Action against Trafficking in Human Beings


EG (1999) 011

PDF

 

Prevention of the risks of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation: actions organised in Albania for Kosovar refugees
May – August 1999

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FINAL REPORT (Summary)

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CONTENTS

CONTEXT
REGIONS
ACTIONS UNDERTAKEN
1) Distribution of information material aimed at women in Albania

ASSESSMENT

FOLLOW-UP in ALBANIA

APPENDIX 1 - Input
APPENDIX 2 - Organisation of an information campaign on the risks of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation in Albania
Proposed short-term and medium-term strategy
First phase (short term)

APPENDIX 3 - LEAFLET
APPENDIX 4 - List of contacted consular personnel
APPENDIX 5 - List of refugee camps visited
APPENDIX 6 - List of NGOs contacted
APPENDIX 7 - LIST OF AUTHORITIES

CONTEXT 

Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation has grown considerably in recent years in Albania. Since the country opened up, criminal networks for trafficking in human beings (mainly women and very young girls) have emerged. In particular, trafficking has developed because of the often very serious financial difficulties encountered by some of the population, which make them especially vulnerable. NGOs in several countries, such as Italy, Germany and Belgium, have confirmed that increasing numbers of Albanians, especially young women, are involved in prostitution.

After the massive arrival of Kosovar refugees in Albania, it appeared that the trafficking networks also began targeting Kosovar women and young girls in order to lure them into their activities. Organised trafficking networks saw the Kosovo refugees as a target group (since they were often separated from their families and had no resources or prospects, the refugees could be easily persuaded – or forced – to follow the traffickers to nearby European countries).

These dangers have prompted the Council of Europe to help prevent trafficking in Albania. The report outlined below describes the preventive action undertaken for the benefit of the Kosovo refugees. It also describes the actions undertaken or envisaged which target Albanian society in general, in view of the seriousness of the problem in Albania.

Consultations with a variety of counterparts, along with the results of a fact-finding mission conducted by an expert consultant (Ms Véronique Grossi, from the Belgian NGO Payoke), have highlighted the need for various kinds of short-term and medium-term actions.

The actions described below constitute the first phase of an information and prevention campaign launched in cooperation with the Albanian Ministry for Social Affairs and Labour, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and with the assistance of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) as well as Belgian and Italian NGOs (for a detailed description of the project, see Appendix 2).

As no additional staff was recruited, the project was entirely conceived and implemented by the current staff of the Section Equality between women and men of the Directorate of Human Rights (in particular, Ms Sophie Piquet, administrator, devoted two months of work to this project, which meant postponing some activities scheduled in the 1999 Intergovernmental Programme).

REGIONS 

Tirana and surrounding area; Vlora and surrounding area (this region has been identified as particularly sensitive because the main transport links to Italy are close at hand); Fier, Berat, Shkodër.

ACTIONS UNDERTAKEN 

1) Distribution of information material aimed at women in Albania 

Leaflets in English and Albanian produced by the Council of Europe alerting women and girls (both refugee and local population) to the risks of trafficking have been widely distributed (see text of leaflet in Appendix 3):

· In refugee camps ;
· To Albanian NGOs who distributed them to refugees in collective centres and families and put them at the disposal of all women coming into contact with their organisations (some NGOs reproduced them in their publications) ;
· To international and national NGOs and social workers dealing with refugees in host families ;
· To all Albanian authorities (national and local) who were contacted during the period of the project ;
· To international monitors of the Council of Europe who could distribute them during the registration procedure in refugee camps ;
· To consular sections and embassies of countries of destination (see Appendix 4 and below).

2) Visits and Information sessions in refugee camps (see Appendix 5 for the list of camps visited)

The action of the Council of Europe, i.e. the distribution of leaflets and the organisation of information sessions, attracted great interest among the Kosovo refugees, both women and men.

The majority of the refugees knew about the existence of the problem of trafficking: most of them said that they had heard about it, quickly adding that it must have been in another camp. To talk about prostitution is still a taboo in the Kosovar Albanian mentality, therefore it was difficult to get exact information. However, some people did not even know the meaning of the terms "trafficking" or "prostitution".

Information sessions were organised in the refugee camps in order to raise awareness, foster a basic level of security (measures to prevent traffickers from “recruiting” within the camps) and train some of the Kosovo refugees, whose job was then to pass on the information to other refugees.

At the time of their departure, the "Kosovar leaders" in some camps asked for more material to be distributed also in Kosovo after their arrival.

3. Awareness-raising for refugees hosted in other structures (families, collective centres) was carried out through training of NGOs who then spread the information to the refugees.

4. Awareness-raising for Albanian NGOs and Youth Organisations

Awareness-raising sessions, round tables and individual meetings took place in Tirana, Fier, Berat, Vlora, Shkodër (for detailed information see Appendices 6 and 7). Also, trafficking issues were inserted as a special item in information sessions currently organised by Albanian women NGOs, during which the Council of Europe materials and leaflets were distributed.

The NGOs working on women's issues in Albania know about the problem of trafficking. They collect individual stories from women, but many women are unwilling to make their experiences known.

Members of these NGOs pointed out that:

· prostitution within Albania is very much on the increase, particularly in urban areas;
· very young girls work as prostitutes (including high school girls and university students);
· there are different target groups who need different approaches :

    a) "Coerced women" (Women who are kidnapped or coerced through other forms of violence); to combat this, there is a need of support from the State structures, the legislation, the police, the judiciary;

    b) "Persuaded women" (Women who follow false proposals of marriage, work, employment to go abroad); these women need mainly information and education;

    c) "Conscious women" (Women who decide to go abroad and to prostitute themselves as a way to earn their living because they have no other opportunities to work); they need other opportunities, economic programmes, vocational training and employment opportunities;

Some proposals were put forward (see below) and the representatives of the Albanian NGOs expressed their expectations for additional actions of prevention and more structured assistance from the Council of Europe.

5) Contacts with national and local authorities including representatives of the national government, municipalities, personnel of the police and immigration services, prosecutors, prefects and mayors (see list in Appendix 7).

6) Information sessions for staff of the education system and social services

Information sessions for Kosovar and Albanian teachers (teaching children aged 8 and over) were organised in Albanian schools used (then) as teaching rooms for Kosovar refugees.

7) Contacts with consulates of different countries

The consular staff of the consulates of Austria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland was contacted. They showed significant interest in the Council of Europe’s initiative and accepted to distribute the leaflets or to put them at the disposal of the people requesting visas in the respective waiting rooms.

The contacted consular personnel were aware of the responsibility of their countries as “receiving” countries, they agreed that it was necessary to work on the side of the “clients” of trafficked women and admitted that the “demand regulates the offer” (see Appendix 4).

8) Radio interviews at a national radio station

With the assistance of the IOM office in Tirana, two interviews were given by representatives of the Italian NGO "On the Road" and the Belgian NGO “Payoke” at "Radio Tirana". The project of the Council of Europe in Albania was described. The interviewer (head of Radio Tirana) and all the staff present were very interested and stated that they would like to have interventions on this topic more often.

9) Awareness-raising of international monitors in charge of registration procedures

Awareness-raising through informal talks: the monitors partly contributed to the distribution of leaflets and spread the information to their Albanian operators.

ASSESSMENT 

1) Rapid and wide distribution of information for Kosovo refugees

The aim of the Council of Europe's project was to reach as many Kosovar refugees as possible, and to raise awareness on the subject in order to prevent them getting involved in the network of trafficking in Albania.

Through contacts with young Kosovar Albanian women it became clear that there was actually a lack of information on the existence and the risks of trafficking. Due to the low level of information girls did not even know the meaning of the terms "prostitution" and/or "trafficking".

The impact of the Council of Europe's action through the distribution of leaflets and information sessions in refugee camps, collective centres and host families is considerable, considering also that the trained (informed) persons would spread the information. Therefore the information campaign can be seen as an important measure of prevention - also with respect to the situation the Kosovar Albanians found on their arrival in Kosovo and the risk of trafficking there.

2) Extensive information for Women in Albania in general

Another aim of the project undertaken by the Council of Europe was to raise awareness on this topic in Albanian society in general. This aim was largely achieved, considering in particular the important participation of NGOs in the information and training sessions.

3) Support from Albanian national and local authorities

National authorities were generally very supportive of the Council of Europe’s initiative. Active co-operation was installed and information about the situation of key bodies such as the police and the judiciary system could be gathered as to the actual extent of the problem.

At local level, the action of the Council of Europe was often perceived as very positive and the authorities demonstrated the will to work on the issue. However, other authorities were more reluctant, showing the necessity for increased awareness-raising action.

Generally, it appeared that:

· the authorities were aware of the problem but that trafficking had to be put higher on the political agenda;
· there is an overall lack of efficient intervention on the part of state structures which have difficulties fighting an organised criminal activity involving Albanian as well as Italian criminal networks.

4) Support from Albanian NGOs and Youth Associations

The numerous participation of NGOs and the overall interest they showed contributed significantly to the impact of the Council of Europe's action. Awareness-raising sessions of NGOs proved to be crucial, as they contributed greatly to spreading the information among the Kosovo refugees.

As far as trafficking of Albanian women is concerned, it clearly emerged from the group and individual meetings that NGOs have a good knowledge of the situation. NGOs lack means of action, and wanted more structured actions to be undertaken in order to fight the phenomenon, such as:

· Pursuing the implementation of a project on trafficking which should consist in providing information (what it is, what the risks are, how it is organised) ;
· Setting up a network of Albanian, Italian, Greek and other European NGOs to exchange information, expertise and experiences;
· Creating a pilot project for the creation of employment possibilities for women at risk, including training courses for women, especially in rural areas.

5) Support from the consulates and other International organisations

The consulates contacted co-operated actively by distributing widely the information material provided.

All the international organisations contacted in Tirana (UNHCR, UNDP, OSCE, etc.) were very supportive and contributed to spreading information to the refugees.

FOLLOW-UP in ALBANIA 

Trafficking is a rapidly expanding phenomenon, and besides the “emergency action” undertaken for the benefit of Kosovo refugees in Albania, numerous actions could be envisaged for the future. NGOs in Italy and in Belgium already reported cases of women from Kosovo found in prostitution (two of the recently reported cases were minors).

1. Short-term actions: September – December 1999

Awareness-raising in the regions

Women in Tirana and the region seem generally aware of the risks related to trafficking. Increasingly, traffickers “recruit” young women (between 15 and 20 years old) in the distant or poor regions (in the North : Shkoder, Puke, Fushe-Arrez; in the South : Vlora, Fier, Berat , Elbasan). As a means of prevention, awareness-raising sessions could be organised by the national co-ordinator of the project and an expert from one of the NGOs associated to the project targeting the authorities, staff in the education system, in the social services, NGOs and other interested bodies.

Costs involved:

Renewal of the contract of the national co-ordinator of the project, part-time for three months;
Travel and subsistence expenses for an expert for three journeys (3-4 days each);
Renting of a vehicle for local travel and other related expenses.

Translation of documents

The lack of documentation on trafficking in Albanian remains a crucial item when it comes to awareness-raising and information. It could be envisaged to translate into Albanian the most recent documents of the Council of Europe on the issue (proceedings of a Conference organised for NGOs in 1998 in Strasbourg), as well as some national legislations including specific provisions on trafficking (Belgium, Italy).

Organisation of a seminar for the police

As the police plays a key-role in the prevention and repression of trafficking, a seminar could be organised, as a follow-up both of the Information campaign and of an activity organised in March 1999 in the framework of the programme “Police and Human Rights 1997 – 2000” which focused on the police and violence against women (to be organised with the assistance of the national coordinator).

Participation in activities organised by other international organisations

The expertise of the Council of Europe in the field of trafficking and the organisation of the information campaign has given rise to a number of invitations by other organisations (OSCE, UNDP) present in Albania, asking the Council of Europe to contribute to their activities by sending experts or members of staff.

2. Medium and long term actions : 2000

Support for Albanian NGOs in providing assistance for the victims of trafficking

Albanian NGOs have pointed out the need to increase their expertise in the assistance of victims. Support could be given by promoting a greater co-operation between Albanian NGOs and NGOs such as Payoke, which work in Western Europe with Albanian victims of trafficking. This could be realised by:

§ Providing technical expertise (experts from European NGOs could assist Albanian NGOs in their daily work during a given period of time);
§ Organising study visits for representatives of Albanian NGOs to Belgium, Italy or other countries, in order for them to follow the work done with the victims of trafficking (in particular by the streetworkers).

Training of the police

Representatives of the Ministry of Public Order underlined that members of the police forces should be given access to specific training concerning the treatment of victims of trafficking as well as co-operation with other bodies such as NGOs and international organisations. This could be studied during the seminar for the police to be organised in 1999 (see above).

Training of staff of the education system

The Vice-Minister of Education underlined the need for the organisation of information sessions for the staff in Tirana and the regions.

Implementation of medium-term preventive measures at political and judicial level

If trafficking in human beings is to be prevented, the Albanian political and judicial authorities will need to be alerted to issues relating to trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, particularly with a view to bringing about the necessary legislative reforms (amending criminal legislation; codifying certain offences relating to trafficking in human beings; introducing appropriate penalties or making existing ones more severe).

      This would involve:

à holding a conference with the Albanian authorities (representatives of the government, local authorities, the judiciary, the police force, parliament, national and international NGOs, and international organisations); using the results of the information campaign as a basis, the conference would aim to raise the participants’ awareness of these issues and to put forward proposals to amend criminal legislation;

à setting up a working party to follow up the proposals put forward at the conference and to draw up a proposal for legislative reform;

à arranging training sessions for judges and court employees.

Combating trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation could also be envisaged at regional level in South-East Europe. Further proposals to this effect will be prepared by the Secretariat.

      * * *

APPENDIX 1 - Input 

Staff assigned to the project

In Strasbourg
Sophie Piquet, Administrator, Council of Europe

Experts
Vincenzo Castelli, Stefania Scodanibbio (Italian NGO “On the Road”)

Véronique Grossi (Belgium NGO “Payoke”)

In Albania
Ada Fishta, National Co-ordinator, Council of Europe
Ulrike Kofler, Trainee, Council of Europe

Equipment

      ¨ Computer DELL Latitude Xpi CD M166ST

Ref. No: 97004

      ¨ Portable Printer BJ-30

        K10152

      ¨ Faxmodem AROWANA 56000 bps

        Model: FM-56VT

Office

An office space was rented in July (and shared with other Council of Europe’s projects). During the rest of the period, the project was hosted in the premises of the Council of Europe’s Tirana Office.

APPENDIX 2 - Organisation of an information campaign on the risks of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation in Albania  

Proposed short-term and medium-term strategy 

Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation has grown considerably in recent years in Albania. Since the country opened up, criminal networks for trafficking in human beings (mainly women and very young girls) have emerged. Trafficking has developed in particular because of the often very serious financial difficulties encountered by some of the population, which make them especially vulnerable. Albania is extensively affected by the phenomenon of trafficking and NGOs in several countries, such as Italy, Germany and Belgium, have confirmed that increasing numbers of Albanians are involved in prostitution.

Organised trafficking networks see the Kosovo refugees as a target group (since they are often separated from their families and have no resources or prospects, the refugees may be easily persuaded – or forced – to follow the traffickers to nearby European countries).

These dangers have prompted the Council of Europe to help prevent trafficking in Albania. The project outlined below envisages immediate preventive action for the benefit of the Kosovo refugees. It also envisages awareness-raising and preventive action targeting Albanian society in general, in view of the seriousness of the problem in Albania.

Consultation with a variety of people, along with the findings of the visit to Albania by Ms Véronique Grossi from the Belgian NGO Payoke, have highlighted the need for various kinds of short-term and medium-term action.

Partners:

à Council of Europe
à International Organisation for Migration
à Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
à Albanian Ministry for Social Affairs and Labour
à Payoke association (Belguim)
à On the Road association (Italy)
à Albanian women’s NGOs and youth organisations

Period of action: June-December 1999

The first part of the project (preparation and training) will be implemented immediately (June-July). It will be followed by a short period in which the project will be evaluated and, if necessary, its objectives redefined (August). A second phase will then begin, comprising additional training sessions and the setting of medium-term objectives.

Region: Tirana and surrounding area; Vlora and surrounding area (this region has been identified as particularly sensitive because the main transport links to Italy are close at hand); gradual extension of the project to other parts of Albania, priority being given to those sheltering Kosovo refugees.

First phase (short term) 

I. Preparation (May-June)

1. Production of information material

leaflet describing the project

brochures for training providers

[Possible production of a video cassette (length: 10-15 minutes) using extracts from Arte and France 2 broadcasts on trafficking. The video could be used both in training courses and by the audiovisual media.

2. Back-up arrangements

à Recruitment of a co-ordinator: recruitment in Albania of a person responsible for technical and logistical co-ordination and the supervision of activities; after an initial training period, the person concerned could be asked to give training courses and organise awareness-raising activities.

à Setting up of an office (computer, telephone/fax) – possibly within the Council of Europe office in Tirana. Setting up an independent telephone line is important as, pending the installation of a telephone hotline (scheduled, in any event, as part of the second phase of the project), this telephone number will act as a contact point for anyone wishing to receive additional information.

II. Implementation

1. Press briefing to launch the campaign (June)

Attended by government authorities, the Council of Europe and project partners.

Room
Invitations
Press release
(Reception)

2. Training sessions (June-July / September-October)

Training sessions to be organised for different target groups:

à in the refugee camps: information sessions for camp management groups
(Tirana and surrounding area; Vlora); four-hour sessions for groups of 10-20 people (one specialist, one interpreter); the objective is to raise awareness, foster a basic level of security (measures for preventing traffickers from “recruiting” within the camps) and train some of the Kosovo refugees, whose job will then be to pass on the information to the other refugees, for example by holding meetings in the camps; special sessions will be arranged for those responsible for providing instruction to refugees;

à awareness-raising for refugees housed with Albanian families; training for international monitors and those responsible for registration procedures, identity cards and family reunion (Tirana and surrounding area; Vlora); two-hour sessions for groups of 20 people (one specialist, one interpreter);

à awareness-raising for staff of Albanian women’s NGOs and youth organisations; four-hour sessions for groups of 20 people;

à awareness-raising for various professions in Albania:

        § youth workers, primary school teachers and other members of the teaching profession;

        § social services staff.

The training sessions will be run by experts from the NGOs Payoke and On the Road and thereafter by people specially trained to run them. Albanian NGOs attending the training sessions will be invited to submit projects with a view to running training sessions of their own in other Albanian provinces.

Information meetings could also be organised for:

        § the police;
        § customs officers, border police and immigration services;
        § diplomatic and consular staff, in particular those responsible for issuing visas.

3. Media publicity

The information campaign should be given regular media coverage in order to ensure that it reaches a wide audience.

4. Setting up an advisory committee

An advisory committee will be set up, bringing together representatives of all the project’s partner organisations, including local NGOs.

The committee, chaired by the project co-ordinator, will be responsible for supervising and co-ordinating activities.

III. Evaluation

This phase will involve an evaluation meeting between the project’s main partners to assess the effectiveness of the action taken (arrangements for disseminating information, impact of the training sessions, possible new requirements). This would allow the objectives to be redefined, and medium-term activities might be set in motion.

      Meeting between experts, the co-ordinator, representatives of international organisations and government authorities (1 day).

Second phase (medium and long term)

Depending on the results of the evaluation process, the following activities might be envisaged.

1. Continuation of training activities

This would involve continuing the training activities outlined above, extending them to national, regional and local bodies throughout Albania.

2. Setting up of a telephone hotline

The telephone hotline would be available to anyone requiring assistance and could operate for four hours a day. As well as installing the telephone system, this would involve recruiting and training one person.

3. Implementation of medium-term preventive measures at political and judicial level

If trafficking in human beings is to be prevented, the Albanian political and judicial authorities will need to be alerted to issues relating to trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, particularly with a view to bringing about the necessary legislative reforms (amending criminal legislation; codifying certain offences relating to trafficking in human beings; introducing appropriate penalties or making existing ones more severe).

      This would involve:

à holding a conference with the Albanian authorities (representatives of the government, local authorities, the judiciary, the police force, parliament, national and international NGOs, and international organisations); using the results of the information campaign as a basis, the conference would aim to raise the participants’ awareness of these issues and to put forward proposals to amend criminal legislation;

à setting up a working party to follow up the proposals put forward at the conference and to draw up a proposal for legislative reform;

à arranging training sessions for judges and court employees.

4. Final evaluation

Preparation of the final report, containing an analysis of the project and an evaluation of its results, possibly followed by a final conference.

        * * *

APPENDIX 3 – LEAFLET 

    Protecting Women’s Human Rights:

    Action against trafficking
    in women and young girls
    for the purpose of sexual exploitation

This leaflet contains information on trafficking in women and young girls in Albania for the purpose of sexual exploitation and the means available to prevent and combat this phenomenon

Trafficking is a rapidly expanding phenomenon in Europe. Every year, as many as 500,000 persons - mostly women and girls (women) are trafficked into Western Europe. Many end up in situations of prostitution from which they cannot escape. Thousands of Albanian women and girls have travelled abroad to Italy, Greece, Belgium only to find themselves deprived of their freedom and severely ill treated.

What is trafficking?

Trafficking is when someone is persuaded, tricked or forced into leaving her/his country for a better life abroad only to end up in forced or slavery-like conditions.

Traffickers target young women - often those under 25. Traffickers understand that many young women are eager for a chance to escape the economic and social difficulties which they face at home. In their attempt to migrate, women fall into the net of traffickers who often sell them into the sex industry and prostitution networks.

Trafficking relies heavily on organised criminal networks as well as small gangs. Often a woman will first be approached by an acquaintance who is linked to the trafficking networks. Promises will be made about high paying or glamorous jobs. Occasionally traffickers will be much more direct and will force or kidnap their victim rather than just tricking her. Trafficking victims have found themselves working in brothels, sweatshops and nightclubs for little or no money and under cruel, inhumane and violent conditions. Sometimes they are forced to work for years to pay off "debts" to the traffickers. Their passport and other identity papers are confiscated in order to prevent them from escaping.

Trafficking and related practices such as debt bondage and forced prostitution constitute a gross violation of the basic human rights to which all persons - including women and girls - are entitled. Trafficking can be a threat to the right to life; the right to dignity and security; the right to just and favourable conditions of work; the right to freedom of movement; the right to health; and the right to be recognised as a person before the law.

Trafficking is also a threat to the rule of law and to fundamental democratic values. It has been severely condemned by the international community.

An immediate concern

In Albania and South-East Europe, trafficking networks have been active in the last few years, transporting victims towards Italy and other Western European countries.

Experience shows that trafficking tends to worsen in conflict or post-conflict situations: traffickers take advantage of the situation, and in particular of the fact that many persons are in vulnerable situations, undocumented and that families are often separated.

It is therefore important to act NOW.

What can be done?

Prevention is a key factor in fighting trafficking. Awareness-raising, sharing of information, being able to identify the problem are essential elements in order to avoid development of trafficking.

In recognition of the need to focus on prevention, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of Albania, the Council of Europe and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, in cooperation with several specialised NGOs, have launched an anti-trafficking initiative. Its objectives are to:

* Raise public awareness on the issue of trafficking
* Initiate preventive actions
* Provide information sessions in cooperation with all competent bodies, institutions and NGOs
* Provide basic information material

Who is concerned?

Trafficking is a concern of all members of society. Of particular importance are potential victims of trafficking and those with whom they may come into contact including national and local authorities, women and youth associations, social workers, school teachers and professors. These groups or any other individual may contact us for more information on prevention of trafficking.

The Council of Europe

The Council of Europe, based in Strasbourg, is a European Intergovernmental Organisation with a clear Human Rights mandate. It has 41 Member States, including 17 countries from Central and Eastern Europe. As it groups countries of origin, transit and destination of trafficked persons, the Council of Europe has very early on been directly confronted with this issue. Since 1991, studies and projects have been undertaken and active cooperation has been established with all competent actors, both at international and national levels, in order to actively combat trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is the focal point for human rights within the UN system. The High Commissioner, Mary Robinson has recently decided to give priority to the issue of trafficking in persons. The work of OHCHR in this area is based on the fundamental principle that human rights must be at the core of any credible anti-trafficking strategy. The basic objective of OHCHR's Trafficking Programme is therefore to work towards the integration of human rights into international, regional and national anti-trafficking initiatives. Special emphasis is placed on legal and policy development. As far as possible, OHCHR seeks to act as a catalyst and a support for the activities of others.

This project is being implemented by the Council of Europe and the OHCHR in co-operation with the International Organization for Migration (IOM),
Payoke (NGO, Belgium), Association “On The Road” (NGO, Italy) and Albanian NGOs.

Who should you contact?

For general information about the actions for prevention, information sessions and material available:

à Council of Europe
Tirana Office
Rruga Donika Kastrioti
Villa 6, Tirana
Tel-fax: 355 42 284 19
355 42 229 86
e-mail: coe.alb@icc.al.eu.org

à Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs
and the Women and Family Committee
Rruga e Kavejes, nr. 53
Tirana
Tel: 355 42 323 01
Fax: 355 42 283 40

* * *

APPENDIX 4 - List of contacted consular personnel 

Austria

Mr. Arno Riedel (Tel: +355 (0)42 33144/33157)
"Frederic Shiroka" Str. No 3

Hungary

Mr Karoly Kapscos (Tel: +355 (0)42 32238/34903)
"Skenderbej" Str. No 16

Italy

Mr Adriano Monti, First Secretary; Mrs Anila Radovani (Tel: +355 (0)42 34045/6/7)
"Leke Dukagjini" Str.

Switzerland

Mrs Verena Raffaelli (Tel: +355 (0)42 34890/34888)
"Donika Kastrioti"

Germany

Mrs Iris Wilczoch (Tel: +355 (0)42 32050)
"Skenderbej" Str. No 8

Greece

Mrs Ana Maria Boura, Second Secretary (Tel: +355 (0)42 33 331)
"Frederic Shiraka" Str.

* * *

APPENDIX 5 - List of refugee camps visited 

· Don Bosco refugee camp, run by VIS, Italian NGO

    Capacity: 1100 persons

· Mullet refugee camp (near Tirana)

    Capacity: 500 persons

· Greek refugee camp (Tirana swimming pool)
Capacity: 2611 persons

· Another refugee camp near Tirana

    Capacity: 400 persons

· Rrashbull 1 - refugee camp, run by the Italian mission "Arcobaleno"

    Capacity: 3500 persons

· Rrashbull 2 - refugee camp, run by CARE

    Capacity: 600 persons

· Belgian refugee camp, run by the Belgian Government (Hamallaj)

    Capacity: 1500 persons

· Refugee camp in Durres, run by the Belgian Red Cross

    Capacity: 2500 persons

· Shijak camp, run by the Italian mission "Arcobaleno"

    Capacity: 2500 persons

· * *

APPENDIX 6 - List of NGOs contacted 

Albanian Women Federation - Tirana
Representative: Evis Karaj

Women, Realities, Visions – Tirana
Representative: Marjeta Vinjau

Women's Center - Tirana
Representative: Edlira Muhedini

Family Planning -Tirana
Representative: Ina Prifti

Albanian Center for Human Rights - Tirana
Representative: Erinda Bllaca

Women in Development – Tirana
Representative: Jeta Katro

Rural Women – Tirana
Representative: Ahmedi Daci

Albanian Youth Council – Tirana
Representative: Anduela Abazi

Justice Ministry – Tirana
Representative: Fatmira Luli

Social Club – Tirana
Representative: Violeta Tiri

Women for Social Action – Tirana
Representative: Mira Xhubaj

Women Lawyer's Association – Tirana
Representative: Vjollca Mecaj

Therapy Center - Tirana

Productive Women in Transition – Tirana
Representative: Drita Babameto

Military Women – Tirana
Representative: Tatjana Xhengo

Reflections – Tirana
Representative: Entela Besholli

Women for Social Activities, Tirana
Representative: Violeta Allmucaj

Lone Parent Family - Tirana

Fashion in Service to Women - Tirana

Independent Forum of Albanian Women – Tirana
Representative: Diana Culi

Useful to Albanian Women – Tirana
Representative: Sevim Arbana

Women in Sport and Elegance - Tirana

Women Center – Vlora
Representative: Gilberta Bano

Women's Hearth Association - Vlora

Association of Rural and City Women - Berat

Forum of Independent Women - Fier

Useful to Albanian Women - Fier

Association of Rural Women - Fier

For you and With You Women and Girls Association - Fier

Women Federation – Fier
Representative: Natasha Llanaij

Social Club - Korce

Line Association - Shkodra

Millennium – Tirana

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APPENDIX 7 - LIST OF AUTHORITIES 

Mr. Kosta Barjaba, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, met in Tirana on 11.05.1999

Mme Zamira Sinoimeri, Deputy Director of the Administration of the Social Services, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, met in Tirana on 13.05.1999

Mme Airlinda Krasniqi, Women and Family Committee, from the Council of Ministers, Tirana, met in Tirana on 11.05.1999

Mr Erin Kraja, Director in the municipality of Tirana, met in Tirana on 12.05.1999

Mme Arta Mandro, Deputy Minister of Justice, met in Tirana on 13.05.1999

Mr Altin Binjaj, Deputy prosecutor of Vlora, met in Vlora on 12.07.1999

Mr Tare Hamo, Prefect of Vlora, met in Vlora on 12.07.1999

Mr Neki Dredha, Mayor of Vlora, met in Vlora on 12.07.1999

Ms Milika Jaho, Mayor of Berat, met in Berat on 13.07.1999

Mr Stefan Keqi, Head of the Police of Fier, met in Fier on 13.07.1999

Mrs Esma Boksi, representative of the municipality of Shkodra, met in Shkodra on 15.07.1999