20 and, if possible, less for descent

75 cm in height

Not more than 12 cm

Not more than 1,5 cm

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

Pigs must be transported as quickly as possible to their destination; extended stops must be avoided, particularly in marshalling yards and during transhipment.

When the amount of traffic so justifies, the railway management must endeavour to form regular or special trains for the conveyance of the pigs, or to forward blocks of wagons by fast trains. When there is less traffic, appropriate freight trains may be used and, exceptionally, appropriate passenger trains.

III.1.1. Construction and design

Wagons

The following types of wagons are available for transporting pigs:

- covered wagons,
- crate wagons,
- open wagons.

Covered wagons should have a barrel roof and must be provided, along each side and near the roof, with at least four closable openings of at least 40 x 30cm. In addition, when outside temperatures are high or expected to be high, wagons should if possible be equipped with a double or insulated roof. Wagons shall have facilities enabling the doors to be held open at a width of not more than 15cm.

In summer, depending on the weather, one or both doors must be fully opened and replaced by a safety barrier, in order to improve ventilation. For the transport of pigs, covered wagons must be equipped with additional closable ventilation openings. These openings must be positioned on the side and end walls at a height of 40 to 90cm above the floor and must together cover an area of at least 0,2m2 per square metre of floorspace. In summer, pigs often suffer from lack of air and overheating in these wagons. Even when, in hot weather, doors are left open and safety barriers are used, the ventilation at floor level, in particular at the ends of the wagons, is often not sufficient to prevent a deterioration in the atmosphere. Inadequate air circulation also encourages a build-up of heat, which is particularly dangerous for pigs. This should be kept in mind when deciding on the stocking density.

Crate wagons for the transport of pigs are special wagons with two floors ; their side walls are slatted, and they are divided, by means of folding doors, into several crates (compartments) of different sizes.

The slats which make up the walls must be closable by means of shutters, so that, depending on the weather, the animals can be effectively protected from the cold and draughts. If this requirement is not met, pigs may only be transported in crate wagons when outside temperatures are high or expected to be high.

Open wagons may not be used for transporting pigs, unless the animals are in containers which give the required protection from the weather. The ventilation requirements must be respected.

The length, width and height of the space available for animals should be displayed on wagons. Appropriate indications or symbols on the outside of the wagon should make it clear that live animals are being carried

Wagons must be suitable for the transport of pigs throughout the journey. They must be designed so that the pigs are completely secure and cannot escape.

The inside walls should be of wood or other suitable material. Suitable provisions must be made for securing the partition walls.

If the animals are watered and fed during longer journeys inside the wagons, these should be equipped with a sufficient number of hatches for feeding and watering. During transport, these hatches must be closed. Where such facilities are not available, satisfactory alternative methods of feeding and watering must be provided.

III.1.4. Stocking density

The minimum requirement is for all pigs to be able to lie down at the same time and to stand naturally.

In order to achieve this, the stocking density of pigs weighing about 100kg each during international transport should not exceed 235kg/m2.

Some scientific studies indicate that, both for reasons of animal welfare and for meat quality, a stocking density of 200kg/m2 is preferable.

The minimum floorspace required above may need to be increased depending on the breed, size and condition of the pigs; it may also need to be increased by up to 20%, depending on the weather conditions and the length of the journey.

To avoid the risk of injuries caused by the motion of the wagon, partitions should be used to restrict the size of wagon pens. It should be noted that such partitions will reduce the total available floor area.

III.1.7. Feeding and watering

If, during the journey, the pigs cannot be watered and fed inside the wagon, they must be unloaded at suitable stations so that they can be watered and fed at least every twenty-four hours.

III.1.8. Positioning of animals

Partitioning

When it is necessary to separate the animals, the consignor shall be responsible for installing adequate partitions to safeguard the welfare of the pigs at all times.

Such partitions must be high enough to prevent the pigs climbing over them and should be fixed securely, for example by means of ropes or straps. Nails must not be used.

III.3. Care during transport

III.3.1. Care

During transport, the consignor shall be responsible for the feeding, watering and care of the pigs.

The consignor must indicate on the consignment note the place where attention will be given to the animals, as well as the person in charge of this operation and the number of attendants. As a general rule, one attendant should not be in charge of more than four wagons.

The attendant(s) should remain with the transport, or be available at the designated stopping places. He (they) must have at hand the tools necessary to carry out his (their) functions, including safe, adequate light sources.

The person in charge of the consignment must ensure that the pigs are looked after, fed and watered. He must help with the veterinary inspection and the performance of customs formalities.

Smoking shall be forbidden in wagons.

Rapid acceleration and sudden braking should be avoided. Care must be taken when shunting wagons carrying pigs, when assembling trains and during any other movement of wagons to avoid violent jolting of wagons containing animals.

IV. Post-transport

IV.1. Unloading

IV.1.1 Care

Wagons carrying pigs must be placed in position for unloading as soon as possible.

IV.1.2. Responsibility

The consignee shall be responsible for unloading.

Appendix B: Transportation by road

I. Pre-transport

I.4. Designation of the person in charge

I.4.1. Attendant

During transport.by road, the functions of the attendant may be assumed by the driver of the vehicle. When, because of time or distance, a single driver cannot ensure that the transport will be carried out without delays, or provide proper care of the pigs, the presence of a second driver or an attendant is indispensable.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

II.1.1. Means of loading

Pigs should, wherever possible, be loaded by means of mechanical loading platforms.

Where pigs are walked aboard the vehicle, the loading ramp should be fitted with side gates high enough to prevent the animals from escaping. The design of the ramp and the gates must be such as to prevent injury.

When lorries are designed to carry pigs in tiers, the upper tier should be movable to load the animals.

The slope of the ramp shall not exceed 30, and should preferably be less. Side gates for the ramp, or for the mechanical loading platform if used, should be at least 75cm high for adult pigs and should be suitably close boarded.

Any step between ground and ramp or platform, or ramp or platform and vehicle, should not exceed 12cm (or less for small pigs). Any space between ramp or platform and vehicle should be no wider than 1,5cm.

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

III.1.1. Construction and design

Vehicles carrying pigs shall be equipped with a roof.

The length, width and height of the space available for animals should be displayed on road vehicles. Appropriate indications or symbols on the outside of the vehicle should make it clear that live animals are being carried.

Vehicles must be designed so that the pigs are completely secure and cannot escape. Loading and access doors should be equipped with adequate means to ensure that the pigs do not fall out when they are opened.

Any edges and corners inside the vehicle should be rounded off and wheel housing projecting into the body of the vehicle should be adequately covered.

Vehicles should be provided with insulated walls to maintain a stable internal temperature.

Vehicles with no mechanical means of ventilation must be provided with ventilation openings of adequate size in the front wall and along the side walls of the livestock container. These ventilation openings should be constructed in a way which will not cause injuries to the pigs carried, and will allow the ventilation to be adjusted when necessary.

A vehicle carrying pigs should be fitted with sufficient partitions to safeguard the welfare of the animals. Such partitions must be high enough to prevent the pigs climbing over them, and should be fixed securely, for example by means of ropes or straps. Nails must not be used.

III.1.4. Stocking density

The minimum requirement is for all pigs to be able to lie down at the same time and to stand naturally.

In order to achieve this, the stocking density of pigs weighing about 100kg each during international transport should not exceed 235kg/m2..

Some scientific studies indicate that, both for reasons of animal welfare and for meat quality, a stocking density of 200kg/m2 is preferable.

The minimum floorspace required above may need to be increased depending on the breed, size and condition of the pigs; it may also need to be increased by up to 20%, depending on the weather conditions and the length of the journey.

To avoid the risk of injuries caused by the motion of the vehicle, partitions should be used to restrict the size of vehicle pens. It should be noted that such partitions will reduce the total available floor area.

III.1.7. Feeding and watering

If, during the journey, the pigs cannot be watered and fed inside the vehicle, they must be unloaded at suitable places so that they can be watered and fed at least every twenty-four hours.

III.3. Care during transport

III.3.1. Care

The drivers of road vehicles should ensure a smooth and considerate journey and avoid abrupt changes of speed or direction.

Appendix C:Transportation by air

Introduction

As far as the welfare of pigs is concerned, the existing Live Animals Regulations, drawn up by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), are covered by the general part of the code of conduct or in this appendix. In some cases, the following guidelines may be more precise or more restrictive than the IATA regulations.

I. Pre-transport

I.1. Preliminaries

I.1.2. Planning of the journey

Planning the transport of animals by air involves special arrangements for loading and unloading and, when applicable, for transfer from one aircraft to another or for reloading at a stopover.

The effect of any temperature variation must be considered when there are significant climate differences between departure, stopover and destination airports. It may be necessary to use an alternative route to avoid extremes of climate at stopovers. In addition, it is also desirable to arrange for flights to arrive at stopovers and final destination at times when the temperatures are expected to be reasonable.

I.1.3. Notification

The captain of the aircraft should be informed by means of a notification to captain (Notoc) about the presence of livestock shipments aboard the aircraft before the start of the journey so that adequate ventilation and temperature settings can be applied.

I.2. Preparation of the animal

I.2.7. Sedation

Experience has shown that there is considerable risk in sedating animals inasmuch as the reaction of various species, especially at high altitudes, cannot be foreseen and it can, therefore, do more harm than good. During the flight, drugs should only be administered with the knowledge and consent of the captain. Drugs should only be administered by a veterinarian or an animal attendant who has been properly instructed in their use.

I.4. Designation of the person in charge

I.4.1. Attendant

It is preferable for pigs shipped by air to be accompanied by one or more attendants, as appropriate for the number of animals. Attendants must be conversant with the guidelines and standards of care contained in the current edition of the IATA Live Animals Regulations.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

Adequate facilities must be available to receive the pigs, to stall them and to load them in a container. Cleaning and disinfecting facilities should be available.

Only experienced personnel should handle pigs.

II.1.1. Means of loading

Pigs should be loaded on to the aircraft as close as possible to take-off time. They should be so positioned that any unloading and reloading during stopovers are avoided.

Pigs should only be positioned in the immediate vicinity of an aircraft for as short a period as possible before the actual loading takes place, to avoid stress due to such factors as excessive noise, rain and wind.

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

III.1.1. Construction and design

Pigs should be transported in containers. The design and construction of such containers should follow the principles laid down for that purpose in the relevant container notes of the current edition of the IATA Live Animals Regulations (see Appendix C.1). They must meet the following specifications:

a. The materials used for constructing the container may include metal, wood, fibreglass and polyethylene;

b. The floor shall be constructed with a material which prevents the animals from slipping. The floor(s) of the container must be leakproof and strong enough to withstand the weight of the animals. Sufficient suitable material must be spread on the floor to absorb all excreta;

c. The sides of the containers must be close boarded to a minimum height of 30cm to prevent spillage of excreta. Containers are normally ventilated through apertures in their side panelling. These apertures should be equivalent to not less than 20% of the floor area for each tier. Ventilation apertures exceeding 10cm must be provided with a bar to prevent the pigs forcing their nose and legs outside the container;

d. The container shall have a sliding or hinged door that is constructed in such a way as to prevent accidental opening. Each floor of the container must be accessible.

Open-pen system

The so-called "open-pen system" is not recommended for the transport of pigs by air.

III.1.4. Stocking density

The stocking density should be high enough to prevent injuries at take-off, during turbulence or at landing, but still allow individual animals to lie down. In deciding stocking densities, the climate, total travelling time and time of arrival should be considered. The following guidelines can help with calculations:

Average weight

Floor area per pig

15 kg
25 kg
50 kg
100 kg

0,13 m2
0,15 m2
0,35 m2
0,51 m2

III.1.5. Ventilation

Stocking density for pigs in relation to ventilation requirements

The ventilation system of the aircraft must be able to supply 0,1 to 0,15m3/kg/h of air for the pigs being carried.

As the ventilation capacity of most aircraft is reduced during take-off, landing and when on the ground, calculations must take these factors into account. When determining the ventilation capacity of an aircraft, up-to-date performance information, and not merely the manufacturer's original specifications, must be considered.

The transport of pigs in belly holds which are not force-ventilated shall be avoided, except for flights of less than three hours. In these circumstances, particular account must be taken of air pressure, temperature and cubic capacity.

There should be sufficient space all around the pig container for air circulation and this should not be obstructed by any other load.

III.1.6. Temperature

A combination of high temperature and high relative humidity poses a risk to pigs. All measures should be taken to avoid the temperature remaining above 25 C, with relative humidity in excess of 80%, for periods of an hour or more.

If necessary, additional ventilation should be provided when the aircraft is on the ground.

If other operational requirements permit this, it may be advisable to leave the cargo doors closed when the outside temperature is high and the cargo compartment containing the pigs can be kept at a lower temperature.

In very hot weather, it is advisable to put ice in with the pigs, so that they can cool down by lying against or licking it. When this is not possible, pigs may be sprayed with water.

III.1.10. Facilities for feeding and watering during transport

It is advisable to allow the pigs continuous access to a drinking-nipple installation within the container.

III.1.12. Access

Regardless of the number of pigs, continuous access is desirable. There are likely to be fewer problems with single penned animals than with groups.

Where continuous access is not possible in flight, access shall be available when the aircraft is on the ground, for instance by suitable positioning of the container.

III.4. Emergency killing

Emergency killing of a pig may only take place in consultation with and under the responsibility of the captain of the aircraft.

Means of emergency killing are:

- a suitable central nervous system depressant, or
- a captive bolt followed, if possible, by a suitable central nervous system, depressant.

Decompression of the aircraft as a means of emergency killing is not allowed. When emergency killing is necessary it should be carried out by any competent person.

Appendix C.1: Design and construction of containers for transportation by air

Extract from the 15th edition, effective 1 July 1988

Appendix D: Transportation by sea

Introduction

There are three basic types of shipment methods by which pigs can be transported by sea:

i. Ro-Ro vessels - In a vehicle, or other container moved on wheels, which is driven or towed on and off a Roll-on-Roll-off (Ro-Ro) vessel;

ii. Vessels designed to carry livestock - In a vessel which is adapted and has special fittings for carrying pigs, usually in penned enclosures ;

iii. Other cargo vessels - In boxes, pens, crates or containers carried on cargo vessels as a part of the total freight. The boxes, pens, etc. may be constructed ashore and lifted on board either with the pigs inside or to await their loading, or constructed on the vessel whereafter the pigs are housed within them.

Each of these types of shipment may be further subdivided according to whether the pigs are carried within an enclosed deck or an "open" exposed deck.

Shipments may be of one or two pigs, or of a larger number, and the length of voyage and size of vessel can vary considerably.

I. Pre-transport

I.1. Preliminaries

I.1.2. Planning of the journey

Sufficient supplies of wholesome food, fresh water and litter should be carried for the anticipated length of the voyage. Reserve supplies are recommended in case of delay due to weather, mechanical failure or other cause. Food, litter and water should be stowed so that their quality cannot deteriorate during the voyage. Appropriate feed and drinking utensils should be provided. If it becomes necessary to supply unfamiliar-tasting "manufactured" water during the voyage, this should be introduced to the pigs gradually.

Pigs should not be carried when the weather conditions anticipated for the voyage are such that the animals might suffer or be injured, for example by excessive motion of the vessel, spray or sea water on deck, strong winds or damage to or displacement of the transport unit. It should, however, be borne in mind that the ship's master is ultimately responsible for the pigs' welfare during the voyage.

It is recommended that exporters give ships' masters clear written instructions concerning feeding, watering and general care of the pigs. Masters, officers and the crew of vessels may be inexperienced in the carriage of pigs, and therefore require special instructions before the start of the voyage.

I.1.3. Notification

It is important to ensure that the operators, masters and crews of vessels are made fully aware of livestock shipments before the start of the voyage, so that they can make any special arrangements needed to ensure proper stowage, securing, ventilation and access.

Exporters and vehicle operators should notify the shipping company at the time of making the booking, and attendants and drivers should ensure that the vessel's cargo/loading officer is aware that the transport unit contains a live cargo.

I.4. Designation of the person in charge

I.4.1. Attendant

A sufficient number of experienced attendants, who could be part of the ship's normal complement, should be provided for the voyage taking into account its length and the number of pigs to be carried in the case of the Ro-Ro, the vehicle driver could act as attendant.

1.5. Tasks of the official veterinarian

1.5.2. Fit animals

Provided that only fit and healthy animals are loaded, pigs can be carded on long sea voyages of several weeks without problem.

II. Loading

11.1. Facilities

II.1.1. Means of loading

Ro-Ro vessels

The individual circumstances of each vessel, voyage and vehicle load may vary considerably. Generally, it is preferable to load a livestock transporter as late as possible, and to unload it first. This will reduce the risk of harmful effects of a build-up of exhaust fumes from other vehicles.

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

III.1.1. Construction and design

All vessels

Ship motion and the effects of wind and sea can impose considerable extra strain on livestock containers, vehicles, fittings and equipment, so their construction and design must take this into account.

Excess water is liable to accumulate from rainfall, sea or spray over the deck and washing-down water. Adequate deck and floor drainage is therefore important.

Pigs transported on an "open" exposed deck, by whatever method, must be suitably protected from spray or sea water coming over the deck, and should be provided with an overhead covering or roof.

Vessels designed to carry livestock

Those parts of a vessel where pigs are stowed or through which they are moved should be so constructed as to enable them to be kept in a sanitary condition and to be regularly cleaned, and disinfected when necessary.

Pig pens should be secure enclosures formed of metal railings, timber, or other suitable materials. The height of pen sides and divisions must be sufficient for the size of pigs being transported and, in the case of adult animals, not less than 75cm high. Pens and partitions should be fixed securely. Nails must not be used.

Other cargo vessels

Pig pens should be similar to those described above for vessels specialised in carrying livestock.

Boxes or crates should provide adequate ventilation which may need to be adjustable to take account of changes of weather or climate.

Shipping containers can be successfully used for carrying pigs provided that a suitable type is chosen, they are fitted out appropriately and that their stowage is well planned.

Three types of container are commonly used for animals:

"Flat rack" : load platform, with ends only.

"Open-sided" : load platform, with ends and top. Sides may be fitted with steel grid gates, timber battens, and/or PVC curtains.

"Livestock" : permanently converted and fitted out. (Very few exist.)

The container should be fitted out with pens, boxes or crates as described above, and these should be secured within the container framework, the strength of which should be utilised wherever possible.

III.1.2. Securing

The containers, receptacles, vehicles, etc. in which pigs are carried should be secured as necessary, so that they cannot be displaced by the motion of the vessel or the effects of the wind and sea.

Ro-Ro vessels

When anticipated weather conditions and ship motion so require, pig transporters should be properly secured before the start of the voyage to prevent them from moving or overturning. The transporter should have sufficient and strong securing points fitted for the attachment of lashing devices.

III.1.4. Stocking density

The minimum requirement is for all pigs to be able to lie down at the same time and to stand naturally.

In order to achieve this, the stocking density of pigs weighing about 100kg each during international transport should not exceed 235kg/m2.

Some scientific studies indicate that, both for reasons of animal welfare and for meat quality, a stocking density of 200kg/m2 is preferable.

The minimum floorspace required above will certainly need to be increased for sea voyages which exceed twenty-four hours and could take weeks.

III.1.5. Ventilation

Ro-Ro vessels

Sufficient vehicle deck ventilation must be maintained in an enclosed Ro-Ro deck for the number of pig transporters being carried. Where possible, a livestock vehicle should be located near a supply of fresh air.

The vehicle should be provided with adequate means of ventilating its interior, bearing in mind that there may be virtually "still air" conditions in an enclosed Ro-Ro deck. Many vehicles designed to carry pigs are ventilated through apertures in their side panels. A sufficient number of these should be open during the voyage.

The owner or driver of such a vehicle has the responsibility of notifying the ship's master or crew that additional clear space has to be left along both sides of the vehicle when stowage is being arranged.

Vessels designed to carry livestock

The climatic conditions in which the vessel is to operate and the number of animals to be carried should be taken into account when designing the ventilation system. Care should be taken to ensure that fumes from the vessel's machinery or other sources are not drawn into ventilators or across open-deck accommodation where animals may be affected.

On enclosed decks, it is essential that mechanical ventilation, consisting of supply and exhaust fans connected to appropriate trunkings, diffuses the air throughout each enclosed deck. It is advisable to fit reversible fans. A minimum air-change rate of twenty times per hour should be provided; thirty times per hour is to be preferred. There should be sufficient free air space above the animals' heads for the passage of heated foul air towards exhaust points. Natural air supply/exchange through ventilators, hatchways, etc. may be useful to supplement the mechanical ventilation.

Other cargo vessels

The livestock box, pen or container must be provided with adequate ventilation to its interior. This may need to be adjustable and should take account of the climate and any variations expected during the voyage.

Stowage arrangements must be such that there is a free airflow to and around the livestock unit. Appropriate adjacent space must be left when stowing containerised shipments.

Mechanical ventilation will usually be necessary when this type of shipment is carried in an enclosed deck.

III.1.9. Equipment

A bedding of straw over an absorbent layer of sawdust, wood shavings or similar material is suitable. Sawdust-type litter alone is liable to be blown away. Bedding material should be changed frequently to ensure that it remains dry, and at maximum intervals of two or three days.

III.1.12. Access

Attendants should have safe access to the animals at all times, regardless of weather conditions, other cargo carried, etc.

With the exception of very short voyages, attendants must also be able to enter the livestock pen, box, vehicle, etc., when necessary, to tend the animals.

The ship's patrolmen should pay particular attention to livestock carried on the vessel, and should alert the master and/or attendant if problems are seen or suspected.

III.1.13 Stowage

All vessels

There are several factors which must be considered when determining the stowage position for livestock on a vessel. The more important are: the requirement for sufficient ventilation, the need for access, and a facility to secure the transport unit. In addition, for livestock carried on open exposed decks, shelter and protection from the effects of sea and spray, strong winds and extremes of climate will be needed.

Account should be taken of the presence of noxious substances carried on the vessel, and the possible harmful effects of toxic gases which might be produced by mechanical exhausts, chemical spillage, etc.

The dangers and possible disturbance of cargo operations at ports en route between loading and unloading of the animals should be taken into account.

Ro-Ro vessels

The preferred vehicle location in the vessel will be on or near the fore and aft centre line on a deck close to the water line, or on an open deck. In an enclosed space, best stowage will be close to a ventilator supplying fresh air by mechanical means, with another exhausting air front a point further away.

Other cargo vessels

Stowage will normally be on open, exposed decks. Under-deck stowage may be acceptable, but should only be considered when proper ventilation (see III.1.5) and access can be provided.

On "open" decks. a protected location for the accommodation of livestock is essential. Where such exists, the deck space behind the bridge structure is to be preferred. The forward part of the foredeck should be avoided as this is usually the most exposed area. Where there is a predominant "lee side" for the voyage in question, this should be used, if possible. Other deck cargo or containers may often be usefully sited to provide a shield for the animals.

On container vessels, only the bottom tier of the open deck stow will normally be suitable for livestock. The ideal arrangement may be with the livestock container in an in-board slot. Other containers out-board and forward of this can provide protection. This will provide ventilation and give an access and working area. The adjacent empty slot should not be overstowed, but a container on top of that carrying the livestock will provide a useful shield from the sun's heat.

III.3. Care during transport

III.3.2. Treatment

On long voyages, veterinary medicines and equipment should be available, particularly to treat injuries. Attendants should be capable of rendering "first aid" treatment. Veterinary advice may, on occasion, have to be sought by radio communication or by direct consultation at wayports.

Facilities should be available to isolate sick and injured pigs.

On long voyages with large numbers of animals, it is advisable to have a veterinarian on board.

III.4. Emergency killing

Emergency killing should be carried out by an approved and effective means under the responsibility of the master of the vessel.

Appendix II to Recommendation No. R (88) 15* : International Animal Transport Certificate 

Certificate number .........................................

INTERNATIONAL ANIMAL TRANSPORT CERTIFICATE (1)
Competent authority (in block capitals)

Transport of animals referred to in Chapter I of the Annex to Directive 77/489/EEC

A. CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FOR INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT

Country of dispatch (2)

Name and address of consignor (2)

Country of destination (2)

I. Number of animals ..................................... (2)

II. Description of animals

(2)

III. Place of final destination of animals and name and address of consignee

IV. I, the undersigned, certify that I have inspected the animals described above and that in my opinion they are fit for the intended international transport.

Stamp Date ................................................... Local time ..........................

.................................................
Signed (Official Veterinary Surgeon)

This certificate will no longer be valid if the animals to which it refers have not been loaded with a view to departure within 24 hours of the time of signature.
______________________________________________________________________________________

B. LOADING ATTESTATION

I, the undersigned, certify that the animals described above were loaded on to (3)

under conditions approved by an official veterinary surgeon at

(place of loading)

on ..................... (date) at .............................. (local time) (4)

Stamp ..............................................................................
Signed (Official Veterinary Surgeon or representative of the competent authority) (5)

___________________
* Extract from the Official Journal of the European Communities, N L 150/4 and 5 of 6 June 1981.

C. OBSERVATIONS (6)

I. The animals described above are not being transported in accordance with (7)

and the following measures have been taken

...................................................................................
Signed (Authorised official of the competent authority) (6)

I, the undersigned, declare that the animals described above were fed and watered

at ...................... and left these premises on ............................ (date)

at ...................... (local time).

..............................................................................
Signed (Person in charge of the premises)

________________________________________________________________________________________

After transport, if comments have been made under C.I, this certificate, duly completed, must be submitted to the competent authority within three days by the owner of the place of destination or his authorised agent.
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Notes

(1) A certificate must be issued in respect of each consignment of animals transported in one and the same railway wagon, lorry, container, aircraft or ship from one and the same holding to one and the same consignee. When such a consignment is split up, a copy of this certificate, to which, if necessary, additions have been made on the date the consignment was split up, must accompany each group - with any additions necessary - to the animals' final destination.

(2) Details to be given only if the animals are not being transported under an EEC Health Certificate. The description should include the breed and sex of the animals, stating e.g. ewe, ram, lamb or the equivalent description for the species.

(3) State the means of transport and give the flight number for aircraft, the name for ships and the registration number for railway wagons or motor vehicles. For trailers which can be detached from the tractor unit, the container number should be given.

(4) State the time when the first animal was loaded.

(5) If it is provided that loading must be supervised by an official veterinary surgeon, he should complete Section B. If loading is to be supervised by an authorised person of the competent authority, acting for an official veterinary surgeon and responsible to him, then that person should complete Section B.

(6) Section C.I of the travel certificate should not be completed unless an official at the border post designated by the authority of the country of transit or destination or-when the check is carried out there-at the slaughterhouse to which the animals are sent considers that they have not been transported in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs 4 to 35 of the Annex to Directive 77/489/EEC.

(7) The official should state which particular requirements do not seem to him to have been met.

(8) If measures have been taken, including if the animals have been fed and watered, the person in charge of the premises where that has taken place should complete Part II of Section C.