Strasbourg, 18 October 2010


1 Lawrence Pratchett and Vivien Lowndes, Developing Democracy in Europe - An Analytical Summary of the Council of Europe’s acquis, Council of Europe Publishing, 2004.

2 Ibid. p. 11.

3 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) ETS No. 005; and First Protocol to the Convention (1952) ETS No. 009.

4 Statute of the Council of Europe (1949), ETS No. 001.

5 Convention on the Participation of Foreigners in Public Life at Local Level (1992) ETS No. 144.

6 Ibid. p. 49.

7 Parliamentary Assembly Resolution 800 (1983) on the Principles of Democracy, section 6Bi; Parliamentary Assembly Resolution 980 (1992) on Citizens’ Participation in Politics.

8 Parliamentary Assembly Resolution 1121 (1997) on Instruments of Citizen Participation in Representative Democracy, paragraph 6.

9 Venice Commission, Opinion No. 190/2002.

10 Committee of Ministers Recommendation Rec (2003) 4 on Common Rules against Corruption in the Funding of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns.

11 Ibid., p. 60.

12 See Code of good practice in the field of political parties, Parliamentary Assembly, Report No. 12246 (2010).

13 See Financing political parties and election campaigns – guidelines – Making Democratic Institutions Work, ISBN 978-92-871-5356-2 (2004).

14 European Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Art.10.

15 Declaration of the Committee of Ministers (2010) on Measures to promote the respect of Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

16 Member states’ current practice regarding the democratic and social contribution of digital broadcasting, Group of Specialists on Media Diversity (MC-S-MD) H/Inf (2009)10.

17 Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1407 (1999) on media and democratic culture; Freedom of communication on the Internet Declaration adopted by the Committee of Ministers (2003); Freedom of expression in Europe - Case-law concerning Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Human Rights files No. 18 (2007).

18 Parliamentary Assembly Recommendations 834 (1978) on Threats to the Freedom of the Press and Television.

19 Committee of Ministers Recommendation No. 2 (2000) 10 on Codes of Conducts for Public Officials.

20 European Charter of Local Self-Government, ETS N 122.

21 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992) ETS No. 148, and Convention on the Participation of Foreigners in Public Life at the Local Level (1992) ETS No. 144.

22 European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of Non-Governmental Organisations, ETS No. 124.

23 Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1820 (2007) and Resolution 1589 (2007) on Co-operation between the Parliamentary Assembly and the Conference of INGOs, and Committee of Ministers Resolution (2003) 8 on the Participatory Status for International non-governmental organisations with the Council of Europe, and Committee of Ministers Resolution (1993) 38 on Relations between the Council of Europe and international non-governmental organisations.

24 Committee of Ministers Recommendation Rec (2003) 3 on balanced Participation of Women and Men in Political and Public Decision Making, Committee of Ministers Recommendation No. R (1997) 3 on Youth Participation and the Future of Civil Society.

25 Code of Good Practice for Civil Participation in the Decision-Making Process, Adopted by the Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe (2009).

26 Ibid, p.4.

27 Council of Europe Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education, adopted in the framework of Recommendation CM/Rec(2010)7 of the Committee of Ministers, Section 2a.

28 Ibid, Art. 6.

29 Ibid., Art. 5f.

30 See Teaching Democracy: a Collection of Models for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education, Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights (2008-2010) EDC/HRE Volume IV ISBN 928-92-871-6332-5 (2008); Learning History to understand and experience cultural diversity today (2007), The Image of the Other in History Teaching (2006 – 2009); History Education in Europe. Ten Years of Co-operation between the Russian Federation and the Council of Europe Directorate of Education, Culture and Heritage, Youth and Sport (2006).

31 Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, ETS No.199 (2005).

32 See White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue “Living together as equals and in dignity”, Launched by the Council of Europe Ministers of Foreign Affairs (2008); the Baku Declaration for the Promotion of Intercultural Dialogue Conference of Ministers responsible for Culture (2008); Kyiv Initiative for Democratic Development through Culture Ministerial Conference to launch the Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme (2006).

33 White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue “Living together as equals and in dignity”, launched by the Council of Europe Ministers of Foreign Affairs (2008).

34 European Convention on the Exercise of Children’s Rights European Treaty Series No. 160 (1996).

35 Strengthening the integration of children of migrants and of immigrant background, Committee of Ministers Recommendation (2008)4.

36 Ibid., Appendix to Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)4 on strengthening the integration of children of migrants and of immigrant background.

37 Fighting social exclusion and strengthening social cohesion in Europe, Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1355 (1998).

38 See A new strategy for Social Cohesion, Revised strategy for Social Cohesion (2004); Contribution of public service media in promoting social cohesion and integrating all communities and generations, Group of Specialists on Public Service Media in the Information Society (MC-S-PSM) H/Inf (2009) 5; Demographic challenges for social cohesion, Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1749 (2006) and Resolution 1502 (2006).

39 Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1995) ETS No. 157.

40 Minority protection in Europe: best practices and deficiencies in implementation of common standards, Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1904 (2010) and Resolution 1713 (2010).

41 Human rights of irregular migrants, Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1509 (2006); State of democracy in Europe: Specific challenges facing European democracies: the case of diversity and migration, Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1839 (2008)1 and Resolution 1617 (2008).

42 Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, ETS No. 173 (2009).

43 Civil Law Convention on Corruption, ETS No. 174 (2009).

44 Ibid, p.70.

45 Convention on Cybercrime, ETS No. 185, 2001.

46 Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime, concerning the Criminalisation of Acts of a Racist and Xenophobic Nature Committed Through Computer Systems, ETS No.189 (2003); Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism, ETS No. 198, 2005.