Key documents



. Recommendation Rec (2004)11 on legal,

  operational and technical standards for


. E-voting handbook - implementation of

  e-enabled elections

. Guidelines on certification of e-voting


. Guidelines on transparency of e-enabled


. Reports of biennial Reviews 2008 and


. Council of Europe studies on e-voting

. National developments on e-voting



. Recommendation (2009)1 on

  e-democracy and Explanatory


  (PdF version   -  Word version)

. Practical tools to Rec(2009)1

. Glossary of technical terms in the field

  of electronic democracy


Internet governance

. Recommendation (2004)15 and

  explanatory memorandum



Texts submitted by the Council of Europe


. IGF 2010

. IGF 2009

. IGF 2008

. WSIS 2005

. WSIS 2003


Internet literacy

Internet literacy handbook








Useful external links


. E-voting

. E-democracy

. Internet governance

. Internet literacy

. Media & elections


E-voting documentation

    · 2009 report by the EUI on the Estonian e-enabled elections from 2005-2009
    · The Geneva internet voting system

    · Report of the Second e-voting Review meeting.
    The Council of Europe convened a second meeting on 16 October 2008, to review developments in the field of e-voting since the last review meeting in November 2006. The meeting was organised in Madrid, in the framework of the fourth session of its Forum for the Future of Democracy which was devoted to “e-democracy”. Member states agreed that the Recommendation on e-voting is still accurate and useful. At the same time, however, the experts present at the meeting felt that in the light of experiences and developments in the field of e-voting during the last four years, it might be useful to develop some additional comments to certain parts of the Recommendation. It was therefore agreed that the Secretariat of the Council of Europe would take inventory of the topics which member states feel would require such additional comments. Topics which were already mentioned during the meeting are certification (protection profiles) and observation.

    · Council of Europe Congress report on the Finnish e-voting pilot (1 December 2008)
    PDF and Word versions

    · Third international conference on e-voting (Castle Hofen near Bregenz, Austria, 6-9 August, 2008)

    · Podcast on e-voting, by Michael Remmert, Head of Project “Good governance in the information society”

    · Council of Europe Report on the Internet voting in the March 2007 Parliamentary elections in Estonia

    · Council of Europe report on e-voting in the 2005 local elections in Estonia

    · Public Review of Election Markup Language (EML) Specification Version 6.0 (23/10 – 22/12/2009): http://lists.oasis-open.org/archives/tc-announce/200910/msg00011.html

    · "The case for using Election Markup Language (EML)" - published by OASIS e-Voting Technical Committee (January 2007) - Sets out the benefits of using EML.

    · E-Voting Conference: Lessons learnt and future challenges, Tallinn 27-28 October 2006
    This international conference, organised by the Council of Europe, the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Estonian National Electoral Committee and the Estonian e-Governance Academy, brought together international scholars and practitioners form various disciplines to discuss a range of topics relating to e-voting. The purpose of the conference was “to understand the Estonian e-voting experience and to put it into a wider context”. Report
    · First meeting to review developments in the field of e-voting since the adoption of Recommendation Rec(2004)11 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on legal, operational and technical standards for e-voting - Strasbourg, 23-24 November 2006
    ProgrammeNote to editors

    · The second international conference on e-voting in Bregenz, Austria, brought together worldwide experts on electronic voting to look at how a Council of Europe recommendation is being applied, and to debate the future of this novel voting method (Castle Hofen near Bregenz, Austria, 2 to 4 August 2006)

    · On 4 July 2006, the Commission on Electronic Voting of the Republic of Ireland presented its second report to the Ceann Comhairle concerning its further work in relation to the secrecy, accuracy and testing of the electronic voting system chosen for Ireland.
    Part 6 of the report sets out the Commission’s work in evaluating the implementation of electronic voting in Ireland against emerging international best practice in the field of e-voting, specifically, the legal and operational standards and technical requirements for e-voting contained in Recommendation Rec(2004)11 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe.
    2006 report on “The Machinery of Democracy: http://www.cev.ie/htm/report/download_second.htm

    · Brennan Center Task Force on Voting System Security (Chair, Lawrence Norden) – June 2006 report on “The Machinery of Democracy: Protecting elections in an electronic World”

    · Assemblée des Français de l’étranger (Assemby of French people living abroad) - 18 June 2006 vote : use of e-voting for the first time at the level of all electoral districts
    (French only)

    · Norwegian report on e-voting (Norwegian only)

    · E-voting development day, France 15/02/05 (French only)
    Compte rendu avec annexes.pdf

    · 2005 Electronic Voting Pilot Buenos Aires – Phases of Strategic Plan 2004-2007
    Link to English version
    Link to Spanish version

    · 2005 Electronic Voting Pilot Buenos Aires - Executive Summary
    (English only)

    · Information on e-voting in Portugal (web site in Portuguese and English)

    · Press release on Recommendation on e-voting