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COUNCIL OF EUROPE
COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS

RECOMMENDATION No. R (87) 17

OF THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS TO MEMBER STATES

ON THE TRANSPORT OF HORSES

(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 17 September 1987
at the 410th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)

Table of Contents

RECOMMENDATION No. R (87) 17

APPENDIX I: CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT OF HORSES
General statement
Definition
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport
IV. Post-transport

Appendix I.A: Transportation by rail
Introduction
II. Loading
III. Transport
IV. Post-transport

Appendix I.B: Transportation by road
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport

Appendix I.C: Transportation by air
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport
Appendix I.C.1: Design and construction of containers for transportation by air

Appendix I.D Transportation by sea
Introduction
I. Pre-transport
II. Loading
III. Transport
Appendix I.D.1 Design and construction of stalls, boxes and containers for transportation by sea

Appendix II : International animal transport certificate

____________

RECOMMENDATION No. R (87) 17 

OF THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS TO MEMBER STATES

ON THE TRANSPORT OF HORSES

The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe,

Aware that man has a moral obligation to respect all animals and to have due consideration for their capacity for suffering;

Convinced that the requirements for the transport of horses are not incompatible with their welfare;

Recalling the adoption of common provisions, laid down in the European Convention for the Protection of Animals during International Transport, concluded in 1968;

Recalling also the additional protocol to this convention, concluded in 1979 to enable the European Economic Community to become a Party to this instrument;

Bearing in mind also the concern for the transport of horses expressed, respectively, by the Council of Europe Assembly and by the European Parliament, and in particular the preparatory reports to Recommendation 923 (1981) of the Council of Europe Assembly and to the Resolution of 6 June 1983 of the European Parliament;

Animated by the desire to safeguard, as far as possible. animals in transport from suffering;

Anxious to encourage full respect of the provisions of the convention by all people directly involved in the transport of horses in the member states;

Considering that the Code of Conduct for the International Transport of Horses, as reproduced in Appendix I to this recommendation, constitutes a series of Guidelines which together can ensure the protection of the welfare of horses during such transport;

Believing that it may be appropriate, under certain circumstances, to apply this code of conduct to horses being transported within national boundaries,

Recommends the governments of the member states:

i. if they have not already done so, to sign and/or ratify, at their earliest convenience, the European Convention for the Protection of Animals during International Transport, as well as the additional protocol to that instrument;

ii. to ensure that adequate publicity is given to the Code of Conduct for the International Transport of Horses, in particular amongst the persons concerned with such transport;

iii. to encourage these persons to take account of the Guidelines set out in this code of conduct when they prepare or carry out such transport;

iv. to ensure that the certificate which should accompany horses in international transport takes the form and follows the arrangements of the International Animal Transport Certificate, appended to Directive 81/389 of 12 May 1981 of the Council of the European Communities and reproduced in Appendix II to this recommendation;

v. to encourage their nationals to ensure, when concluding contracts which result in a transport of horses from non-member states, that before the departure of such transport the conditions have been met for the respect, throughout the trip, of the principles set out in the European convention and of the Guidelines listed in the Code of Conduct for the International Transport of Horses.

Appendix I to Recommendation No. R (87) 17

CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT OF HORSES 

General statement

Every effort should be made to avoid any unnecessary delay in the transport of horses and a consignment of horses should be detained only when it is strictly necessary for the welfare of the animals.

Definition

The term "horse" includes also pony, ass, mule and hinny, except where the context requires otherwise

I. Pre-transport

I.1. As a first operation, preliminary to any transport, the person wishing to carry one or more horses from one country to another shall enquire from the authorities in charge in the country concerned about the conditions in force for importation or transit, such as serological tests, vaccination. quarantine, customs, etc.

I.2. Preparation of the animal

I.2.1. Disease. For horses not intended to be slaughtered directly, immunisation and/or treatment for internal and external parasites should be considered well in advance of any export, especially against respiratory diseases. Immunisations should be carried out in accordance with the national regulations in the country of destination, taking into account the period which will elapse before a full immunity can develop.

I.2.2. Acclimatisation. Once they are frightened, horses may be difficult to load or transport on subsequent occasions. They should therefore be acclimatised to the type and size of pen, crate or box in which they will be transported ; this is particularly important with nervous young horses being transported for the first time. Vicious horses should be identified, labelled and given separate accommodation.

I.2.3. Group size. The size of the groups should be determined in relation to the facilities available and the means of transport used. Generally, horses are best transported singly ; however, they can travel satisfactorily in groups of up to four or five for larger horses. Small ponies may be transported in larger groups. Animals being transported in groups should be allowed to become accustomed to each other prior to the start of transportation for as long a period as is necessary. Where horses are transported without tethers, they should be kept separately.

I.2.4. Feeding and watering. It is necessary to prepare animals for the journey ahead of them by suitable feeding. They should be accustomed to the food which will be supplied during the journey, and this should preferably be hay. In the last few days before loading, feed which has a tendency to ferment or swell, or is otherwise difficult to digest, should be avoided, as should excessive dry feed. Before embarking on a journey, horses should be given only a small amount to eat, and a moderate amount to drink.

I.2.5. Clothing. Hoods, blankets, blinkers, sheets, knee and hock caps and bandages may be useful to protect those parts of the animal which are most likely to suffer bruising or rubbing through the motion of the transport. Horses with thick winter coats should be clipped or partially clipped before travelling to hot climates.

Particularly on long journeys where the horses are tied in groups, the hind shoes must be removed, and all shoes are better removed if the animals are facing across the direction of travel. The shoes of slaughter horses should always be removed.

I.2.6. Head collars. Head collars should be worn during the journey. These head collars should be made of a suitable material and be applied in such a way as not to cause injuries to the animals. If the animals are tied, this should be done with a quick-release knot. Supplementary ropes should be kept in reserve.

1.2.7. Rest. Apart from prior to journeys of a short duration, all animals should be given adequate rest before they are loaded for international transportation.

I.2.8. Sedation. Tranquillisers should not be used unless strictly necessary. If they are used, care must be taken to ensure that the horses are not harmed, for example by the effects of the motion of the transport or by their being trampled if they become recumbent. The pharmaceutical name of the drug, dosage rate, dates and times of administration should be noted on the documents accompanying the animal, such as the International Animal Transport Certificate (IATC). Drugs should be administered only under veterinary supervision or by a competent person under veterinary guidance.

It should be borne in mind that not all horses react in the same way to sedation; for instance, one animal will remain standing whilst another may lie down.

I.3. Preparation of the transport unit

I.3.1. Cleanliness. Horses shall be loaded only into rail wagons, vehicles, vessels, aircraft or containers which have been thoroughly cleansed and, if necessary, disinfected.

To prevent the spread of disease, it is important that any part of the transport unit which has been in contact with animals, including any receptacle, equipment or fitting, be cleansed and, if necessary, disinfected before loading and after unloading. Care should also be taken by all personnel in contact with animals during international carriage that their outer clothing and footwear are changed, washed or cleaned at the end of the journey and before contact with other animals.

I.3.2. Accommodation in the transport unit. The accommodation in the transport unit and the loading conditions should be in accordance with the requirements for the welfare of the animals to be transported, as set out in II and III hereafter.

I.3.3. Planning of the journey. Careful planning of any journey is essential ; the route, time, distances, stages and stopping places must be considered beforehand, as well as any facilities which might be required for tending and feeding the animals if such facilities are not carried on the transport unit. Care must also be taken to ensure that all necessary health certificates have been obtained and that the route followed does not jeopardise the health certification
in any way.

I.3.4. Quantity of food. It is usually preferable to carry a surplus of food on a journey in case of any unforeseen delays and to ensure a gradual change-over on to a new diet at the destination over a period of three days.

I.3.5. Notification. Early notification of the expected time of arrival at the border control posts will help to minimise delays. Therefore, consignor, carrier and consignee should make every effort to ensure that this is done.

I.4. Tasks of the official veterinarian

I.4.1. Documents. Since incomplete documents can cause considerable delay, they must be completed legibly and with complete accuracy. It is not acceptable to alter official documents, but errors or proper erasures must be stamped and initialled by the official veterinarian. As far as possible, documents should be completed in a way which makes them understandable in the country of destination and in any country of transit.

I.4.2. Description. Where the animal is travelling with an official description or silhouette, this must be accurate in every detail and must take into account recent alterations such as colour changes or permanent marks which have been recently acquired.

I.4.3. Fit animals. Only animals which are fit for carriage should be subjected to international transportation and the nature, length and duration of the proposed journey should be taken into account when deciding the degree of fitness required.

Excessive stress during transport may lead to parturition problems, failure to come into £oestrus (especially brood mares in milk), injuries, colic, shipping fever, transit tetany, weight loss, choke, severe colitis, streptococcal infection and berserk behaviour. Stress can give rise to latent biochemical changes which would influence the ability of the animal to work and to obtain its best performance post-transport.

Animals which are blind, emaciated or lame, and animals suffering from any condition which might be aggravated by the transport may only be transported if authorised by the official veterinarian in the interest of the animal.

Horses which are likely to give birth during transport shall not be considered fit for transportation. Mares which have given birth should not be transported within four days of foaling for reasons other than their own well-being.

A horse may require forty-eight hours' rest after a period of transportation.

I.4.4. Stocking densities. Where these depart from the accepted standards in paragraph III.1.4 and in the appendices, the official veterinarian must be prepared to give advice and require the off-loading of some animals if he thinks that overcrowding will result in unnecessary suffering. He should also be prepared to advise on penning if the animals are too loosely packed and might be thrown about by the motion of the transport.

I.4.5. Emergency killing. The official veterinarian should satisfy himself that, in accordance with the requirements of Point III.4, an instrument in working order for the emergency killing of animals is at hand in the transport unit, where applicable, and that the person in charge understands how and in what circumstances to use it.

1.5. Designation of the person in charge

I.5.1. Attendant. Each consignment of horses should be accompanied by an attendant who is in charge of looking after the animals and feeding and watering them. However, an attendant is not required when the sender and/or receiver have ensured that the animals will be looked after, fed and watered at the stopovers throughout the journey The attendant should be suitably trained in how to ensure the welfare of the animals in his charge and be conversant with legal requirements and other formalities. If large numbers are being carried, there should be a sufficient number of attendants to care for them, with one person in charge of the whole consignment. When the attendant considers that veterinary assistance is needed, he should obtain it as quickly as possible.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

II.1.1. Means of loading. Loading should normally take place from a properly constructed ramp, lift or loading bay, though manual lifting is permissible if the animals are small enough, and even desirable in the case of young foals which might have difficulty in negotiating a ramp. All loading facilities should be suitable for their purpose, stable and maintained in a good state of repair.

All ramps and walking surfaces should be of an anti-slip design. Foot battens or a sufficient covering of sand or litter may be used as necessary.

Horses very often object to the hollow sounds obtained from walking on ramps and these can be reduced with the use of matting or thick layers of bedding.

II.2. Light

II.2.1. Lighting. The interior of the transport unit should be well lit at loading so that the horse can see where it is going. However, a horse may object if it has to walk towards the glare from a very bright light.

II.3. Handling

II.3.1. Treatment. Loading and unloading are the activities during which injuries and stress are most likely to occur, and, once loaded, horses tend to settle down. Noise and harassment during loading should therefore be avoided as should the use of excessive force. Horses must be treated calmly and gently in order to keep inevitable unrest and agitation within limits, and in order to protect the animals from unnecessary pain, distress and injury. Electric goads or instruments based on the electric shock principle shall not be used for horses.

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

III.1.1. Construction and design. Containers, receptacles, vehicles, fittings, etc. must be strong enough to contain the animals' weight, to prevent the animals escaping or falling out, and to withstand the stresses of movement. Fittings should be designed for quick and easy operation.

Any transport unit must have a rigid, substantial and soundly constructed roof.

Floors should be designed to ensure that the bedding is maintained reasonably clean and dry, and if necessary be fitted with drainage and with a system to recover faeces and urine. The materials used for construction shall be such as are not liable to corrosion.

The parts of the aircraft, vessel, receptacle. vehicle, etc. in which horses are accommodated or through which they are moved should be free of obstructions and hazards which could cause injury. Deck and floor surfaces should provide a good foothold, and where necessary be fitted with foot battens.

Absorbent litter should be used in areas where horses are accommodated for prolonged periods.

Each horse should have sufficient room to stand in its natural position. There should be adequate clear headroom, and space above the head of each horse for air circulation/ventilation.

Adequate ventilation/fresh-air supply should be provided taking account of the number and size of the horses being carried and the climatic conditions expected for the journey. Where horses are carried in a fully enclosed space, it will invariably be necessary to ensure an exchange of air by mechanical means.

During long-distance transportation, provisions shall be made for the horses to be fed and watered at appropriate times.

III.1.2. Securing. Containers, receptacles and pens must be so secured as to prevent their being displaced by the movement of the transport.

III.1.3. Lighting. There should be a means of lighting, fixed or portable, sufficient for general inspection of the animals when this is necessary during loading carriage and unloading, and for feeding and watering.

III.1.4. Stocking density. Overcrowding is prohibited. When calculating space requirements, the size and condition of the animals, the weather, and the nature and length of the journey must be taken into account.

Figures which have been found to be satisfactory are given in the appendices.

Foals and Young horses on long journeys must have sufficient space in which to lie down.

Care must be taken to ensure that partitions do not encroach upon the available space. Under-stocking can result in injury if the animals are thrown about by the motion of the transport, and in these circumstances extra partitions should be provided for support.

III.1.5. Ventilation. The air circulation in transport units should be such as:

- to provide enough oxygen for the animals,
- to remove smell and gases, and
- to control temperature and humidity.

The supply of fresh air must be checked regularly and adjusted when necessary. The animals should not be placed in excessively strong draughts. Solid-sided horse stalls very often prevent the loss of heat produced by the animals inside them.

III.1.6. Temperature. Transport units which include a temperature-regulating mechanism should be used if the ambient temperatures are likely to fall below -20° C or exceed +25° C during the journey. When deciding whether to transport animals in very hot or cold conditions, due consideration should be given to the construction of the transport unit, its ventilation, the speed of travel, the number of stops to be made en route as well as the number and age of the animals to be carried.

III.1.7. Feeding and watering. All animals shall be fed and watered at least once in every twenty-four-hour period, and preferably every eight to fifteen hours ; young animals may require feeding more frequently. Weather conditions may also warrant other feeding and watering intervals. When calculating these intervals, account should be taken of the last feed and watering before loading, and the first possible feed and watering after unloading.

During carriage, only a maintenance ration should be provided. Care must be taken to provide a type of food suitable for the age of the animals being transported. The provision of haynets during travel may be considered desirable. It should be noted that horses may drink up to thirty-five litres of water every day.

Sealed transports

If the transport unit is sealed for customs purposes, then, either suitable access must be available for the introduction of food and water, or the seals must be removed, and subsequently replaced, in the presence of an officer of the competent authority so that feeding and watering can take place.

III.1.8. Positioning of animals. When animals are carried together (apart from mares with foals at foot) they should be of approximately equal size and weight, and different species should always be separated from each other during the transport, except when a horse is transported with a companion animal. In the transport unit, the following animals should be carried separately:

a. a stallion older than one year;
b. a mare with foal at foot;
c. any unfit animal being moved under conditions set down by a veterinary surgeon;
d. animals which are mutually antagonistic and any animal which is antagonistic to other animals.

From the point of view of animal welfare, the direction in which the animal is carried seems to be of minor importance in road, rail and air transportation. If the animals are placed at right angles to the direction of travel, adjustable partition boards should be mounted to help the animals keep their balance. Such partition boards should be about 60 cm high and placed at a height of about 60 cm off the floor.

Provision should always be made at the head of each animal to prevent it biting adjacent animals ; for example, double halters or head-height partitions may be used for this purpose.

III.1.9. Equipment. During transportation, adequate and suitable bedding material shall be supplied. This should have absorbent properties, particularly where straw is used as the upper layer.

III.1.10. Facilities for feeding and watering during transport. At posts where sanitary control is exercised and animals in significant numbers are regularly transported, sufficient facilities shall be available for the resting, feeding and watering of the number of animals which may be expected.

III.1.11 Access. Provision should be made for the possibility of observing the animals and, depending on the means of transport and the conditions in which it is being carried out, of having access to them at suitable intervals. Access to the pens may be required either through side-doors, passageways or walkways, and it has been found that access through one group of animals to reach another group is not satisfactory.

111.1.12. Loading and unloading en route. If the transport unit is not equipped for feeding and watering the horses over a long period of time, provisions should be made for loading and unloading en route for that purpose (see also III.1.7).

III.2. Duration and interruption of the journey

III.2.1. Duration. Subject to careful planning and all facilities being available, horses can be transported for long periods without any problem. It is recommended, however, that they be inspected approximately every six hours and especially when the welfare of the animals could be in doubt. Every opportunity should also be taken to inspect the animals, for instance at customs posts and whenever the transport unit or weather conditions change.

III.2.2. Delays. Horses shall be transported to their destination as soon as possible and delays, particularly in transhipment and marshalling yards, shall be reduced to a minimum. If delays occur, adequate care shall be given to the animals, particularly in relation to feeding, watering and ventilation.

III.3. Care during transport

III.3.1. Care. The attendant should remain with the transport, or be available at the designated stopping places. All attendants should be trained to have a sufficient knowledge of feeding and watering, tending the animals and regulating the air-circulation devices in different climatic conditions.

III.3.2. Treatment. Whenever possible, sick and injured animals shall be separated, unloaded and treated under veterinary supervision or by a competent person.

III.4. Euthanasia

III.4.1. Air and sea. In aircraft and ships transporting horses, an approved and effective means for the emergency killing of animals should be at hand and in wording order.

III.4.2. Rail and road. If during rail or road transport animals need to be killed, a veterinarian or competent person should be called upon.

IV. Post-transport

IV.1. Unloading

IV.1.1. Care. On arrival at their destination, the horses should be unloaded as soon as possible and offered food and water and be allowed to rest if it is necessary. The future activity of the horses may indicate that a rest period is required after transport is completed. All horses should be examined closely at unloading and veterinary assistance obtained if necessary. Light exercise may also be indicated if the horse is stiff from travelling.

After prolonged periods of transport (thirty-six hours or more) the health of the animals should be monitored for four or five days - except where they are to be slaughtered on arrival or shortly afterwards.

If at the destination a new diet is given, a gradual change-over should be ensured.

IV.1.2. Responsibility. The attendant must bring to the attention of the person in charge at the destination any aspect of the journey which might affect the future welfare of the horses: the last feeding and watering times, the full details of any treatment carried out and any withdrawal period which might affect meat quality in horses intended for slaughter. The attendant should not leave the premises of destination until he is satisfied that a suitable person has taken charge of the horses.

IV.1.3. Liaison. The consignee should, if possible, report back to the authorities in the country of origin on any problems met during the journey so that international transportation can be kept under constant review and the welfare of the horses improved as more information becomes available. Close liaison between the importer and his veterinary authorities and between the different veterinary authorities involved is also essential.

IV.2. Facilities

IV.2.1. General. Similar facilities are required for unloading to those required for loading. Efforts should be made to minimise the slope of the ramp. Where sides are fitted to ramps. these should preferably be made up of solid boards.

IV.2.2. Care. If rest and recovery are needed for the horses after transport, suitable facilities should be provided for these, as well as for feeding and watering.

Appendix A: Transportation by rail

Introduction

As far as the welfare of horses is concerned, the existing regulations of the International Union of Railways (IUR/UIC-Codex) are included in the general part of the code of conduct or in this appendix. In some cases, the following guidelines may be more precise or more restrictive than the IUR/UIC-Codex.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

Horses should be loaded and/or unloaded at railway stations which are adequately equipped for that purpose. Railway stations where horses are regularly loaded and/or unloaded must be equipped with adequate ramps or bridges (fixed or movable), whilst enclosures or pens must be available which have an even, solid floor, facilities for tethering, feeding and watering horses and an adequate part of which is covered.

II.1.1. Means of loading

Where animals are walked aboard the wagon, the ramps should have side protection of sufficient height and sufficiently covered at the bottom so as to prevent injuries. The side protection must consist of railings at least 1,3 m high, if the difference in height which the animals have to negotiate during loading and unloading is more than 70 cm or the length of the ramp is more than 1,50 m. Side protection may not be necessary where horses are led individually by load ropes or head collars.

The surface of loading ramps must be covered with non-slip material and must be provided with horizontal square-edged slats approximately 4,5 cm high at intervals of approximately 25 cm.

The following criteria have been found satisfactory for the construction of loading facilities:

External ramps

Side gates (where fitted for
ramps or lifting gear)

Step from top of ramp to vehicle

Space between top of ramp
and vehicle

Slope not to exceed thirty degrees and, if possible, less for descent

1,3 m in height

Not more than 25 cm

Not more than 6 cm

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

Horses must be transported as quickly as possible to destination; extended stops must be avoided, particularly in marshalling yards and during transhipment.

When the amount of traffic so justifies, the railway management must endeavour to form regular or special trains for the conveyance of the horses, or to forward blocks of wagons by fast trains. When there is less traffic, appropriate freight trains may be used and, exceptionally, appropriate passenger trains.

III.1.1. Construction and design

Wagons

Length, width and height of the space available for horses should be displayed on wagons. Appropriate indications or symbols on the outside of the wagon should make clear that live animals are being carried.

Wagons must be suitable for the transport of horses throughout the journey. They must be designed so that the horses are completely secure and cannot escape.

Wagons must have a barrel roof and be provided, along each side and near the roof, with, depending on the length of the wagon, either two or four closable openings of at least 40 x 30 cm. These openings must be protected to avoid an animal putting its head through.

In addition, when outside temperatures are high or expected to be high, wagons should if possible be equipped with a double or insulated roof. Wagons shall have facilities enabling the doors to be held open at a width of not more than 35 cm, depending on the size of the horses carried.

The inside walls should be of wood or other suitable material ; they should be provided with enough rings or bars at a suitable height, to which the horses can be secured. Suitable provisions must be made for securing the partition walls.

If the animals are watered and fed during long journeys inside the wagons, these should be equipped, at a height of 30 to 50 cm above the floor, with a number of hatches sufficient for the number of horses carried. The hatches must be wide and high enough for buckets to be passed through easily. During transport these hatches must be closed. Where such facilities are not available, satisfactory alternative methods of feeding and watering must be provided.

III.1.4. Stocking density

The following figures have been found satisfactory when horses are being transported:

Adult horses

Young horses (6-24 months)
(for journeys up to 48 hours)

Young horses (6-24 months)
(for journeys longer than 48 hours)

Ponies (under 144 cm)

Foals (0-6 months)

1,75 m2 (0,7 x 2,5 m)*

1,2 m2 (0,6 x 2 m)

2,4 m2 (1,2 x 2 m)

1 m2 (0,6 x 1,8 m)

1,4 m2 (1 x 1,4 m)

* The standard free width of the wagons is 2,6 m to 2,7 m.
N.B. On long journeys, foals and young horses must be able to lie down.

These figures may vary by up to 10% for adult horses and ponies and up to 20% for young horses and foals, depending not only on the weight and size of the horses but also on their condition, the weather and the probable length of the journey. For example, on hot, close days or on journeys lasting more than twenty-four hours, the minimum floorspace required by the animals may increase.

Tethered and untethered horses must have room for some movement.

Too close packing, as a result of which horses have permanent body contact, can lead to panic reactions if the vehicle sways during transport. If horses are loaded crosswise, enclosures for groups of 4 to 5 horses must be partitioned by means of walls which may have latticework in the upper part (above 150 cm) or by means of horizontal beams in order to support and stabilise the horses during transport.

Care should be taken to ensure that separating individual animals does not reduce the usable floorspace.

To avoid the risk of injuries caused by under-stocking, the space provided should be restricted to, at the most, double the minimum requirement, and the corresponding standing or lying area should, if necessary, be divided by means of partitions.

Apart from the required standing or lying area in the wagon, the horses must also have enough room overhead to enable them to travel in a natural position without injuring their heads or backs, and to give them enough air when the wagon is not moving.

III.1.7. Feeding and watering

If, during the journey, the horses cannot be watered and fed inside the wagon, they must be unloaded at suitable stations so that they can be watered and fed at least every twenty-four hours.

III.1.8. Positioning of animals

Partitioning and tethering

When it is necessary to separate the animals, the consignor shall be responsible for installing adequate partitioning to ensure the safety of the horses at all times.

The partitions should be fixed by means of ropes or straps.

Nails must not be used.

Horses should be transported properly tethered by means of well-fitted head collars which may be made of straps but not of ropes. Tethering devices must be strong enough to withstand normal use and be fastened to the devices provided for this purpose. The fastenings must be long enough to enable the horses to eat and to drink. They must not strangle them if they fall over.

Foals, young horses and horses which are not used to being tethered may be transported untethered in subdivided pens.

Direction in which the horses are carried

Horses are usually loaded across the wagons. When loaded crosswise, they must all face the same side when loaded lengthwise, they must face each other.

Crosswise loading has been found to be satisfactory for transport over longer distances. It also facilitates loading and unloading.

Riding and sports horses are usually loaded lengthwise because these transports do not require optimum use of the available space. The tethering of such horses facing each other may create problems.

III.3. Care during transport

III.3.1. Care

During transport the consignor shall be responsible for the feeding, watering and care of the horses.

The consignor must indicate on the consignment note the place where attention will be given to the animals, as well as the person in charge of this operation and the number of attendants. As a general rule, one attendant should not be in charge of more than four wagons. The attendants should remain with the transport, or be available at the designated stopping places. They must have at hand the tools necessary to carry out their functions, including safe, adequate light sources.

The person in charge of the consignment must ensure that the horses are looked after, fed and watered. He must help with the veterinary inspection and the performance of customs formalities.

Smoking shall be forbidden in wagons.

Rapid acceleration and sudden braking should be avoided. Wagons carrying horses may be shunted only with care. The setting in motion of such wagons by sudden pushing movements or any other intervention designed to allow the wagons to run freely shall be prohibited.

IV. Post-transport

IV.1. Unloading

IV.1.1. Care

Wagons carrying horses must be placed in position for unloading as soon as possible.

IV.1.2. Responsibility

The consignee shall be responsible for unloading.

Appendix B: Transportation by road

I. Pre-transport

I.5. Designation of the person in charge

I.5.1. Attendant

During transport by road, the functions of the attendant may be assumed by the driver of the vehicle. When, because of time or distance, a single driver cannot maintain proper care of the horses, the presence of a second driver is indispensable.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

II.1.1. Means of loading

Where animals are walked aboard the vehicle, the side gates should be of sufficient height and be sufficiently covered, particularly at the bottom, so as to prevent injury. This side protection may not be necessary where horses are led individually by load ropes or head collars.

The following criteria have been found satisfactory for the construction of the loading means:

External ramps

Side gates (where fitted for
ramps or lifting gear)

Steps from top of ramp to vehicle

Space between top of ramp
and vehicle

Slope not to exceed thirty degrees and, if possible, less for descent

1,3 m in height

Not more than 25 cm

Not more than 6 cm

II.3. Handling

II.3.1. Backing-up

Some horses object to being loaded into vehicles in such cases backing the animal into the vehicle, or loading it through the front, may prove easier, though in these circumstances ramps should be as near level as possible as it is difficult to back a horse up a slope. Facing backwards away from the direction of travel may result in less stress for animals which are fractious or difficult to load.

III. Transport

III.1. Conditions

III.1.1. Construction and design

The length, width and height of the space available for animals should be displayed on road vehicles. Appropriate indications or symbols on the outside of the vehicle should make clear that live animals are being carried.

Vehicles must be designed so that the horses are completely secure and cannot escape.

If necessary, the walls of stalls or pen divisions should be padded from a level of about 75 cm above the floor to a height level with the animal's back. Further padding may be required to protect the animal's head. and on breast rails. Padding should be capable of easy cleansing and disinfection. Materials such as coconut matting may be used on the lower levels of the side walls and the rear wall, as a protection against kicking for both the animal and its container.

Any edges and corners inside the vehicle should be rounded off and wheel housing projecting into the body of the vehicle should be adequately covered.

Vehicles must be provided with adequately insulated walls to ensure or maintain a consistent internal temperature.

Vehicles with no mechanical means of ventilation must be provided with ventilation openings of adequate size in the front wall and along the length of the side walls of the vehicle. These ventilation openings should be constructed in a way which will not cause injuries to the horses carried and so that they may be closed if necessary.

A vehicle carrying horses should have sufficient partitions available to safeguard the welfare of the animals in an emergency and should be equipped with adequate means to ensure that horses do not fall out when the door is opened.

III.1.4. Stocking density

The following figures have been found satisfactory when horses are being transported:

Adult horses

Young horses (6-24 months)
(for journeys up to 48 hours)

Young horses (6-24 months)
(for journeys longer than 48 hours)

Ponies (under 144 cm)

Foals (0-6 months)

1,75 m2 (0,7 x 2,5 m)

1,2 m2 (0,6 x 2 m)

2,4 m2 (1,2 x 2 m)

1 m2 (0,6 x 1,8 m)

1,4 m2 (1 x 1,4 m)

N.B. On long journeys, foals must be able to lie down.

These figures may vary by up to 10% for adult horses and ponies and up to 20% for young horses and foals, depending not only on the weight and size of the horses, but also on their condition, the weather and the probable length of the journey. For example, on hot, close days or on journeys lasting more than twenty-four hours, the minimum floorspace required by the animals may increase.

Tethered horses must have room for some movement.

Too close packing, as a result of which horses have permanent body contact, can lead to panic reactions if the vehicle sways during transport. If horses are loaded crosswise, enclosures for groups of four to five horses must be partitioned by means of walls which may have latticework in the upper part (above 150 cm) in order to support and stabilise the horses during transport.

Care should be taken to ensure that separating individual animals does not reduce the usable floorspace.

To avoid the risk of injuries caused by under-stocking, the space provided should be restricted to, at the most, double the minimum requirement, and the corresponding standing or lying area should, if necessary, be divided by means of partitions.

Apart from the required standing or lying area in the vehicle, the horses must also have enough room overhead to enable them to travel in a natural position without injuring their heads or backs, and to give them enough air when the vehicle is not moving.

III.1.7. Feeding and watering

If, during the journey, the horses cannot be watered and fed inside the vehicle, they must be unloaded at suitable places so that they can be watered and fed at least every twenty-four hours.

III.3. Care during transport

III.3.1. Care

The drivers of road vehicles should ensure a smooth and considerate journey and avoid rapid acceleration and deceleration.

Appendix C: Transportation by air

Introduction

As far as the welfare of horses is concerned, the existing Live Animals Regulations, drawn up by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), are covered by the general part of the code of conduct or in this appendix. In some cases, the following guidelines may be more precise or more restrictive than the IATA regulations.

I. Pre-transport

I.2.8. Sedation

The administration of tranquillisers during the flight can be permitted only with the consent and under the responsibility of the captain of the aircraft and should be carried out by a competent person.

I.3.5. Notification

The captain of the aircraft should be informed about the presence of a livestock shipment aboard the aircraft before the start of the journey so that adequate ventilation and temperature setting can be ensured. En route and destination airports should be informed in view of special arrangements to be made ensuring the welfare of the horses.

I.5.1. Attendant

The horses should be accompanied by an attendant experienced in handling horses. This attendant must be conversant with the guidelines and standards of care contained in the current edition of the IATA Live Animals Regulations.

II. Loading

II.1. Facilities

Adequate facilities must be available to receive the horses, to stall them if necessary, to take care of them, to feed and water them if necessary, to inspect them and to load them in a container.

Only personnel experienced in the handling of animals should handle the horses. When the horses are tired at the time of arrival at the airport, the official veterinarian can decide to give them an adequate rest before loading. This might even imply that the horses cannot be taken on a particular flight.

II.1.1. Means of loading

Horses should be loaded as close as possible to take-off. They should be positioned so that their unloading and reloading during intermediate stops can be avoided.

Horses shall not be stowed in the vicinity of other cargo which can cause them harm, for example, radioactive materials, shipments packed in dry ice, cryogenic liquids, poisonous or infectious matters, irritants.

III. Transport

III.1.1. Construction and design

Horses should preferably be transported in containers. The design and construction of such containers should follow the principles laid down for that purpose in the current edition of the IATA Live Animals Regulations (see Appendix C.1). They must meet the following specifications:

a. Strong construction capable of resisting possible kicking, free of nails or other projections likely to cause injury. Reinforcing metal plates should be covered by protective material. Any catches used should be simple and easy to operate;

b. All internal container walls, including any partitions, should be padded 75 cm (30 in.) from floor to top of box; a foam plastic cushion which can be cleaned is recommended. The lower portion should be covered with coconut matting, approximately 5 cm (2 in.) thick, as protection against kicking, for both animal and container;

c. The floor of the container shall be so constructed as to provide a grip for the hooves and to prevent leakage of droppings or urine. Any drainage outlets shall be provided with leak-proof plugs;

d. The design should allow access by a groom to the head and tail of the animal during the flight, and a securing point for a halter rope should be provided;

e. The dimensions of each container shall be proportioned according to the size of the animal in order to restrict excessive movements of the animal ;

f. The front end of the container should be notched and padded to accept the neck of the animal;

g. The container must be equipped with devices allowing it to be tied down to the aircraft pallet or floor. When a net assembly is used to secure the container on to an aircraft pallet, the metal structure as illustrated in Appendix C.1 must be incorporated into the design to prevent the net assembly from touching the horse;

h. Double/triple container:

The height and contour depend on the aircraft in which it will be carried. The canopy over the heads of the animals may be constructed of metal, fibreglass, canvas or other suitable material. Horses must be separated from each other by means of partition walls which should be 1,50 m high and strong enough to bear the horses' weight.

The horse container should also have air vents.

The slope of the ramp should not be more than thirty degrees and should, if possible, be less for descent, while the step from ground to ramp and from ramp to loading floor should not be more than 25 cm. The ramp should be provided with foot battens.

Open-pen system

The so-called "open-pen system" should not be applied for the transport of horses by air.

III.1.4. Stocking density

Stocking density can be calculated in two ways:

- weight of the animal in relation to the available floor area;
- need of oxygen or ventilation required per kg animal in relation to the ventilation capacity.

Stocking density for horses in relation to floor area

0-100 kg 0,42 m2
100-200 kg 0,66 m2
200-300 kg 0,87 m2
300-400 kg 1,04 m2
400-500 kg 1,19 m2
500-600 kg 1,34 m2
600-700 kg 1,51 m2
700-800 kg 1,73 m2

III.1.5. Ventilation

Stocking density for horses in relation to ventilation requirements

It is advised that, during combined transport of horses and passengers, adequate ventilation should be provided, even if the number of passengers does not necessitate such ventilation.

As the ventilation capacity of most aeroplanes may be limited during take-off, landing and when the aeroplane is on the ground, any calculations must take these factors into account.

For aircraft carrying horses, the ability to supply 0,16 to 0,19 m3/kg/h is required. This results in the following requirements by weight:

500 kg 80- 95 m3/h
600 kg 96-114 m3/h
700 kg 112-130 m3/h
800 kg 128-152 m3/h

Up-to-date information on the ventilation capacity of the aircraft should be at hand.

III.1.6. Temperature

A combination of high temperature and high relative humidity poses a risk to animals. All measures should therefore be taken to avoid the temperature rising above 25°C and relative humidity exceeding 80%. If necessary, additional ventilation should be provided when the aeroplane is on the ground.

III.1.11. Access

During all phases of the flight, the attendant should have access to the horses.

III.3.1. Care

The attendant should be with the horses during take-off and landing and provide them with some food for distraction.

III.4. Euthanasia

Euthanasia of a horse may only take place in consultation with and under the responsibility of the captain of the aircraft.

Means of euthanasia are:

- a suitable central nervous system depressant, or
- a captive bolt followed, if possible, by a suitable central nervous system depressant.

Decompression as a means of euthanasia is not allowed. When emergency killing is necessary it should be carried out by any competent person.

Appendix C.1: Design and construction of containers for transportation by air

Appendix D Transportation by sea

Introduction

There are three basic types of shipment method by which horses can be transported by sea:

i. in a vehicle, or other container moved on wheels, which is driven or towed on and off a Roll-on-Roll-off (Ro-Ro) vessel

ii. in a vessel which is adapted and has special fittings for carrying horses "on the hoof". Horses are usually walked on and off, and carried in individual stalls or in penned enclosures

iii. in receptacles, boxes or containers carried on cargo vessels as a part of the total freight. Receptacles etc. may be either constructed ashore and lifted on board with the horses inside or constructed on the vessel whereafter the horses are lifted or walked on board and housed within them.

Each of these shipment types may be further subdivided according to whether the horses are carried within an enclosed deck or an "open" exposed deck.

Shipments may be of one or two horses, or a larger number, and the length of voyage and size of vessel can vary considerably.

I. Pre-transport

I.2.4. Feeding and watering

Before any long transport, the horses should be accustomed to the food they will be fed on the journey.

I.2.7. Rest

Provided that only fit and healthy animals are loaded, horses can be carried on long sea voyages (up to about six weeks) without any problem. However, competition and riding horses should not be in peak training condition at the start of a long voyage, and are best rested for about thirty days before being loaded.

I.3.1. Cleanliness

Those parts of a vessel where horses are stowed or through which they are moved should be so constructed as to enable them to be kept in a sanitary condition and to be regularly cleansed, and disinfected when necessary.

I.3.3. Planning of the journey

Sufficient supplies of wholesome food, fresh water and litter should be carried for the anticipated length of the voyage. Reserve supplies are recommended in case of delay due to weather, mechanical failure or other cause. Food, litter and water should be stowed so that their quality cannot deteriorate during the voyage. Appropriate feed and drinking utensils should be provided. If it becomes necessary to supply unfamiliar-tasting "manufactured" water during the voyage, this should be introduced to the horses gradually.

Horses should not be carried when the weather conditions anticipated for the voyage are such that the animals might suffer or be injured, for example by excessive motion of the vessel, water shipped on board, strong winds or damage to or displacement of the transport unit.

It is recommended that exporters give ships' masters clear written instructions concerning feeding, watering and general care of the horses. Masters, officers and the crew of vessels may be inexperienced in the carriage of horses, and therefore require special instruction before the start of the voyage.

I.3.5. Notification

It is important to ensure that the operators, masters and crews of vessels are made fully aware of livestock shipments before the start of the voyage, so that they can make any special arrangements needed to ensure proper stowage, securing, ventilation and access.

Exporters and vehicle operators should notify the shipping company at the time of making the booking, and attendants and drivers should ensure that the vessel's cargo/loading officer is aware that the transport unit contains a live cargo.

I.5.1. Attendant

A sufficient number of experienced attendants, who could be part of the ship's normal complement, should be provided for the voyage taking into account its length and the number of horses to be carried in the case of the Ro-Ro, the vehicle driver could act as attendant.

II. Loading

II.1.1. Means of loading

Ro-Ro vessels

The individual circumstances of each vessel, voyage and vehicle load may vary considerably. Generally, it is preferable to load a horse transporter as late as possible, and to unload it first. This will reduce the risk of harmful effects of a build-up of exhaust fumes from other vehicles.

Vessels designed to carry livestock

a. Where horses are walked on and off the vessel, suitable gangways, ramps and walkways should be provided between the quayside and the vessel's livestock decks. Horses are best led on and off the ship individually. Ship-to-shore gangways and ramps between different levels in the vessel should be fitted with foot battens and should not be unduly steep. The slope angle with the horizontal should not exceed thirty degrees, and a smaller angle is to be preferred where horses are descending. The height of tide at the berth should be considered when arranging the time for loading/unloading as this will affect the slope of the ramp.

A gangway/ramp/walkway width of about 1 m will permit the passage of one horse at a time. Sides should be guarded to a height of about 1,4 m. Doorways should be sufficiently wide and high for the horses to pass through without injury.

b. Where horses are lifted on and off the vessel, a suitably constructed, strong and secure "loading box" should be used. The horse should be securely tied during this operation, and it is best if the animal cannot see out of the box whilst it is being lifted in the air. The crane driver must be made aware that he is lifting a "live" cargo, and he should ensure that the operation is made steadily and without unnecessary swaying or jolting.

When horses are loaded with cranes, the use of nets, straps or other means which would cause them pain, suffering or distress must be avoided.

Other cargo vessels

If it is intended to lift the horses on and off the vessel in their transit boxes, these should be strong enough for the purpose. Otherwise, a "loading box" (see II.1.1.b above) should be used.

When horses are loaded with cranes, the use of nets, straps or other means which would cause them pain, suffering or distress must be avoided.

III. Transport

III.1.1. Construction and design

a. Ship motion and the effects of wind and sea can impose considerable extra strain on livestock containers, vehicles, fittings and equipment.

b. Excess water is liable to accumulate from rainfall, sea or spray over the deck and washing down water. Adequate deck and floor drainage is therefore important.

Other cargo vessels

Deck boxes and stalls. Construction can be of timber, metal or similar materials (see III.1.8 below for appropriate sizes and Appendix D.1, Diagrams A and B, for suggested design).

The structure should be strong enough to protect the horses from wind, spray and sea, and for securing to the vessel. It should normally be fitted with a weatherproof roof.

There should be proper access for moving the animals in and out of it, and for attendants to perform their duties.

Shipping containers. These can be successfully used for carrying horses provided that: a. a suitable type is chosen, b. they are fitted out appropriately, and c. their stowage is well planned. The basic principles outlined in this appendix apply. In addition:

a. Types:

"Flat rack" : load platform, with ends only.

"Open-sided" : load platform, with ends and top. Sides may be fitted with steel grid gates, timber battens, and/or PVC curtains.

"Livestock" permanently converted and fitted out (very few exist).

b. Fitting out:

Stalls or boxes as described in III.1.8 below should be fitted within and secured to the container framework. Up to six stalls or three boxes can be fitted within one container of 7 m (20 ft).

The strength of the container framework should be utilised wherever possible. The stall/box fronts should normally be in the long side of the container.

It may be necessary, where large horses are involved, to construct beyond the normal height and/or width of the container. In these circumstances the shipping company should always be consulted first to establish the maximum size permitted. When constructed "over width", it will be necessary to give extra support to the overhang. When an open-top container is used, the horse stall/box should be fitted with its own roof.

III.1.2. Securing

The containers, receptacles, vehicles, etc. in which horses are carried should be secured as necessary, so that they cannot be displaced by the motion of the vessel or the effects of the wind and sea.

Ro-Ro vessels

When anticipated weather conditions and ship motion demand, horse transporters should be properly secured before the start of the voyage to prevent them moving or overturning. The transporter should have sufficient and strong securing points fitted for the attachment of lashing devices.

III.1.3. Lighting

Sufficient lighting should be provided for tending animals.

III.1.5. Ventilation

Ro-Ro vessels

The vehicle should be provided with adequate means of ventilating its interior, bearing in mind that there may be virtually "still air" conditions in an enclosed Ro-Ro deck. Many vehicles designed to carry horses rely on the possibility of opening rear and side loading doors to provide extra ventilation to the interior. The owner or driver of such a vehicle has the responsibility of notifying the ship's master or crew that additional clear space has to be left alongside and behind the vehicle when stowage is being arranged. Where such doors may have to be opened, there must be internal barriers which will prevent horses escaping or falling out.

Vessels designed to carry livestock

The climate conditions in which the vessel is to operate and the number of animals to be carried should be taken into account when designing the ventilation system. Care should be taken to ensure that fumes from the vessel's machinery or other sources are not drawn into ventilators or across open deck accommodation where horses may be affected.

a. Enclosed decks:

Mechanical ventilation consisting of supply and exhaust fans connected to appropriate trunkings to diffuse the air throughout each enclosed deck is essential. It is advisable to fit reversible fans. A minimum air-change rate of twenty times per hour should be provided; thirty times per hour is to be preferred. There should be sufficient free air space above the horses' heads for the passage of heated foul air towards exhaust points. Natural air supply/exchange through ventilators, hatchways, etc. may be useful to supplement the mechanical ventilation.

b. Open decks:

When horses are carried on an open deck, the stalls, pens, etc. in which they are housed should have sufficient ventilation openings (either permanent or adjustable) to provide adequate air change even in windless conditions.

Other cargo vessels

The horse box, stall or container must be provided with adequate ventilation to its interior. This may need to be adjustable and should take account of the climate and any variations expected during the voyage.

Stowage arrangements must be such that there is a free airflow to and around the horse unit. Appropriate vacant slots must be left when stowing containerised shipments.

Mechanical ventilation will usually be necessary when this type of shipment is carried in an enclosed deck.

III.1.7. Feeding and watering

Depending on the size of horse, each adult animal will require about thirty-five litres (and possibly up to fifty litres in hot weather) of water, and about 2% of its body weight in hay (or the equivalent) each day of the voyage. In order to supplement the dry ration and to avoid digestive problems on very long voyages, the addition of molasses will be required.

III.1.8. Positioning of animals

Horses constrained so that they are unable to run around freely should be placed to stand athwart the vessel, in which position they are best able to cope with the predominant ship motion (rolling). However, on fully stabilised vessels (particularly Ro-Ro) fore and aft standing is acceptable.

Stowage. When determining the stowage position of horses, account should be taken of the presence of noxious substances carried on the vessel, and of the possible harmful effects of toxic gases which might be produced by mechanical exhausts, chemical spillage, etc.

Ro-Ro vessels

Stowage. The preferred vehicle location in the vessel will be on or near the fore and aft centre line on a deck close to the water line, or on an open deck. In an enclosed space, best stowage will be close to a ventilator supplying fresh air by mechanical means, with another exhausting air from a point further away.

Open decks. When open-deck stowage is used, care must be taken, where necessary, to give the horse transporter a protected stowage location in which it is sheltered, either by parts of the ship's structure or by other large vehicles, from any seas or spray which might be shipped and from strong winds.

Vessels designed to carry livestock

Pens and stalls. Horses should be either housed singly in individual stalls, or in small groups in pens or boxes, Divisions between stalls, pens or boxes, and breast rails, should be strong, substantial and secure (a single pole division is not sufficient and may prove dangerous). Means should be provided to prevent horses biting, kicking or worrying one another, and for the tying of head ropes and halters. Horses carried together in groups are best shipped unshod.

The following dimensions have been found suitable. for most horses of average size (135 to 155 cm (13,1 to 15,1 hands) high). They may need to be increased for larger horses (over 155 cm), or reduced for small horses, ponies and foals (under 135 cm). The actual dimensions of area, headroom and size of fittings should be arranged to suit the size of animal to be carried.

Headroom

Length

Breadth

Pen/box

Division board

Breast rail

2,1 m clear of obstructions

2 m to 2,5 m )
) single stall
0,7 m to 1 m )

2 m x 2 m minimum area

1, 2 m minimum height

1,15 m minimum height

Passageways of about 1 m in width should be provided for access in front of every pen, stall or box.

It is recommended that pens, boxes and stalls fitted on an open, exposed deck be provided with a strong and weatherproof roof covering (see Appendix D.1, Diagram A, for suggested design of horse stalls).

Other cargo vessels

General. Horses transported on ships which were not designed to carry livestock are best housed in individual stalls or boxes, especially for long ocean voyages. However, in some circumstances, compatible horses can be carried together, housed or penned in small groups. Stowage will normally be on open, exposed decks. Underdeck stowage may be acceptable, but should only be considered when proper ventilation (See III.1.5) and access can be provided.

Stowage on open decks. A protected location for the horses' accommodation is essential. Where such exists, the deck space abaft the bridge structure is to be preferred. The forward part of the foredeck should be avoided as this is usually the most exposed area. Where there is a predominant "lee side" for the voyage in question this should be used, if possible. Other deck cargo or containers may often be usefully sited to provide a shield for the horses.

The dangers and possible disturbance of cargo operations at ports en route between the loading and unload of the horses should be taken into account when determining a safe stowage location for the horses.

Containers are normally stowed with their long axis fore and aft: thus the horses will stand athwart vessel. Only the bottom tier of the open deck stow will normally be suitable for livestock.

The ideal arrangement may be with the horse container in an in-board slot with the horses facing in-board. Other containers out-board and forward of the horses can provide protection. The slot adjacent to the horses' heads should be left empty or used for an empty "open" container. This will provide ventilation and give an access and working area. Where possible, the slot on the other side of the horse container should also be left empty. These empty slots should not be overstowed, but a container on top of that carrying the horses will provide a useful shield from the sun's heat.

Food and equipment should be protected from the weather. If stowed in a separate container, this is best located conveniently nearby (see sketches of container types, fittings and stowage in Appendix D.1, Diagram C.

III.1.9. Equipment

A bedding of straw over an absorbent layer of sawdust, wood shavings or similar material is suitable. Sawdust-type litter alone is liable to be blown away. Bedding material should be changed frequently to ensure that it remains dry, and at maximum intervals of two or three days.

III.1.11 Access

Attendants should have safe access to every horse at all times, regardless of weather conditions, other cargoes carried, etc.

Ro-Ro vessels

Vehicle drivers/attendants should be given access to the horses during the voyage, and the ship's patrolmen should pay particular attention to livestock in transit.

III.3.1. Care

On long voyages, veterinary medicines and equipment should be available, particularly to treat injuries which may be sustained. Attendants should be capable of rendering "first aid" treatment. Veterinary advice may, on occasion, have to be sought by radio communication or by direct consultation at wayports.

On such voyages, the presence aboard of a Veterinarian is advisable.

Facilities should be available to isolate sick and injured horses.

Appendix D.1 Design and construction of stalls, boxes and containers for transportation by sea

Diagram A

Stalls for horses

Diagram B

Horse "loose" box

Diagram C

Shipping containers for horses

Appendix II to Recommendation No. R (87) 17*

Certificate number.......................

INTERNATIONAL ANIMAL TRANSPORT CERTIFICATE (1)
Competent authority (in block capitals)

Transport of animals referred to in Chapter I of the Annex to Directive 77/489/EEC

A. CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FOR INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT

Country of dispatch (2)

Name and address of consignor (2)

Country of destination (2)

I. Number of animals (2)

II. Description of animals
(2)

III. Place of final destination of animals and name and address of consignee
(2)

IV. I, the undersigned, certify that I have inspected the animals described above and that in my opinion they are fit for the intended international transport.

Stamp Date ....................... Local time ...............

............................................................
Signed (Official Veterinary Surgeon)

This certificate will no longer be valid if the animals to which it refers have not been loaded with a view to departure within 24 hours of the time of signature.
________________________________________________________________________________

B. LOADING ATTESTATION

I, the undersigned, certify that the animals described above were loaded on to (3)


under conditions approved by an official veterinary surgeon at

(place of loading)

on ...........................(date) at............................(local time) (4)

.........................................................................................................
Stamp Signed (Official Veterinary Surgeon or representative of the competent authority) (5)

____________
* Extract from the Official Journal of the European Communities, No. 150/4 and 5 of 6 June 1981.

C. OBSERVATIONS (6)

I. The animals described above are not being transported in accordance with (7)
and the following measures have been taken

................................................................................
Signed (Authorised official of the competent authority) (6)

II. I, the undersigned, declare that the animals described above were fed and watered
at......................and left these premises on...........................(date)
at.........................(local time).

....................................................................
Signed (person in charge of the premises) (8)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

After transport, if comments have been made under C.I, this certificate, duly completed, must be submitted to the competent authority within three days by the owner of the place of destination or his authorised agent.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Notes

(1) A certificate must be issued in respect of each consignment of animals transported in one and the same railway wagon, lorry, container, aircraft or ship from one and the same holding to one and the same consignee. When such a consignment is split up, a copy of this certificate, to which, if necessary, additions have been made on the date the consignment was split up, must accompany each group - with any additions necessary - to the animals' final destination.

(2) Details to be given only if the animals are not being transported under an EEC Health Certificate. The description should include the breed and sex of the animals, stating e.g. ewe, ram, lamb or the equivalent description for the species.

(3) State the means of transport and give the flight number for aircraft, the name for ships and the registration number for railway wagons or motor vehicles. For trailers which can be detached from the tractor unit, the container number should be given.

(4) State the time when the first animal was loaded.

(5) If it is provided that loading must be supervised by an official veterinary surgeon, he should complete Section B. If loading is to be supervised by an authorised person of the competent authority, acting for an official veterinary surgeon and responsible to him, then that person should complete Section B.

(6) Section C.I of the travel certificate should not be completed unless an official at the border post designated by the authority of the country of transit or destination or-when the check is carried out there-at the slaughterhouse to which the animals are sent considers that they have not been transported in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs 4 to 35 of the Annex to Directive 771489/EEC.

(7) The official should state which particular requirements do not seem to him to have been met.

(8) If measures have been taken, including if the animals have been fed and watered, the person in charge of the Premises where that has taken place should complete Part II of Section C.