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Forum History

 

The Forum was established by the Third Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe  (Warsaw, May 2005), to strengthen democracy, political freedoms and citizens' participation.

(...)

Forum previous sessions

Forum_Democracy2011

(Limassol, Cyprus, October)

Interdependence of democracy and social cohesion.

New: Proceedings

"Radical measures taken in many countries to try to balance public budgets are both necessary and understandable” but  “Countries are running a high risk of seriously undermining the European model of social cohesion.”  declared Council of Europe Secretary General Thorbjorn Jagland while opening the Cyprus Forum.

2010

(Yerevan, October)

Perspectives 2020 Democracy in Europe - Principles and Challenges

Proceedings

 

''The Council of Europe has a unique strategic role to play in strengthening good democratic governance at all levels in the European space''. Democracy, or rather good democratic governance, is now not only intrinsically linked to the respect of human rights but is also recognised as the most effective form of governance to ensure stability, sustainability and well-being.

 That was the main message of the 2010 Forum.

(...)

 

2009

(Kyiv, October)

Electoral systems: strengthening democracy in the 21st century

(Proceedings)

 "In a genuine democracy, the citizen is sovereign and the voter decides" - that was the main message of the 2009 Forum, which highlighted the need for greater public involvement, with a view to increasing voter turnout and ensuring that all stages of public life are democratic..

(...)

 

2008

(Madrid, October)

"E-democracy: who dares?"

 

The discussions addressed the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on democracy.

(...)

 

2007

(Stockholm, June)

"Power and empowerment - The interdependence of democracy and human rights"

 

This event addressed issues such as the role and responsibilities of the opposition, representative democracy at the local and regional level, empowerment of the individual and non-discrimination, respect for freedom of expression and association for civil society, and fostering democracy, human rights and social networks.

 (...)

 

2006

(Moscow, October)

"The role of political parties in the building of democracy"

 

The Forum reflected on  the role and responsibilities of political parties in finding democratic solutions to contemporary challenges, the interaction between political parties and with other actors in the democratic process, and the building and strengthening of democratic institutions.

(...)

 

Launch meeting (Warsaw, November 2005)

"Citizens' participation"

 

 

The discussions addressed the state of contemporary democracy in Europe.

(...)

Previous projects

("Making

Democratic institutions work")

 


Integrated Project 1
Making democratic institutions work

Integrated Project 2
Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society

    IP1 - IP2

    Strasbourg, 15 March 2005
    European Charter forDemocratic Schools without Violence

    Project Report

        EUROPEAN CHARTER
        FOR DEMOCRATIC SCHOOLS
        WITHOUT VIOLENCE

        Project Report

        Acknowledgements

        I am particularly grateful to the managers of the Council of Europe’s Integrated Projects, Dr. Michael Remmert and Mr Jean-Pierre Titz, and their staff for their help and stimulating feedback. They had the initial idea to ask secondary school students for their opinion on democratic participation and violence prevention and they started the project.

        Thanks are also due to the German Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg that sent me on secondment to the Council of Europe for nine months and to the organisation “Europe at School” that largely supported the project.

        It is a most exciting task to work with young people on an international level. They came up with many useful ideas and worked on the drafting of the Charter with great enthusiasm.

        I would like to thank the students and staff of the schools that participated in the project for their contributions, especially the student delegates and accompanying persons who took part in the Charter conference.

        Hans-Georg Wassmuth
        Oberkirch/Germany
        March 2005

        Content page

        I. The Charter 5

        II. The Report 7

        Context 7

        Method 8

        Project procedure 9

        The follow up to the Charter 12

        III. The Explanatory Memorandum 15

        1. Definitions 15

        2. Compendium of examples and ideas 17

        IV. Appendices 147

        1. List of conference participants 149
        2. List of schools with contributions 156
        3. Project conference programme 161
        4. Electronic referendum 163
        5. Results of the referendum 164

    6. Translations of the Charter

        Bulgarian 169
        Croatian 170
        Finnish 171
        German 172
        Greek 173
        Hungarian 174
        Icelandic 175
        Irish 176
        Italian 177
        Macedonian 178
        Polish 179
        Portuguese 180
        Russian 181
        Serbian 182
        Spanish 183
        Swedish 184
        Ukrainian 185

    I. The Charter


European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence

Strasbourg, 16 July 2004

Introduction

Upon the initiative of the Council of Europe, young people from across Europe have prepared the European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence on the basis of the fundamental values and principles shared by all Europeans, in particular those set forth in the Council of Europe’s Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

This group of young people recommends that schools throughout Europe seriously consider using this Charter as a model with which to further the cause of democratic schooling without violence.

Bearing in mind the differences in Europe’s education systems, the Charter can be either adopted as it stands, or it can be adapted and further strengthened by the various school communities, while preserving its spirit and general principles.

An explanatory memorandum will accompany this Charter, providing examples and explanations to facilitate its implementation.

European Charter for Democratic Schools without violence

1. All members of the school community have the right to a safe and peaceful school. Everyone has the responsibility to contribute to creating a positive and inspiring environment for learning and personal development.

2. Everyone has the right to equal treatment and respect regardless of any personal difference. Everyone enjoys freedom of speech without risking discrimination or repression.

3. The school community ensures that everybody is aware of their rights and responsibilities.

4. Every democratic school has a democratically elected decision-making body composed of representatives of students, teachers, parents, and other members of the school community where appropriate. All members of this body have the right to vote.

5. In a democratic school, conflicts are resolved in a non-violent and constructive way in partnership with all members of the school community. Every school has staff and students trained to prevent and solve conflicts through counselling and mediation.

6. Every case of violence is investigated and dealt with promptly, and followed through irrespective whether students or any other members of the school community are involved.

7. School is a part of the local community. Co-operation and exchange of information with local partners are essential for preventing and solving problems.

    II. The Report

    Context

    Council of Europe – Integrated projects

    The Council of Europe defined two priority topics for a three-year period 2002-04, ‘Making democratic institutions work’ and ‘Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society’ to address two major problems European societies are striving to get to grips with. An Integrated project was launched on each topic. Those projects took a broad transversal approach in their management, trying to involve the different departments of the Council of Europe to pool and share its knowledge and experience.

    In the course of the two Integrated projects it was decided to make a joint effort to promote democratic participation and violence prevention at school giving its main stakeholders, the pupils or students the opportunity to express their ideas.

    As a part of its mission to support the building of a democratic, peaceful, tolerant and inclusive Europe, the Council of Europe is working in the field of education for democratic citizenship. It has identified school democracy as one of the essential conditions for learning and practicing citizenship from an early age.

    School democracy is not only a powerful tool for bringing up active citizens. It can also be a positive factor in creating a climate of trust and responsibility for preventing and combating violence at school.

    In order to pull together experiences and achievements of pilot initiatives across Europe in a document which could inspire many more schools to involve their students, along with educators, in decision-making on matters concerning them, a project was launched to develop a European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence.

    The objective of the project was to provide a practical tool for all the people involved in school life (pupils, parents, teachers, head-teachers, all school staff, administrators, school authorities etc.). The Charter can be applied by all those involved in school life and might serve as a contract that will be signed by them.

    Method

    The Council of Europe invited the participating schools to send in ideas and contributions for putting together the Charter. This Charter was meant to set standards for procedures allowing for democratic participation of pupils at school, including ways of dealing with all aspects of violence.

    The Charter could only be successfully completed if members of the educational community of as many as possible of the then 45, today 46, Council of Europe member states, and in particular and first of all students, participated in every step of its development. Therefore active participation of children and young students in project groups and preparation teams for the Charter text was asked for in the project outline. The drafting process was designed as a competition. The participants that sent in the best ideas and contributions were invited for a final drafting conference to Strasbourg.

    The promotion of the project was supported by ‘Europe at School’ that was founded over 50 years ago to enhance the European dimension in education and that has correspondents in every member state of the Council of Europe. The correspondents of this European network were asked to facilitate contact to schools that were interested and experienced in matters of democratic participation and violence prevention.

    It was expected that participating schools made every effort to involve students – individually or preferably collectively – in this project. It was up to each school to decide how to do this – for instance through the student council, in civic education classes, in extra-curricular activities, or in any other appropriate way.

    A great number of schools from many European countries participated in the project. Schools from East or South East European countries like Croatia were very interested in the project and sent many contributions. In the end schools from Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Spain, Ukraine and the United Kingdom had sent in ideas and material for the drafting of the Charter.

    Project procedure

    Stage one.

    A project outline was prepared and sent out through the correspondents of Europe at School in November 2003. All the members of the Education Committee received a copy of the project outline and invitation to the project.

    82 project contributions from 19 European countries were sent in. A list of the participating schools can be found in Appendix 2.

    The students had been asked to prepare:

      - a short introduction to the Charter, stating its aims and function for the organisation of the school’s life;
      - 2-3 main aspects that should be covered by the charter (concerning students’ and teachers’ rights and responsibilities with regard to decision-making on school matters, particularly in developing strategies for the prevention of violence);
      - a slogan for the future awareness-raising and dissemination phase.

    In addition a short report on an active scheme or applied programme that uses democratic methods and which allows students to participate in decision-making in their school life was expected, including initiatives relating to peaceful solution of conflicts, prevention of or response to bullying, harassment or violence in their schools.

    They could also prepare a short description of a maximum of three cases of everyday bullying, harassment or violence that occurred at their school and the students’ or the school’s response to such cases of violence. The response should involve or be based on democratic or collective principles that are applied at the participating school.

    Essential requirements for participating schools

      - genuine commitment to school democracy and motivation to involve students throughout the process;
      - students able to draft in English or French, or means available in the school to translate students’ inputs into these languages;
      - internet connection in the school (or elsewhere accessible to participants)

    An internet reference related to the Charter at: www.coe.int/school-charter was published on the web site of the Council of Europe’s Integrated project on democracy.

    The actual working period for the participating school teams was January to April 2004. The contributions had to be sent in by the end of April to be selected in May, which left June for the invitations and the preparation of the July drafting conference.

    Stage two.

    A panel consisting of experts from the Integrated projects, the education department of the Council of Europe, the European Youth Centre and Europe at School examined all submitted material and selected a representative choice of 20 schools which then were invited to send 2 student delegates each to the Charter Conference in July 2004 in Strasbourg.

    Selection criteria:

      originality / innovation
      practical character / practicability
      coherence / clarity
      conformity with the principles and aims of the Council of Europe

    Stage three.

    The Conference was scheduled to take place on 14-18 July, 2004 to finalise the Charter based on contributions received in stage one. A list of participants can be found in Appendix 1.

    40 student delegates from 19 European countries met at the European Youth Centre in Strasbourg to discuss and put together the ideas of the sent in contributions to a European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence. The conference was monitored by members of staff of the Integrated projects and the European Youth Centre. It passed in a very fruitful, pleasant and convivial atmosphere.

    An interesting social and cultural side programme with sightseeing of Strasbourg and a visit to the Europa-Park, the latter sponsored by the owner and managing director Roland Mack, Council of Europe Goodwill Ambassador for Families, was offered to the participants.

    Students’ travel and subsistence expenses were borne by the Council of Europe. The assembly’s working language was English. All students involved in the project received a participation certificate. Teachers acting as facilitators received a letter of recognition.

    Stage four.

    All schools having participated in stage one voted to adopt the draft Charter through an electronic procedure carried out from the classroom between 11 and 22 October 2004, the first e-voting exercise on the internet organised by the Council of Europe. It was essential that schools had a functioning internet connection and were prepared to organise a vote in which students or all the members of the school community had the possibility of casting a vote.

    The electronic referendum on the school Charter was organised in co-operation with the Swiss canton of Geneva. The Geneva e-voting system used in the referendum had already been applied in several referendums at local and cantonal level, making it one of the first fully developed and secure e-voting systems worldwide. The 27.000 pupils of the 82 schools that had taken part in the project received voting cards with a secret scratch code that gave them access to the electronic voting. 16.734 pupils cast their votes, which is a participation rate of about 62%. The vote was a great success, both in terms of the impressive participation rate and the strong support for the adoption of the charter, as demonstrated by the fact that more than 90% of votes were in favour. For the Swiss responsibles from the canton of Geneva the school charter referendum was a test run of their system in several aspects. They had never run an electronic referendum on an international level with that a large number of voters. It proved that the system has the capacity to let all Geneva citizens that live abroad vote electronically in a referendum or in elections.

    The results of the electronic referendum are shown in Appendix 5.

    Stage five.

    The adopted Charter was presented at the final conferences of the Integrated projects at Oslo and Barcelona in November 2005. It is preseen to widely disseminate the Charter to schools across Europe within the framework of the 2005 European Year of Citizenship through Education.

    In her speech for the Launching conference of the European Year of Citizenship through Education at Sofia, Bulgaria on 13 December 2004, Maud De Boer Buquicchio, Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Europe, appreciated the Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence and the electronic referendum as an occasion for thousands of pupils all over Europe to act as citizens of their schools. She mentioned that this project was probably the first introduction for the participating children to the work of the Council of Europe in its role as advocate of citizenship and participation, promoter of democracy, human rights and guardian of the rule of law.

    In an interview on the occasion of the opening of the European Year of Citizenship through education Dr. Reinhild Otte, Vice-Chair of the Committee of Experts responsible for preparing this year (CAHCIT) considers the ‘European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence’ which is based on Europe’s fundamental values as a valuable tool for the education of democratic citizenship and a suggestion for “democratising” schools in their day to day workings and in their relations with the outside world. Like the other tools of the EDC pack and tool kit it is an offer of help in the area of pupils’ participation and violence prevention at school. All countries are free to use it how it suits them best, according to the fact that education for democracy also means respecting diversity.

    Follow up to the Charter

    The Charter project and the work done for the charter should find continuation. To promote sustainability and co-operation following the publication of the Charter, the idea was born to institutionalize the follow up and to create a network, maybe even an official network project under the SOCRATES/COMENIUS programme of the European Union dealing with Education for Democratic Citizenship and Violence Prevention in schools.

    There is a good base for a network. There were 27 schools that were selected for the conference with their work on the Charter. The conference gave the accompanying teachers the chance to get to know each other. They were asked to think about this idea during the conference. They had the time to sit together and find information about network schemes and how they can work together in the future.

    In the meantime London Metropolitan Police have agreed to coordinate the network and after a positive reaction on the pre-proposal in November 2004 a main proposal for a COMENIUS 3 network was sent in to the European Commission on 1 March 2005.

    Basic parameters of the network:

MAIN OBJECTIVE:
Deliver the European Charter for Democratic Schools Without Violence in schools through CLUSTERS made up of schools and teacher training centres in each participating country supported by best practice and knowledge from leading associate partners in the field of EDC and violence reduction.

TARGET GROUPS:

· Students
· Actors that support schools
· Parents
· School staff and Trainers
· School Partners
· Actors for, justice, crime prevention, community good climate

MAIN ACTIVITIES:

· Annual Conferences; April 06 Spain, May 07 UK, June 08 Germany.
· 6 Partner Seminars
· Young Person Consultation

OUTPUTS:

· Create practices and protocols that support the deliver of the charter
· Develop an implementation tool to assist the delivery of the charter, milestones.
· Create a framework for the development of the EDC curriculum in support of the Charter
· Develop a framework and guidance of how to establish a Safer School Partnership
· Create and co-ordinate multiple linked Comenius 1 & 2 projects and ARION

· Develop a web site

· Annual reports and concluding evaluation report

· Develop the basis for long standing partnerships to create better school and community climate

OUTCOMES:
· Close the compliance gap identified between the intended curriculum (policy expectations, aims and objectives) and the implemented curriculum (actual teaching/learning situations) based on research available(IEA)
· Stimulate the creation of linked Daphne II, TEMPUS PLUS, OBSERVATION & INNOVATION – Action 6.2 and ERASMUS – thematic network projects as a means to supply the needs identified by the CLUSTERS, and for the police a link to AGIS.
· Link with Centres of Excellence and other Observatories on Violence Reduction with young people and schools across Europe
· Seek links with past and future projects on EDC and violence reduction with young people and schools across Europe
· Assist in the development of a tool for measuring a reduction of violence
· Advise on the setting up of a supervisory body for the Charter and its remit
· Advise on the establishment of a compendium of positive factors (and processes) that act on the reduction of violence and aggression in schools
· Create quality assurance tools linked to school standards and the embedding of the charter at school together with identification of difficulties that may arise and how to overcome these

    III. Explanatory memorandum

    1. Definitions of terms used in the Charter

    Drawn up by the participants of the conference:

    Conflict
    A conflict is an active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles, which can lead to disputes between two or more people or groups of people.

    Local community
    The people of an area, living and practising in the surrounding neighourhood of a school.

    Mediation
    Talking to two separate people or groups involved in a disagreement to try to help them to agree or find a solution to their problems. Cooperating with the aim of solving any kind of problem. Making compromises and finding appropriate solutions.

    Personal differences
    The way in which two or more things about human beings you are comparing are not the same. For example: gender, appearance, nationality, political orientation, religion, sex, interest, sexual orientation, skin colour, age, disability, social status, language, thoughts or beliefs, race, ethnic background (e.g. traveller community), intellectual differences between students (e.g. dyslexia), addictions.

    School community
    It consists of everyone who is somehow connected to the school, for example: students, teachers, parents, staff and authorities, senior management, executive council, pedagogical council, school assembly, students’ association, auxiliary staff, special needs assistants, town and county representatives, vocational education committee, ministerial representatives.

    Violence
    Violence can be described as actions or words which are intended to hurt people. Very often physical force is used to hurt or attack.

    Physical and mental violations on human rights (fights, blackmails, degradation, humiliation); all kinds of tensions emerging from daily life in groups, which means that there obviously are different points of view. Violence is trying to impose someone’s wish, opinion or idea without respecting the others and causing them any kind of harm and suffering (infliction through group or individual action).

    Examples of conflicts or violence:
    Bullying, harassment, theft and other crime, intimidation, racial prejudice, verbal abuse, physical attacks

    2. Compendium of examples and ideas

    Schools’ Contributions

    page

    1. Bulgaria English Language School “Geo Miley”, Rousse 19
     
    Foreign Language Secondary School “Romain Rolland”, Stara Zagora 25
     
    2. Croatia Ekonomska I Trogovačka Škola, Čakovec 29
     
    Gimnazija Čakovec 34
     
    Gimnazija Metkovic 43
     
    Marko Marulic Secondary School, Slatina 45
     
    3. Cyprus Saint George Lyceum, Larnaca 51
     
    Lycee Lanitio A, Limassol 56
     
    4. Finland Gymnasiet Lärkan, Helsingfors 63
     
    5. Germany Jörg-Ratgeb-Schule, Stuttgart 64
     
    6. Greece 1er T. E. E. du Piree 68
     
    7. Hungary Batthyány Lajos Secondary School, Nagykanizsa 76
     
    8. Iceland Fjöllbrautaskoli, Selfoss 92
     
    9. Ireland Gairmscoil Mhuire, Thurles, Co. Tipperary 108
     
    10. Italy Instituto Tecnico Commerciale “Padre A. M. Tannoia”, Corato 110
     
    11. Lithuania Vilnius Senvage Secondary School 111
     
    12. Malta ‘Margaret Mortimer’ Girls’ Junior Lyceum, Sta. Lucia 113
     
    Liceo Mikiel Anton Vassalli Boys’ Junior Lyceum, Tal-Hadaq 116
     
    13. Poland Zespol Szkol, Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace w Wojkowicach, Wojkowice 119
     
    14. Portugal Escola Secundária da Amadora 125
     
    15. Russian
     
    Federation School 700, St. Petersburg 127
     
    16. Serbia and
     
    Montenegro Secondary School for Chemical, Food and Textile Processing, Zrenjanin 129
     
    17. Spain Colegio San Agustín, Valdepeńas, Ciudad Real 132
     
    I. E. S. Eras de Renueva, León 135
     
    18. Ukraine Sumy Classical Gymnasia, Sumy 139
     
    19. United Kingdom Northumberland Park Community School, Tottenham, North London 142
     

1. Bulgaria: English Language School “Geo Milev”, Rousse

They have been working on the project PACE – Peaceful Alternatives to Conflict through Education for more than five years. Media-oriented and creative activities enabled students and teachers to learn and work together and could be adapted to teach, learn and critically, analyse constructive and non-violent means for problem resolutions in the classrooms. The project could also provide an opportunity to explore in a cross-cultural perspective the many different forms of conflict that exist in society today – in schools, in families, within a community, between different social or political groups, between the social and natural environment.

The group – more than 30 students
Age – 16 – 18 years old students

Interests – to learn and to understand more how to raise awareness to the meaning of tolerance, freedom, human rights, and justice in civil society

INTRODUCTION

Democracy should not be limited to the sphere of social and political life. Democracy should be a conscious necessity which each member of the society is to strive for. The process of building a democratic society is to start at school. In the democratic school, through curricular and extra-curricular activities, students should get acquainted with their rights and responsibilities, learn how to solve conflicts in a peaceful way and disseminate the principles of tolerance and partnership into the different levels of community life. This would provide the foundations of a sustainable democratic society.
The active participation of young people in decisions and actions at local and regional level is essential if we are to build more democratic, inclusive and prosperous societies. Participation in the democratic life of any community is about more than voting or standing for election, although these are important elements. Participation and active citizenship is about having the right, the means, the space and the opportunity and where necessary the support to participate in and influence decisions and engage in actions and activities as to contribute to building a better society.
What calls for immediate actions to be taken with regard to sensitizing students of the need to work in that direction and how to achieve the best possible results is the fact that nowadays violence among high-school students is paramount. Furthermore, the future citizen of a democratic society should be able to participate actively and in full value into decision-making processes in the community.
The European Charter for a Democratic School without Violence should aim at establishing the foundations of democratic education and serve as a regulatory document in all spheres of school life, concerning all the participants in the school life. The objective of the Charter should be to serve as a contract regulating the relationships between the parties participating in school life, settling any conflict situations that might arise as well as work for the prevention of such.

ASPECTS:

All the participants in school life, both directly involved (students, teachers, school authorities, educational institutions) and indirectly involved (parents, the community in general) should be given the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes, to be actively involved in school life and work for the prevention of violence and conflict resolution at school.

Students’ rights and responsibilities

Article 1
Student’s Council

Student’s Council has to be an opportunity for every student to know his\her rights and obligations. Students’ representatives should submit for consideration the ideas or problems to their classmates, to summon the opinion of the whole class and then to present it to the students’ council. The students’ council should be forbidden to take decisions without the vote of each representative; The decisions reached by the students’ council should be considered illegal/illicit if just one representative is absent

There is a student’s council in every school. This is an institution consisting of one representative of each class. Most times they make decisions without the approval/approbation of the absent representatives, which is contrary to the interior regulations and violates the Declaration of Student Rights. The problems they discuss and the decisions they take are made public after they are `accepted`. The rest of the students do not participate in decision-making. They don’t know whether they can vote and share their opinion. They are not acquainted with their rights, either. If they ask at the library to read the school rules in order to understand and obey them, they receive the answer that the principle has forbidden that.
So it is available only for teachers and students should have paid a greater attention when they were read by the teacher just once at the beginning of the school year.

Article 2
Ombudsman

Ombudsman is a student negotiator through whom the practice of conflict resolution between students and the community should be introduced

- For realizing desire results in students’ future development as professionals school authorities should deliver flexibility of choice regarding school subjects which should be coordinated by “21st Century Students for a Democratic School”
Freshmen - first few weeks in school are a huge challenge. Freshmen have to deal with leaving their old friends. The influence of the senior students makes them embarrassed and depressed. Unfortunately not only are the freshmen against whom violence is resorted. As well as them ordinary students also suffer insults concerning birthplace, social status and appearance.
- For the prevention of violence on behalf of senior students they should be involved as teenage
tutors themselves for the purpose of education, discussion, organizing competitions; to serve as mediators between the class teacher and the younger students

Rights and responsibilities of teachers and school authorities

Article 3
School psychologist

School authorities should be responsible for the mental and physical health of the students by giving the students an opportunity for consultations and medical examinations by specialists and also by encouraging and helping students in decision-making concerning their problems

In this respect the school institution is to ensure the students’ right to work in mentally healthy environment. In order to establish such environment school psychologists must be appointed and work for resolving students’ learning and behavior problems. They must collaborate with teachers, parents, and school staff to improve school teaching and learning strategies. Psychologists could help students solve problems and to integrate in the school environment and feel part of a society, help students without family or students who are far from their family if they are from other city.

Article 4
School Board

The School Board should ensure the students’ safe and timely transport to the school.
This is important not only for their security but also will help for:
- Uniting the students and increasing efficiency of the educational process
- Smoothing out social differences
- growing into habits
The School Board must be responsible for providing school appliances and materials in order to ensure good educational process, because:
- it will give all the students equal opportunities for development ignoring their social status
- it will ensure both teachers and students good conditions for efficient education

Article 5
Teachers’ Council
Teachers’ Council should reshape the curriculum as well as the criteria for examinations to ensure that students will take part in the teaching process without being put under pressure and engage them in a high-quality education that will prepare them for participation in a democratic society
Department subjects are very important for students and their future development but in our school there is a lack of options for students. Few subjects are classified as Department subjects and this cannot provide the students with the needed knowledge and skill for their future development School hours during the schooldays are 6h.30 min. However, per week they are 32h.30 min. These figures give an idea of the length of studying week and with how short time students dispose to have a rest.
The handicapped students not requiring special care on a daily basis integrate harder and have fewer opportunities to participate in school activities. For it is necessary an institution to be provided where students make complaints. The complaint must be brought to the attention of the “21st Century Students for a Democratic School” and later discussed both by the students’ and teachers’ council.

Article 6
Teacher training

Teachers should be trained in peaceful conflict resolution

Teachers do not ever appreciate students equally. They are influenced by social status. Also they do not overcome a reluctance to engage with students and they often do not understand them or find alien to them. They do not know to react effectively in cases of malpractice and breaching of order. Although it can be a conscious act of will to relinquish that role, educating for democracy is relentless: it demands that students' experience and needs come first.
- Workshops for teachers should be created, in which they are taught how to be respectful to students during the studying process. Teachers need to be aware of all motives of violence and be able to make conflict resolutions
- Schools set high standards. Constant testing increases stress among students. When workload is too heavy, students are not able to concentrate their abilities equally in all subjects. Consequently they become oppressed they are not well prepared for school. Some students are not able to handle the pressure: they get nervous, anxious, agitated, bad-tempered and may even become seriously depressed.
- School committee must adopt School meetings and discussions both during classes and extracurricular time, students must be empowered to speak their minds, seek understanding, and defend their rights. They should allow students to discuss their everyday problems. As well as the formal discussion groups, there should be plenty of opportunity to meet students from other schools and exchange information
- School meeting means that students are given equal opportunity to be heard and to take action, however, they are never required to attend and must act respectfully in order to participate. Laws made in these meetings should be enforced with due process

Rights and responsibilities of the society

Article 7
NGOs - Alternative council

“21st Century Students for a Democratic School” is an alternative school council which includes students with skills and knowledge on democratic citizenship. It works either as a discussion club or as a pressure group and has to keep the students’ council informed about their decisions and suggestions

Finding ways to boost their egos in order to avoid conflict situations, unhealthy competitiveness, through organizing sports events, enhancing the cultural life at school; finding ways to stimulate students in this; examinations

Article 8
Institutions in charge of providing healthy conditions at schools

The school must be responsible for providing school appliances and materials in order to ensure good educational process, because:
- it will give all the students equal opportunities for development ignoring their social status
- it will ensure both teachers and students good conditions for efficient education

School authorities should establish :
1. A precise control on the rhythm of examinations and work-load of students which aims to achieve better results in the learning process and reduction of stress and tense in school
2. An alternative to the School Council – “21st Century Students for a Democratic School” - Ministry of Education should direct its efforts to developing new rules and requirements for the basic departments (school profile) for all schools on the basis of the demands of the “21st Century Students for a Democratic School”

All over the world students are examined in the end of the school year by sitting on tests. In Bulgaria there is a quite different system – teachers can examine their students by oral or written tests during each class. This is a good system because it gives a better idea of the students’ knowledge. But these tests are often brought into line with other teachers’ plans. Sometimes students have to do 3 or more tests per day which the school regulations basically forbid. This co-ordination can be avoided by creating a fixed timetable for each examination and most importantly – it must be observed and controlled by the authorities of the School Community.

Harmonized examinations lead to stress, meager results on the learning process and reflects on the psycho climate

School radio is a device, whose function is to inform the school community about
current problems and events; important decisions of school authorities and forthcoming activities.
- Using the school radio as a means of information will give publicity to school problems so that all the students to be clear about their rights and duties at school
- Being well-informed students will be able to take an active part in school life which is important for taking democratic decisions

Article 10
Institutions in charge of prevention of violence in the community

The Institutions and the board of trustees should work out and offer to the attention of all the students in the school clear and rationalized criteria and requirements to appearance. In this way the excessive freedom of the student’s personality will be reduced

In our schools classes last for forty five minutes each and students have on the average 30 classes a week (five school days). During classes students are unable to have appropriate nutrition because of the lack of school canteen, supplied with appropriate food. Because of this students are able to eat as early as 3 p.m. which is not healthy and cannot provide the needed energy for the learning process.
A solution to this problem could be establishing a school canteen supplying students with nourishing food for an adequate learning process. Classes should also be planned so that students are not overtasked.

Lack of nourishing food in school and overtasking of students lead to lower results and stress
School authorities should:
1. Improve living conditions in school by organizing healthy nutrition in conditions approved by HEI /Hygiene Epidemic Inspection (ХЕИ).
2. Establish a block-learning program and courses, coordinated by the “21st Century Students for a Democratic School

Cases

1. School Uniforms

In Bulgaria it has been decided that in some schools students must wear school uniforms. But it’s not clear who is the initiator of this idea and whether all the people concerned approve of it (pupils, parents, teachers).
However, students have been informed that they will have uniforms next year. Most of the pupils disagree but in vain – the decision was made and our only option to accept it. But students realize very well the potential benefits of school uniforms that include:

    - decreasing violence and theft - even life-threatening situations - among students over designer clothing or expensive sneakers;
    - helping prevent gang members from wearing gang colors and insignia at school;

- instilling students with discipline;
- helping parents and students get equal attitude;
- helping students concentrate on their school work;
- helping school officials recognize intruders who come to the school

The very problem is not the idea that we will have special clothes similar for everyone, but the way we were forced to adopt it and submit to the situation. The right consequence of the steps wasn’t observed. An anonymous inquiry (including questions whether students and parents agreed to the school uniforms) was instituted when the money was already collected. After seeing the high percentage of disagreement the principal and respectively the class teachers made the students write the following message in their mark books: ”Dear parents, you have given an advance for a school uniform. Can we consider that you agree your child to wear a uniform?” On the next day the class teacher had to check the answers of each student individually. In this way they ignored the anonymous inquiry and the right to be anonymous.
This situation contradicts the idea of a democratic school because students do not have a free choice and opportunity to vote or rebel against the project of introducing school uniforms.

Solution:
1. parents’ meeting should be organized – in order uniforms to be successful parents must be involved from the very beginning
2. “21st Century Students for a Democratic School” should make a survey among their classmates whether they agree with the uniforms
3. “21st Century Students for a Democratic School” should protect students’ religious expression if the school uniform affects it
Now we don’t have uniforms but the school restricts us in wearing different clothes e.g. boys and girls are not allowed to wear shorts trousers and T-shirts because this is considered disrespectful. If you don’t submit to these requirements you are not allowed to enter the building. You have to miss the first classes and go home and change.

2. Psychological violence - harassment

It is believed that the values of freedom, responsibility, trust, respect and justice are essential and fundamental to democracy. Allowing students to be free and to integrate these values into their lives leads them to become independent, self-reliant, self-initiating, self-motivated, and other beneficial attributes that contribute to the social life in the 21st century. In our school it is with struggle that these values are respected. Just the opposite students do not have the opportunity to acquire them. Students are supposed to cope with a heavy workload successfully and if they are not able to overcome it due to stress they do not have the opportunity to protect their rights.

Violent and aggressive behaviour often comes to appear during the school-life. However, either teachers or school authorities do not make inadequate efforts to prevent its appearance. It is usual that students frequently have trouble paying attention and concentrating, often disrupt classroom activities, do poorly in school and often skip classes, get into fights with classmates, react to disappointments with criticism and intense anger, blame, or revenge. A lot of students are easily frustrated, not sensitive to the feelings or rights of others, have few friends, and are often rejected because of his or her behaviour, get involved in stealing, or destroying property, drink alcohol and/or use drugs. As a result they may also experience further difficulties in developing a healthy sense of initiative, normal physical and intellectual development and a sense of independence. This lack of outcome efficient rules is one of the major reasons why psychological violence and stress increase their standing committee in schools.

Bulgaria: Foreign Language Secondary School “Romain Rolland”, Stara Zagora,

    Let us be people at school, too

    Our wishes are simple and acceptable – we want from school what citizens want from the country: equality, safety, freedom, justice and peace. Our aim with the present project is to achieve a universal model of a democratic school without violence.

    Violence is often caused by differences – in terms of race, language, religion, sex, social status, attitudes and physical impairments, and we can prevent it by priding the right to protection and by guaranteeing freedom from fear and restrictions. This sounds difficult but if we succeed in eliminating disregard and disrespect and assert the value of human personality in our own school interrelations, then the positive effect will be obvious.

    A main aim of the democratic school is to encourage the development of friendships, because the more friends, the less the causes for violence. Through friendly support and understanding among us as well as from the teachers we can attain mutual confidence that will counteract to the projection of the personal and family problems in the school environment.

    However, the most important goal of the democratic school is the adequate preparation for real life. This is exactly why the spirit of democracy and citizenship in education is necessary to end successfully the bringing-up and moulding of individuality.

    In contemporary society personal responsibility and moral values are daily tested. School should be preparing us for these life “examinations” by giving us the possibilities to choose without demanding, by encouraging us to be individuals and personalities.

    The proposed universal model of a democratic school without violence will bring about prosper in society too, for the students-individuals today are the future citizens of the world.

    Violence at School

    Children in Bulgaria become victims most often at school, because they spend a great part of their time there. This is the place where problems are likely to occur not only between students but between adults and students as well. The causes for the children’s aggressive behaviour can be traced back to the family and the parent’s physical harassment, insufficient control, divorce, or poverty; movies with scenes of violence are often a prerequisite, as well. On the other hand teacher’s harassment over students is a result of inadequate pedagogical experience.
    Three are the main forms of aggression at school: physical, verbal and indirect. The forms of physical harassment are hitting, kicking, biting, tripping, pushing and damaging personal belongings. Insults, obscene nicknames, mockeries, and teasing are regarded as verbal aggression whilst indirect torment is associated with social manipulation- the torturer manipulates the others so that they can attack on his stead.
    Let us now consider the problems which appear at school in two aspects: 1. problems between students and 2 problems between students and teachers.

    1. Violence among children
    Violence between classmates varies depending on the age. In terms of age the number of victims descends while the percentage of the torturers remains stable. The dynamics of aggression changes when considering one of the two sexes. The verbal form of outrage is leading among both boys and girls, rising rapidly till the age of fifteen when it begins to decrease. On the other hand the percentage of physical harassment among boys is considerably higher than the one among girls but its progress is the same as this by the mental harassment. The most common forms of torment are presented in the following diagram.

    41 per cent of the victims have been tortured by their classmates and 29.4 per cent by other children. In most of the cases the aggressor has been a boy.
    Where does this usually happen?

    Tortured children do not receive legal protection and that is why they fear to give an account of what they have fallen a prey to. Senior students tend to share less (24 per cent of the tenth-grade-girls and 40 per cent of the boys in ninth and tenth grade) this is a diagram presenting the youth’s willingness to confide in someone.

    Despite this in 54.3 per cent of the cases in which the victim has made a report there has been some positive effect.
    Who can be of greatest help to you if you are being harassed?

    This statistics shows that victims tend to trust mostly their friends, then their parents, and teachers are the third potential supporter. However, parents are gradually losing their children’s trust. Furthermore, there are cases in which help has not been received although the victim has asked for it.
    The phenomenon of violence at school is quite common in Bulgaria and a vast amount of children is involved in it. Every third child has been exposed to aggression.

    2. Interrelations between teachers and students- what are the problems which arouse?
    The conflicts between teachers and students are mostly due to personal relations. An inquiry was instituted to order of the Department of social and economic issues of UN. 1008 students from fifth to twelfth grade, 483 teachers, 498 parents, 96 principals, 10 experts from the Ministry of Education took part in the research.
    An overall number of 410 students have never been witnesses or victims of violence. Other 26 children have been witnesses of threats from a student to a teacher once or twice during the term, 18 teenagers have been threatened by teachers, implies the inquiry. When a conflict arouses the students are more willing to blame themselves and to have a conversation with the teacher.
    But how do teachers solve the problems which appear between them and the children? Students believe that the most common punishment they receive is offensive words. A poor mark is ranked second and the third place is taken by the ordering out of the classroom. Seldom there are aggressive actions and threats, claim the students. From the teachers’ point of view the most common reasons for the conflicts are bad discipline and strict requirements. There was a proposal made by several teachers that parents pay fees for their children’s being regularly punished.
    Violence at school is a serious problem, which has a serious impact on the growing-ups. An eloquent fact is that the number of convicts from the age of fourteen to seventeen in Bulgaria for the year 2002 is 3253, 12, 8 per cent of the overall number of convicts and 3, 8 per cent more than in 1999.

    2. Croatia: Ekonomska i trogovačka škola Čakovec

    Projects for democracy in which the school is taking part:

    1. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION
    2. PROJECT ‘CITIZEN’
    3. THE DEMOCRACY PROJECT
    4. JUNIOR ACHIEVEMENT
    5. CARDS 2000
    6. COUNTY SCHOOL PREVENTION PROGRAMME

    INTRODUCTION

    We are aware of the historic fact that education has existed since the early days of mankind.
    At first, knowledge was transmitted intuitively and through oral tradition inside a family, but very quickly first schools were established.
    Completely unjustly, they were intended only for the rich and the nobles. Through the development of civilization, schools have opened their doors to all people, regardless of their social, material and religious status. People and human knowledge have become the most important factor in the development of the world. This has made school, besides family, an eternal foundation of society.
    As a part of the society, school is also unfortunately subject to some negative phenomena – violence and futile stress – which leave scars in the world of man and his friend nature.
    Aware of these facts, the advanced part of mankind has come together with the purpose of improving the world.
    Aware of all the facts about the state of the world society and the community in which we live, we are joining the intention to make school more democratic, to make it more liberal and more responsible, more tolerant and fairer, more peaceful and free of violence.
    Aware of the fact that students, teachers, teacher assistants, support staff and parents constitute school, we plead for rights and responsibilities and the coexistance of everybody in this huge system.
    We plead for education, upbringing and formation of a satisfied, happy and motivated student who has his life objectives.
    We plead for a successful integration in the social environment, an adequate preparation for continuous education in life and a ready acceptance of working responsibilities.

    I. STUDENTS’ RIGHTS AND DUTIES

    Students’ rights

      1. Every child is entitled to attend school regardless of sex, race, religion and material status with equal conditions of work, upbringing and education.
      2. Basic freedoms (freedom of movement, freedom of opinion, right of option and participation) have to be guaranteed to every student.
      3. All students are entitled to free elementary and secondary education. The state has to provide free textbooks, transport, school-lunch and extracurricular programmes.
      4. Students are entitled to joy and gratification at school.
      5. Students are entitled to a safe and healthy school environment.
      6. Students are entitled to a highest-quality education.
      7. Students are entitled to a sufficient break, adequate to their psychophysical development.
      8. Students are entitled to a peaceful problem solving and the alleviation of traumas.
      9. Students are entitled to modernization of the existing educational objects and to the continuous equipment updating.
      10. Students are entitled to special rooms at school for rest and relaxation. These rooms are organized, arranged and decorated by students themselves.
      11. Students are entitled to participate in the formation of annual curriculum.
      12. Students are entitled to option and participation in desired extracurricular activities.
      13. Students are entitled to respect and understanding from their teachers and school employees.
      14. Students are entitled to optional lessons.
      15. Students are entitled to access to all scientific achievements and contemporary information technology.
      16. Students are entitled to pedagogical and psychological help at classes and extracurricular activities.
      17. Talented students are entitled to special programme and support in their education.
      18. Handicapped and disabled students are entitled to comprehensive help.
      19. Students who live in difficult material conditions are entitled to consideration at school.
      20. Students are entitled to classes in one school session.
      21. Students are entitled to be provided with practical inclusion in enterpreneurship.
      22. Students are entitled to form their representative bodies at schools and all levels of legislative authority.
      23. Students are entitled to a form of expressing dissatisfaction at school.

    Students’ duties

    1. After all the conditions of work and stay at school have been provided for students, they are obliged to participate regularly in all obligatory and optional school programmes.
    2. Students are obliged to participate in all the established forms of knowledge assessment.
    3. Students are obliged to perform their duties punctually and take an active part in them.
    4. Students are obliged to bring necessary equipment to class.
    5. Students and Students’ Council are obliged to respect and follow the rules of School Statute
    6. Students assume responsibility for cooperation with teachers, all school employees and other students.
    7. Students are obliged to report every kind of violence at school and fight against it.
    8. Students are obliged to be properly dressed.
    9. Students mustn’t endanger the health of people present at school.
    10. Students are obliged to face the consequences of their misbehaviour.
    11. Students are obliged to take care of school property and treat it with due respect.
    12. It is the duty of Students’ Council to keep all the students informed about their work, and in their work they are directly responsible to all the students of the school; students in turn are obliged to participate in the work of the Council and to carry out their decisions.

    II. TEACHERS’ RIGHTS AND DUTIES

    Teachers’ rights

    1. Teachers are entitled to a decent salary.
    2. Teachers are entitled to continuous and organized professional improvement.
    3. Teachers are entitled to freedom of option of teaching topics and formation of curriculum and other forms of independence in their work which humanize the classes.
    4. Teachers are entitled to access to all information and scientific achievements, as well as all the necessary contemporary material resources.
    5. Teachers are entitled to apply modern forms and methods of teaching.
    6. Teachers are entitled to assess students’ knowledge.

    Teachers’ duties

    1. Teachers are obliged to teach students through regular programme and extracurricular activities.
    2. Teachers are obliged to inform students and parents objectively and truthfully about scientific achievements.
    3. Teachers are obliged to treat students as active agents and participant in class.
    4. Teachers are obliged to develop motivation for classes.
    5. Teachers are obliged to create a positive emotional atmosphere in class.
    6. Teachers are obliged to keep the secrets in which they were confided for themselves (about students’ physical or psychological problems).
    7. Teachers are obliged to develop and put into practice tolerance among teachers and students.
    8. Teachers are obliged to objective student assessment and the inclusion of students in self-assessment.
    9. It is their duty to respect each student as a person with all her/his intellectual potentials and abilities.
    10. They are obliged to discover, support and engage talented students.
    11. They are obliged to respect students with special needs and help their development.
    12. They are obliged to behave adequately. (without pshycological and physical abuse)
    13. They are obliged to report any form of violence at school or in family.
    14. They are obliged to respect student’s personality and use the achievements in class only with the aim of student’s improvement.

    III. PARENTS’ RIGHTS AND DUTIES

    Parents’ rights

      1. The parent is entitled to a complete insight into their child’s education.
      2. The parent is entitled to take part in the work of school.
      3. The parent is entitled to be a member of Parents’ Council.
      4. Provided that there has been any form of violence commited against their child, the parent is entitled to be informed about it in detail. They are entitled to information about all forms of violence at school.

    Parents’ duties

    1. The parent is obliged to provide their child with a decent education in order to ensure their child’s future.
    2. The parent is obliged to excuse their child’s absence from school in case it was justified.
    3. The parent is obliged to inform the teacher about the child’s physical or psychological problems if there are any.
    4. The parent is obliged to follow the child’s development and help them at the choice of their future profession.
    5. The parent is obliged to create a positive emotional family atmosphere.
    6. Provided that the parent recognizes a certain talent in his child, it is their duty to inform the teacher in order to include him in a programme for talented students.
    7. The parent is obliged to take care of physical and psychological development of their child.

    AGGRESSION IN OUR SCHOOL

    The most common form of violence in our school is verbal aggression imposed by the older on the younger students. It includes backbiting, shouting and verbal abuse. The reasons are: the feeling of jealousy caused by good grades, good reputation at school or good material status. However, it is often a good material status that gives students security in aggression pointed towards students of poor material status. Aggression is also often directed towards students with a handicap.
    For five years now our school has been reacting to violence in a systematic and organized way. There has been continuous research on current forms of violence and its participants. The research school team organizes workshops for teachers where they are educated to work with students at the prevention of aggression.
    At least once a year the school organizes a workshop for parents where they are made aware of the aggressiveness among teenagers and directed towards a peaceful solving of conflicts inside a family.
    For four years now school has been conducting a project called School prevention programme which includes various forms of extracurricular activities through which students express their creative abilities.
    The school encourages students to join some organized activities of young people in the county.
    In addition, the school directs its students towards communication with the SOS phone, as well as towards the cooperation with the advisory center for prevention of addiction.

    WITH KNOWLEDGE AND DEMOCRACY INTO THE FUTURE’
    OUTLINE OF SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
    FOR THE PROMOTION OF DEMOCRACY

    Report

    For a few years now, educational programmes and methods have been carefully chosen in our school – Ekonomska i trgovačka škola Čakovec (The Economics and Trade School) – through which we have made a big step towards democratization of our school. We are proud to present you a part of the programmes in which we are active participants.
    STUDENTS’ COUNCIL
    Students’ Council is the students’ representative body through which they directly participate in decision-making to protect their interests.
    OASIS
    A special place at school equipped by students themselves where they can have a rest and relax or organize various activities.
    MEMBERSHIP IN THE TOWN YOUTH COUNCIL
    The council is an advisory body of the Town Council of ‘adults’ which pleads for resources for young people and serves as a ‘polygon’ for the acquisition of political culture and socialization. A student of our school is the chairman of the council, and another three students are active members.
    ASSOCIATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
    This is and organization which gathers together the students of all the six secondary schools in our county of Međimurje with the aim of promoting their own interests.
    PARENTS’ COUNCIL
    Parents’ council is the parents’ representative body through which they participate in the running of the school. Parents also have two of their representatives in the school board.
    ETHICS
    As an optional subject it provides students with a free choice of modern methods and ethical issues especially useful in the democratization of the school and the society in general. Methods of work mostly chosen by students themselves are debates between groups and individual students, and various workshops which students prepare themselves.
    EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
    In extracurricular activities we are proud of organizing and working in school virtual companies (Insula M.D., Pinocchio, P-OPAJ).
    INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF OUR SCHOOL
    For six years now our school has been working closely with the Trade and Catering School from Nagykanisza in Hungary. Our school also takes part in the Alpe-Adria sporting festivals.
    PROJECT ‘CITIZEN’
    The aim of this project is the acquisition of the basics of democracy and training students in taking civil initiative.

    Croatia: Gymnazija Čakovec

    TAKE A STEP FOREWARD IN THE FIGHT AGAINST VIOLENCE

    Violence is not a topic which is only whispered about any more. The horrifying facts are not kept a secret any more, and the victims of abuse are finally believed and tried to be helped. Today there are neither teachers nor parents who do not try to do their best for the welfare of the children. Anyway, there is more and more violence, and it appears in various ways, in a family, neighbourhood or school. Bullying on the school corridors, teasing, insinuating during breaks and emptying frustrations at the expense of the weaker ones. ... We all know it is a part of growing up.... But, do we have to reconcile with it?
    The consequences of abuse can be horrible. On the newspaper front pages we can find more and more information about shooting in schools, fights, stabbing. It can be, obviously, far more serious than only the theft of a sandwich. Such incidents can be very uncomfortable and when it happens for the first time the best thing to do is not to pay attention to it at all. But if they start to repeat then it must be recognized as abuse and it should be reported to somebody. You will not be considered a sissy but a fighter for your dignity. There is not such a thing like a magic armour which can protect you when being attacked with a knife. This is a real world and if somebody attacks you, Superman will not come to your rescue. Your friends will not save you either, during the attack they will probably run away. What will you do? How will you react? Are you aware of the danger and will you be able to think fast? Fear is a natural feeling....and people are not always the way the look like. Be aware of yourself, what you are doing, where, when and how and take responsibility for your actions. Live safer and help the others to do the same, because everyone can, do at least a step more in the fight against violence.

    European Charter for the Democratic School without Violence

    In the context of this charter a child is every human being under 18. As well as adults children have their rights, too. The world of adults has been neglecting children for centuries, abusing them and taking advantage of them. Adults often did not take care of their children. However, nowadays almost every parent or teacher tries to prove that the welfare of children is what matters the most. If we accept these statements, it can be concluded that the humankind have achieved a progress, that the violence against children has been decreased, but as we can see, it unfortunately is not true. There is more and more violence against children nowadays. Whether we admit it or not, it has become a part of our everyday life. In newspaper articles in the last few years we have been able to find data about beaten, neglected, abused and sexually abused children. There is too much violence, to which their surroundings react not tough or often enough.
    As a consequence of that, we have decided to write a charter for the protection of children, so they can feel safe and protected at least at school. The Charter consists of thirty articles referring to the children's rights at school. They speak about the student-student relationships, parents-students, teachers-students relationships, as well as the relationships between students and school staff. Every child has all the rights quoted in this charter, no matter who he/she is, who his/her parents are, his/her colour of skin, religion or sex, which language he/she speaks, if he/she is rich or poor, or suffers of any kind of disorder.

    STUDENT – STUDENT RELATIONSHIP

    School is generally speaking, OK, better than doing nothing. However, for every plus there is a minus, and it applies to a school, too. It is good for those who «learn something», spend half of a day with friends, collect new memories. But what if you are a victim of violence? Physical or mental violence? We can talk about violence among students when one or more students continually and intentionally disturb, attack or maltreat other students who cannot defend themselves. This is a kind of a behaviour in which we can recognize both a victim and a bully, and the imbalance of the sides is obvious. It is the situation which we cannot reconcile with, but the bully should be reported and the weaker ones protected.

    THERE ARE NO INFERIOR ONES:
    1. All students belong to the same kind, they are born equal, having the same dignity and rights.
    2. Every student has the right not to be abused and continuously maltreated at school or in the society.
    3. In schools there are the same rights for all, so the difference between students according to their financial situation cannot be made. Both the poor and the rich have the same rights
    4. Starting a new school very often means going to a new town, so the differences in speech can be conspicuous. Students cannot be laughed at because of that.
    5. Religion is a private choice and everyone has the right to choose the religion and not to be mocked because of that or punished by the other students who disagree with his/her beliefs.
    6. Students whose parents are divorced, or the ones without parents do not differ from the others, so they cannot be treated as inferior among the others.
    7. Romany children and the children of other nationalities are equal.
    8. Students with physical disabilities, those wearing glasses, fat or thin ones, those of different colour of hair cannot be ridiculed or abused and should be equally accepted in the society.
    9. A student cannot be rejected because of the alcoholism in the family or any other family problems, other students should help him/her to cope with the problems more easily.
    10. Students with disabilities: either blind, deaf or mute with the problems in mobility or those who cannot walk at all should not feel inferior and be abused by other students. The duty of the others is to make their participation in the school life easier.
    11. Students who suffer of any kind of chronic illnesses should not be teased because of that and must feel loved at school.

    EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT:
    12. Neither of the students has the right to interfere in the other student's life or attack his/her reputation and dignity. Every one has the right to be protected from such kind of interference or attack.
    13. Students have the right to walk around the school freely, without being afraid of the possibility to be attacked or abused.
    14. A student has the right to listen to the teacher during classes without being disturbed by the other students.
    15. Every student has the right to express his/her own opinion, and should not be mocked or punished by other students.
    16. Every student has the right to his/her privacy, so other students cannot take his/her things without asking or without his/her permission.
    17. Every student has the right to be called by his name, other students cannot make up names and nicknames which could offend him.

    NO VIOLENCE:
    18. Absolutely no one can be submitted to a cruel, inhuman or humiliating treatment or punishment.
    19. A student is not allowed to abuse or hurt another student because of his own superiority.
    20. A student has no right to distort money from another student with the excuse that he will protect him/her from the stronger ones.
    21. Students cannot settle problems with fights in school corridors.
    22. Boys do not have the right to touch girls because they are weaker and cannot defend themselves.
    23. During the PE classes students cannot use any kind of violence with an excuse ″I haven’t done it intentionally″!
    24. Students are not allowed to take to school any kind of weapons: either a knife or a gun or something else, and use it to threaten other students.
    25. Students are not allowed to persuade each other to do any kind of violence.
    26. Pushing around in school corridors can be dangerous with serious consequences, so the students should avoid such kind of teasing among themselves.
    27. Students cannot punish other students by using violence because they have something against them.
    28. Students are not allowed to use any kind of violence against other students in order to amuse themselves.

    STUDENT – TEACHER RELATIONSHIP
    Praise and friendly relationship between a student and a teacher can significantly influence the behaviour of students. Students need help, understanding and constant support. School should be the place where students will feel happy, safe and where they will get new experiences and skills. Conflicts between students and teachers are frequent, and students are the ones who think they are always right. We all know that often it is not true, but how to find the common language between them?

    RESPONSIBILITIES OF STUDENTS:

      1. A student should address a teacher with respect, greet him/her in school and out of school.
      2. A student should adjust his/her way of dressing to school (he/she should not wear clothes that are too provocative)
      3. If a student notices a violent behaviour of a teacher, he/she should inform a principal or a parent about it, so something can be done about it in time.
      4. A student should be present at classes and actively participate in them.
      5. The responsibility of a student is to behave properly and in that way make the teacher’s work easier.

    RIGHTS OF STUDENTS:

      6. A student has the right to freely express him/herself. It includes searching, accepting and spreading of information of all kinds, orally, in a written way or using any other means depending on the student's own choice.
      7. A student has the right to ask a teacher if anything is not clear in the class.
      8. A student has the right to be informed about the mark he has got.
      9. A student has the right to see his/her written exam and ask questions about it if anything is not clear.
      10. A student has the right to say no to a teacher if to perform a task he/she was asked to perform can be dangerous, if it can harm his/her health, his/her bodily, mental, moral or social development
      11. A student has the right to annul a test if a teacher does not bring it back to him/her after a certain period of time.
      12. A student has the right to confront a teacher if he/she gives him/her a task which can be dangerous for him in any possible way.
      13. A student has the right to be safe at school, so neither of the teachers can insult him/her verbally or physically.

    A STUDENT IS NOT ALLOWED TO:

      14. A student is not allowed to disturb a teaching process, and if he/she does that a teacher can ask him/her to leave the classroom.
      15. A student is not allowed to interfere in the private life of a teacher
      16. A student is not allowed to bring to school alcoholic drinks, cigarettes or any other kind of narcotics. If a teacher brings that, a student has the right to inform parents about it and take it away.
      17. A student is not allowed to insult a teacher, neither to confront him/her.
      18. A student is not allowed to skip the lessons if there is not the right reason for that.
      19. If a student has any kind of problems he/she can always ask a teacher for help
      20. In case a student is ill ha/she can stay at home.
      21. A student is not allowed to act violently or aggressively against a teacher because of a bad mark.
      22. If a student threatens a teacher orally or with a weapon, prompt actions should be taken.

    TEACHER - STUDENT RELATIONSHIP
    What do the students remember when they meet again after five, ten or more years? Beside the most popular faces and jokes, the topic which cannot be avoided is of course – teachers. Both the ones who were liked because of their teaching methods or their approach to students, and the ones who were the reasons of frustrations, sleepless nights, fears.... Sometimes, completely unjustified, and sometimes with a reason. It is a common knowledge that violence in schools exists and it includes various incidents, from the unimportant ones to very serious cases. Teachers very often are not informed about the possibilities how to react in the adequate way, or they do not act at all. They should feel the need to react and take the active part in school as well as outside school.

    RESPONSIBILITIES OF TEACHERS:

      1. A teacher should treat all the students equally regardless to who they are, who their parents are, what is the colour of their skin, if they are rich or poor, if they suffer of any and of a disorder.
      2. If a teacher notices any kind of violence in school, he/she should react to it and prevent it.
      3. If something happens to a student at school, either he/she is a victim or a bully, the teacher's duty is to inform the parents about it.
      4. If a child has some disabilities either of physical or mental kind, a teacher should provide him/her the conditions which will facilitate his/her active participation in the teaching process.
      5. If the case of serious violence appears at school, like gun threats, or any other kind of a weapon, the duty of a teacher is to inform the police about it.

    A TEACHER IS NOT ALLOWED TO:

      6. A teacher is not allowed to mock or punish a student if his/her answer to a question is incorrect.
      7. A teacher is not allowed to punish a student verbally or physically for any kind of an act.
      8. A teacher is not allowed to interfere in a student's private life. He is s allowed to do that if a students asks him/her to do it, or if he/she him/herself notices that the family problems influence the student's work.
      9. A teacher should appreciate the work and talent of a student and give him/her a chance.
      10. A teacher is not allowed to judge a student according to his/her physical appearance.

    STUDENT – SCHOOL CLEANING STAFF RELATIONSHIP
    Chocolate wrappings, empty juice bottles, papers, have you ever asked yourself how it is to collect somebody else's rubbish? It can't be funny at all. Our school cleaning staff has a lot to do, which we are not fully aware of. Without any consideration we write on our desks and leave piles of rubbish behind. Believe me, somebody has to clean it up, and because of all these, we could treat the school cleaning staff with a little more kindness and respect.

      1. Students always have to greet the school cleaning staff.
      2. Students cannot look down on the staff or make fun of their work. They are here to make our school life more comfortable.
      3. Every student has to address the cleaning staff with respect in the same way as they address a teacher or any other adult person, and cannot abuse them verbally.
      4. If any member of a school cleaning staff notices any kind of violence in school, it is his/her duty to report it to the teachers, so that something could be done about it.
      5. School cleaning staff is not allowed to punish the students, their task is to report any kind of inappropriate behaviour to the teachers.
      6. Students cannot make the work of the cleaning staff more difficult by leaving rubbish or destroying the school property, their task is to make their job easier.
      7. Students have to be ready to help the school cleaning staff at any moment.
      8. The school cleaning staff has no rights to interfere in the private life of a student nor try to solve his/her problems.
      9. Students do not have the right to enter the cleaning staff rooms.
      10. The cleaning staff should treat all the students in the same way regardless to who they are, who their parents are, what the colour of their skin is, if they are rich or poor, if they suffer of any kind of disorder.
      11. The school cleaning staff should keep an eye on the students during breaks, and if any kind of violence is noticed they should be ready to interfere or prevent it.
      12. Students do not have the right to maltreat the school cleaning staff in any way as well as they do not have the right to abuse students.

    PARENTS – TEACHER RELATIONSHIP
    Co-operation with parents is extremely important and it should not be restricted only to informative meetings where a report on the student's progress is given to parents. Parents very often feel guilty for the behaviour of their children. Other people also very often blame the parents for the gaps in raising their children? At the parent-teacher meetings during the school year it is important to warn the parents about the importance of the mutual school – student – parents co-operation. It is important to define the joint plan of activities and inform them about the time and people they can refer to in case help is needed, as well as how to recognise the aggressive behaviour and violence.

      1. A teacher has to inform a parent about everything happening at school.
      2. If a student do not come to school for a longer period of time, a teacher can call a parent and ask him about the causes of his child's non attendance.
      3. If a student acts violently and aggressively at school, a teacher should inform a parent about it, talk to him/her and a student and try to solve a problem. If a teacher thinks that the problem is a serious one he/she can suggest a parent to ask for a professional help of a psychologist.
      4. A parent is supposed to come to school whenever a teacher calls him/her and thinks it is required.
      5. A parent has the right to ask a teacher about everything that interests him/her about his/her child, regarding the school results and school in general. A parent has the right to consult with a teacher at the time previously agreed upon.
      6. A parent has the right to ask a teacher to show him/her his/her child's grades and tests. A teacher can also call a parent to school in case of bad grades.
      7. A parent can call the school in order to check if his/her child is at school.
      8. If a teacher has doubts about a student taking drugs or other narcotics he/she has to inform parents about it.
      9. A parent has the right to complain if he /she thinks that his/her child is not given a fair mark.
      10. A teacher should enable the parents to choose a parents representative who will represent both the students and parents' rights and fight for their rights.
      11. A parent does not have the right to use any kind of violence as well as a teacher cannot use violence against a parent.
      12. If a student does any kind of violence, a teacher has to inform a parent about it and talk to him/her in order to solve the problem.

    THE STUDENT - PARENT RELATIONSHIP

    There is an old Croatian proverb saying that beating children can sometimes be helpful, but is it really so? Does it mean that our parents can beat their children or insult them because they think it is for their own good? Every child should respect his/her parents, but if the parents abuse them either physically or mentally, something should be done to prevent it.
    Can a parent force a child to fulfil his/her mother or father's ambitions through different activities, impose on a child to go to the school he does not want to attend or choose him/her friends?
    A parent cannot make the child's life miserable only because he/she gave it to him/her.

    OBLIGATIONS OF PARENTS:

      1. Parents should raise children in a safe home surrounded with love.
      2. A child needs love, attention, encouragement and praise of parents, so the parents should behave according to that, they should not be sarcastic and too critical, in order not to abuse their children emotionally.
      3. Parents should always know about the whereabouts of their child.
      4. Every child has its right to education, starting with the primary education, which should be provided by his parents.
      5. Parents cannot force children to pick up the school of their own choice. It is the child's own decision. Your own choice is the best choice.
      6. Parents have to advise children about his/her interests and wishes regarding education as well as about their future occupation.
      7. Parents cannot forbid their children to keep up company with the friends they choose themselves, and they have no right to ban to take up the hobbies the children like or anything else which gives him pleasure. The role of parents is to help a child with it, to encourage him/her to participate in certain activities and teach him how to get on well with other children.
      8. Parents should give children support and will for better and more successful learning.
      9. If a child has some problems at school, either with teachers or other students, the duty of a parent is to help him.
      10. Parents should not be allowed to force children to learn continuously without break, they have to ensure their children enough free time and spend it with them.
      11. During education a child acquires knowledge and skills, so he/she should help in the household but parents should not burden a child with it too much.
      12. Parents cannot insult children because of a bad mark at school or an incident he/she did unintentionally, and they have no right to punish him/her physically.
      13. Parents should understand possible failures at school so a child would not feel fear when coming home form school or when leaving home to go to school.
      14. Parents do not rally know how it is to live in the modern world of young people when alcohol, smoking and drugs are present everywhere around, even at the school threshold and in school corridors. So, they have to pay more attention to their children’s behaviour to be able to notice all the problems the modern youth is facing.
      15. A child cannot ask money from his parents and expensive, unnecessary things if a parent cannot afford it, but the parents' duty is to explain to his child their financial situation and try to give him/her the things he/she requires either at school or in private life.
      16. No one can hurt a child, not even parents, and every parent has an obligation to protect his/her child.

    PARENT’S RIGHT:

      17. Every parent has the right to know where his/her child is at any moment.
      18. The right of a parent is to be informed by a teacher about what is happening with his/her child either at school or on his/her way to school
      19. Parents have the right to know everything about their children’s school results.
      20. Parents have the right to give their opinion to a child and try to lead a child to the right way.
      21. Parents have the right to be informed about the possible measures which to be taken in order to improve the child's school results. They have also the right to know about any problems their child is going through at school.
      22. Parents are also a part of a school community in a way, so they have the rights to vote about various aspects of school activities.
      23. Parents have the right to take part, together with teachers, in suppressing violence in a school and in such a way ensure safety of their children.

    SEXUAL ABUSE

    For all those who work with children is important to know that children do not make up things about sexual abuse. On the contrary, most of the children will deny that anything at all happened. So, show to a child that you trust him/her, convince him/her that what happened is not his/her fault and give him permanent support. Children find it very difficult to talk about such experiences and they try to find various signs to speak up about the abuse which is happening to them and beg for the abuse to stop.
    Sexual abuse is also called «a silent problem, because the victims are often afraid to talk about it. An abuser often threatens him/her not to talk about it, that it is «only their secret», or the victims themselves feel guilty.

    There is not much physical evidence of sexual abuse and it is difficult to recognize it, so adults should be aware of the strange changes in a child's behaviour.

    Physical evidence

      o Infections of urinary tract
      o Pains in a stomach
      o Bruises
      o Chronic nutrition disorders

    Changes in behaviour

      · Depression
      · Suicide attempts
      · Self injuries
      · Panic attacks
      · Sudden changes of the mood
      · Running away from home
      · Sleeping in the class
      · Irregular attendance of school
      · Poor school results
      · Regression to younger age
      · Non- characteristic behaviour which reminds to sexual behaviour
      · Sudden taciturnity and shyness
      · Fear of certain people and darkness

    Some kinds of less serious behaviour which can influence a student and his/her mental derangement if they repeat continually can be also called sexual abuse

      · Showing pornographic pictures or graffiti on the school walls
      · A teacher and other students constantly comment your amazing looks and tease you on account of your sexuality
      · A teacher or a student touch the intimate parts of your body
      · A teacher promises you good school results if you agree to a sex
      · A teacher promises you an excellent mark if you kiss him/her
      · Students threaten you with weapons if you do not accept a sex

    WHAT TO DO WHEN BEING ABUSED?
    If you have problems at school, if you are provoked, mocked or made fun of, laughed at....there are numerous things you can do to protect yourself

    Speak up because it's the only way to stop bullying and violent behaviour!!!!!!

      1. Violence can be shown in different ways. It can be both physical and mental. They call you names, spread vicious gossip about you, make up dirty tricks which can do you harm, they take or destroy your things, steal your money, persuade your friends not to be friends with you any more... These incidents can be very embarrassing and when it happens for the first time, the best thing to do is not to pay attention at all, but if they repeat more frequently then, you can definitely call it abuse.
      2. Do not think that it happens only to you – it happens everywhere to many other children and it happens everywhere.
      3. Do not think you deserve it for a particular reason – the bullies are the ones who have a problem.
      4. The most important thing to do, if you become a victim of abuse, is to tell somebody about what is happening to you. Confide to your teachers, parents, elder brothers and sisters, school pedagogue, even if the bully threatens you not to tell anybody.
      5. If you find it difficult to confide to somebody, write a letter in which you will describe everything you are going through and you feel.
      6. Find help – do not face the problem by yourself.
      7. Keep talking until finally somebody does something about it
      8. Get in touch with your peers who have also experienced violence and abuse. Together you are be stronger. The knowledge of a martial art can be helpful in case somebody attacks you. You will be able to defend yourself.
      9. During breaks try to stay where it is safe, where there are a lot of people. Bullies do not like witnesses.
      10. Go to school and back home from school with your friends. Take familiar, safe and well lit paths.
      11. If somebody injures you at school, you have to report it immediately to a teacher and ask him/her to make a report about it.
      12. Do not avoid school because it will only make the problem worse, and you will not be able to keep up with your school subjects.
      13. Keep up with a lot of people. If you want to make friends, be a good friend (be kind, talk to them, help each other...)
      14. The support of parents or another person you trust is very important, so share your discomfort with them
      15. Do not use violence against a bully. Violence counter violence can only make the things worse.
      16. You have to make your self-confidence stronger. Bullies always choose those who are not self-confident, weak and too sensitive. Take up an activity you are talented for and try to point it out.
      17. Be strong and clear – look into a bully’s eyes and say – STOP IT!
      18. Fear is natural....and people are not always the way they look they are. Be confident in yourself, what you do, where and how, take the responsibility for your actions.
      19. Live safer and help the others to do the same. If you see a crowd, do not approach it, call somebody and keep your fingers crossed that somebody else will do the same for you if you ever find yourself in a similar situation.
      20. Even if you are not a victim of abuse and you notice that somebody else is, report it immediately to a teacher or a pedagogue. Do it secretly, so a bully cannot take revenge. Remember that your abused peers need help and support.

    STUDENTS' COUNCIL FIGHTING AGAINST VIOLENCE

    Nowadays there is more crime than ever, more drugs, alcohol and people who want to hurt the others. So, whether you are a boy or a girl, thinking that you can defend yourself alone can bring you to the status of a victim. Since there has been more and more violence, and it is present in schools, we decided to form the students' council which will beside other issues, also solve the problems of violence in our school. The Council consists of a few teachers and students to whom the students can go to any time. Anybody can go to the Council if any kind of violent behaviour in the school is noticed, or if he/she has experienced any kind of violence or abuse. When the Council receives information about it, they meet and discuss the problem. The Council has the right to call to an interview all the students who were present during the act of violence and let them say their opinion. When the Council have heard all the students, they gather again and discuss the problem. The Council unanimously brings the decision about how to solve the problem and reports about it.

    Do not keep silent about anything bad what is happening in your family. If the violence is unbearable ask for help, talk to the school pedagogue, a teacher or any other person you trust.

    A person who is going through something embarrassing and traumatic very often does not want to talk about it and does not want to admit it to the others. To escape from the truth is not a good solution.

    Croatia: GIMNAZIJA METKOVIĆ

    submitted by: STUDENTS’ COUNCIL

    Taking into consideration that violent behaviour happens around the school or in school mostly without supervision of adults,

    fully aware that victims of violence are mostly children who are thought to be weaker and/or in some way different,
    fully concerned that without planned intervention the situation will get worse,
    very upset by the fact that violence among children is seriously jeopardising personal development as well as the progress in education,
    considering that few students are aware of their rights,
    guided by the fact that the interest of public for quality of schools is increasing as well as by the wish of parents and students to be a part of school team,
    fully aware of the fact that techniques of teaching are playing a key-role in motivating students,
    considering that the young most of their time spend in schools and the activities linked with the school,
    considering that more and more youngsters are practising sex, unaware of the possible diseases and consequences,

    we suggest the following,

    1. School should be a safe place without disturbing privacy both students and teachers as much as possible by creating a positive atmosphere through teacher-student co-operation. There should be more connections and experience exchanging among schools, governmental and nongovernmental organisations.
    2. All teachers should be educated at various workshops and seminars about today’s problems such as: recognising and preventing from delinquent behaviour and treating all students equally. Those with learning disabilities should get special attention by individual work, encouragement and including other students and parents to help
    3. Each teacher and student should be fully aware of their rights that are defined by the UN Declaration of Human rights, the Convention of Children Rights and School Rules. Each school should allow them to accomplish these rights.
    4. Each school should be able to educate students on moral and ethical values.
    5. Each school should educate youngsters about sex, its diseases and contraception by introducing a new subject, which will also allow us to avoid prejudice and different taboo themes.
    6. Each school should encourage every form of democracy by organising frequent and different debates, whether on school or local levels, at which the youngsters could freely express their stands, beliefs and opinions.
    7. School should be fully opened to the suggestions and critics of the public.
    8. Every form of activities should be encouraged in order to get co-operation with the cultural and sports organisations where students would discover their talents and interests by organising frequent competitions and meetings.
    9. Students should be included in all activities inside the school and about the school. They should be more included in the work of Teachers’ Council, they should say their wishes and propositions that are important to them and they should also be included in creating school curricula together with teachers.
    10. Each school should participate in active decision-making process with the City Council on matters, which are directly related to the youth.

    S T U D E N T S' C O U N C I L

    DESCRIPTION:

      - 15 representatives,
      - aged 14- 18,
      - elected by the students
      - one-year term
      - signed Book of rules by its president and the school principal
      - defined duties, responsibilities, rights
      - STUDENTS' COUNCIL sessions: every 15 days, or once a month
      - YOUTH CITY COUNCIL meeting- once a year ( representatives from all local schools)

    AIMS:

      - to come closer to the democratic schools where we can have good relations with our teachers and school administration, based on partnership
      - to aware the students about their rights and responsibilities
      - to establish a positive atmosphere among the students
      - to find out if the local community is interested in giving the youth an active role in the political and decision-making processes

    HOW:

      - tolerant discussions, debates, workshops, socialising- spending time together
      - non-violent protest ( against the felling of trees in the town ), petitions,
      - humanitarian works – handicapped children
      - questionnaires: a) «Taking the human rights temperature of my school»

                b) «How well are students informed about their rights at

                  school and whether they are violated or not?»

      - Youth Council Session: the Municipality allocates some money, the session is

        chaired by the Mayor, the councillors are the students , they make decisions and vote

      - discussions open to public: « Keeping records and documents about illegal dumps

        in our area» - ecological projects

      - inviting parents or representatives of NGOs to meetings ( getting information or asking the support
      - informing the local community about the activities by means of posters, or media
      - publishing the Bulletin ( about all democratic activities )
      - international cooperation with the school from Norway
      - a continual cooperation with the team of: psychologists, pedagogues, social workers

        hoping to have active cooperation with the police: conversation, helping and visiting the
        poor, raising money or food, motivating students

      - team work, which we are very proud of, both at school and in the community

    A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF CASES OF VIOLENCE IN OUR SCHOOL

    Physical fights among students in our school are very rare, but cases of psyhological harassement, unfortunately, are not. These are the typical examples of peer pressure.
    Making fun of one’s habits, the way of talking and the looks are quite amusing for most of the students. The worst thing is that we are mostly suggestible. Others can impose to us “some values” or behaviour and we are faced with a moral dilemma. Everybody wants to fit in.
    On the other hand, we make fun with others, not because we want to hurt him/her, but on the contrary, because we don’t want to be different. It is like a trap, which needs to be escaped from.

    SLOGAN: EUROPEAN DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL – NO VIRUS OF VIOLENCE!

    Croatia: Marko Marulic Secondary School, Slatina

    1. About Our School

    Slatina is small town in the East of Croatia. About 14 thousand people live here. We have nothing special here, except some necessary things, like a library, schools, a church, a movie and many small shops. We have many woods and many fields.
    Our school is called Marko Marulić Secondary School. We have different kinds of high schools, like grammar school, economic high school, merchandise school, school for cooks and waiters, etc. One week we go to school in the morning, and the other we go o school in the afternoon. When we go to school in the morning it starts at 8:00 A.M. If we go to school in the afternoon it starts at 2:00 P.M. Three times a week we have seven lessons, and twice we have six lessons. The lesson lasts 45 minutes. We have small breaks and one big break. Small breaks are five minutes long, and a big break is twenty minutes long. We have about 16 school subjects. We learn four languages: Croatian (our mother-tongue), English, German and Latin. We have learned Latin for only two years. We have Art, Geography, History, Mathematics and many other subjects. In the third we get some new school subjects like Sociology and Logic. In the fourth grade we get Philosophy. You can choose between Religious Education and Ethics. It is because there are different religions. During Biology and Physical Education boys and girls are separated. While the girls have Biology, the boys have Physical Education. Chemistry is very interesting. We do all kinds of experiments. These school subjects are very hard and we have to learn a lot. Our teachers are ones of the best in the country. Students who finished our high school did very well on University. Teachers demand much us. We have to be ready every day, because we write exams all the time. It is very hard for us, but we have NO CHOICE.
    My school is very difficult and I spend most of my time learning. I think that the biggest problem of Croatian education is that children have to memorize many important things. School should be the place where we can learn things that could help us in our life, have fun, it should not be a scary place. There should be little more individual projects and then school would be much better place.

    'European Charter for a Democratic School without Violence'

    2. Introduction

    The aim of this Charter is to make a contribution against the violence in schools and to improve daily work conditions of students and teachers. We should all be aware of importance of preserving peaceful conditions and hold on to all prescriptions of this Charter. To attract more attention of people about the problem of violence in schools, we need a good organisation; in other words - organised implementation of prescriptions installed in “European Charter for a Democratic School without Violence” by every single student and teacher. Only with common endeavouring and good will - power we will manage to prevent the violence. Not a single case of violence should be neglected. Let’s make some changes even today - let’s stop the violence!

    3.Charter

    ARTICLE 1

    Rights and responsibilities of school
    ·All members of the school community (both students and adults) have the right to be secure and protected in and out of school.
    ·The creation of a safe school is a common responsibility of the teachers and students as well as parents and broader social (political, local) community i.e. of the municipality, city and their service agencies.

    ARTICLE 2

    ·The school determines clear rules of behaviour for the members of the school’s community students - pupils and educators - teachers). Everybody needs to be familiarized with those rules as well as sanctions which are to be applied if somebody does not act according to the set rules. It is desirable for all the rules to be accepted by a referendum and consensus of all the members of the school community.
    ·Sanctions (measures of prevention) have to be adequate to the transgression (violation) and they need to be easily adaptable as well as consistently applied. The measures of prevention are not to be directed at a transgressor but at the correction of an unacceptable behaviour.

    ·ARTICLE 3

    ·School in cooperation with broader community should enable the students as many diverse and creative projects as possible.
    ·School should encourage a constructive behaviour by means of commendations and rewards as well as discourage a destructive behaviour.

    ARTICLE 4

    ·School should react at every appearance of violence at school.
    ·School charges one or more persons responsible to keep detailed records of all cases of violence. Certain tendencies (increase or decrease of violence) are determined and the efficiency of the conducted measures and procedures is established on the bases of the collected data.
    ·School charges one or more persons whom violent behaviour can be reported to and who will react to the reported violent behaviour quickly and accordingly.
    ·School determines who are the persons responsible as well as the manners of reaction in crisis situations

    ARTICLE 5

    ·Every victim of violence (bullying) must receive a quick and adequate help.
    ·School i.e. persons in charge follow and evaluate the efficiency of the measures of prevention (punishments) against the perpetrator (bully) of the violent act as well as his behaviour throughout a longer period of time.
    ·All school violence prevention programmes should be subjugated to evaluation.

    ·ARTICLE 6

    Rights and responsibilities of students:
    · All students are equal and they have identical rights and obligations.
    · A student must not to abuse other students, and if he notices any occurrence of violence, he has to report it immediately to teacher on duty or to another responsible person
    · Every student has to solve disagreements with another student in a peaceful way - by conversation. The importance of listening mustn’t be neglected
    · Student must not ignore any, not even the tiniest manifestation of violence in his society.
    · Even if a teacher is violent person, the student is obliged to report it to the principal or another superior person

    ARTICLE 7

    Rights and responsibilities of teachers:
    · A teacher has to operate right and have positive affect on his students
    · A teacher must have good relationships with his students and to talk to them straightforwardly about all the problems they have noticed in their society. A teacher should see to solve them thorough common work and co-operation with his students.
    · If a very serious problem occurs, teacher has to hear out the student together with the principal.
    · A teacher has to send the violent student to have a conversation with the school-psychologist and he also has to contact the student’s parents obligatorily.
    · A teacher must not be a violent person himself and he must not tolerate any, not even the tiniest manifestation of violence among the students.

    ARTICLE 8

    Rights and responsibilities of parents:
    · Parents are obliged to take care of their children’s education.
    · Parents need to inform themselves about their children’s learning process as well as their behaviour
    · Parents must respond to every invitation from school.

    ARTICLE 9

    Rights and responsibilities of the local community and its service agencies
    · Local community ensures schools the appropriate working conditions.
    · Local community and school inform each other about situation at school and outside of it.
    · Adequate service agencies should pay special attention to children from the families with problems and to socially neglected children.

    4. Slogans

    · Don’t do to anybody else what you would not like to be done to you!
    · We can try to avoid the decisions by not doing anything, but that’s a decision too.
    · People always say that the time makes things different, but in fact- we have to change them ourselves.
    · Letting bullying person to act unpunished is equal to approving his behaviour!

    5. Reports of Good Practice (selection)

    The project included more than 200 students at the lessons of ethics (moral philosophy) and politics. Ethics (moral philosophy) is attended by approximately one hundred students from all types of schools from the first to fourth grade, while politics is attended by the students of the second grade of vocational schools. The students discussed all together about the Charter (rules of behaviour), while each of them separately wrote essays about some violent examples, cases (with a strict discretion). Beside that we read some essays concerning violence as well as some articles from the Internet.

    Schools of Democracy

    I think that we can do many things to prevent violence. Last year I got a chance to attend a School for human rights. This is an organization of International Helsinki Federation for human rights. I it was a great experience. I learned that all people have the same rights and that none has the right to degrade other people because of their nationality or religion. I think we all should go through something like this school. That’s a good way to avoid conflicts but to learn who we really are, too.
    I also can say that I went to a Schools of Democracy with my teacher and a friend of mine. That was a great way to spend time with our Norwegian friends who have been helping us about a survey. This survey should compare the style of life and habits of the Norwegian and the Croatian youth. We also had a meeting in Varaždin, a town in Croatia. It was a great time and we learned a lot about the youth in Norway.
    Our teacher has also formed a Debate club. This club shows us a better way of working out our conflicts. It shows us that we should work them out with our words and not with (natural) weapons.
    Everything we do shows us that we can spend our energy in positive things.

    Exhibition – “Let the all be coloured”

    Wanting to present the publication of the European Union called «What? Me? Racist? to the students, the junior students (first grade students) have prepared a working exhibition – an improvisation called «Let them all be coloured» at the school's hall.
    The publication in the form of a comic shows various situations in which people are being discriminated for being different from the majority. We came up to the idea for the exhibition due to our technical disadvantages: we were able to copy an originally coloured comic in black and white only. Therefore we put some colour pens next to the pictures for the students to colour the comic themselves as well as to write down some of their messages and comments.
    The experiment consisted of the following: General opinion was that some students would destroy some pictures or steal the colour pens. None of that had happened – the students coloured the characters of the comics, they left their comments and messages – love ones, business ones and even some racist ones.
    The goal was accomplished: another prejudice has disappeared – our students were not so bad if we just trust them a little bit.

    Workshop: Story Against The Bullying

    Three groups of students are currently being trained to become educators in social skill's development.
    1. Workshop of emotional training
    Main ideas: 1. Motives; 2. Communication; Emotions and their recognition; 4. Angry and stress and 5. Emotional and behavior control
    Aim: Educating and increasing emotional, social and communicational skills.
    2. Workshops: Youth against the Bullying
    Aim: Sensibilisation of a groups of students (3rd class) for problem situations - we want to teach our students to react to the problem situation with such a behavior which is Characterized by partner, cooperation logic, without competition and confrontation with problems and conflict, toward model: "We are all winners".
    Education of the students and encourage them to be initiators of actions against the bullying on school and local level.

    Youth Club

    This year was very important for Slatina's youth because we formed our syndicate for all young people in our town. We have our own space where we can spend our free time. There are computers, we can listen to music, watch movies and talk.
    We had a camp last year. Many young people from Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland and Poland helped us to clean ARBORETUM – Lisičine. That was a great chance for our ecology but for us too. This year we’ll have a camp to. I think it’s great to have a place were we can spend our free time and where we can talk about our ideas.
    It’ s a good way to prevent violance because we have someone to talk with and we learn how to get responsibility.

    How To Stop Violence In Schools

    Our schools are full of violence between students. All of that are a result of an insufficient paying attention and too little talk of parents with their children. Parents do not give children the right education and later they do not listen to anybody and do what they want. Child all those conflicts hold in himself and he starts solving his problems on his way. The worst thing is if somebody of parents beats the child, because he thinks that the child will be more compliant. You cannot solve anything with violence. One think leads to another and from that we get the fights between students.
    It is also fault of the media because they everyday relay sight of aggressions and destruction's in purpose to increase the watching of the audience. We have no use of talking that violence is not good if we are looking at it all the time because speaking one and doing another thing is complete different. We are learning by watching and imitating others, but if that watching and imitating is craving for violence we will not get anywhere. Everybody is talking about parenthood’s; about children, but too little attention is attached to it. If parent does not have enough time for their children who will have? In family, a sin school must be love, harmony and understanding. If there is no balance between that, everything will fail. We are spending the most of our time in school and it is to us like another home. School should be a place where students would like to come and not to consider her a hell.
    At least part of it we can achieve by introducing the more interesting curriculum and everyone could it find something for himself. Teachers should stimulate moral consciousness of students about non-violence, protecting what they have and where they spend the most of their time. We must learn what is humanity and everybody will live better.

    6. Violence in schools - system and out-of-school factors

    The existence of violence in schools is related to many out-of-school factors which school itself has no big influence on. Besides, each milleau is specific in its own way. In Slatina area these are:

      1. consequences of the war: in 1991 it was a war zone where there were about 70 casualties in two massares.
      2. a large number of immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, the province of Kosovo and other parts of Croatia (Vukovar) poured in bringing with them traumatic experiences and diferent life-styles, all of which sometimes causes hostilities.
      3. pauperisation of the population; our county is one the least developed in the country with a high unemployment rate.
      4. the system of values is disturbed; it appears that achieving success (and these are material things ) has nothing to do with hard work and personal efforts but comes in other misterious ways, overnight.

    The consequences of all that are insecurity, frustrations, both of individuals and families, the lack of perspective and helplessness, alcoholism.
    Additional factors to cause violent behaviour come out of the educational system itself and schools can do very little about it.

      1. the lack of motivation resulting from the fact that many students will be unable to find a job, either in the field in which they were educated or no job at all. Therefore they are not interested in their own education, which causes boredom and the lack of discipline which is violent by nature.
      2. students are educated for unnecessary and out-of-date professions: for example, our school produces 15 hairdressers and 15 car mechanics that will almost certainly not be able to find a job (not enough heads to do hairstyles on or cars to be fixed)
      3. working conditions; there are 1,100 students in one building attending classes in two shifts: morning shift (8a.m.-1p.m.) and afternoon shift (2p.m.-7p.m.) There are also classes between 1p.m. and 2p.m. Crowded building and a lot of noise cause nervousness and it results in violent behaviour.
      4. there is no «suspension» as a penalty measure. Educational measures are slow and often inefficient. The victim and the bully remain in the same space, sometimes in the same classroom, waiting for the punishing process to be over, and that can take months.
      5. school curriculum is generally considered to be inadequte, that is packed with unnecessary facts and often inapplicable in real life.
      6. general attitude toward school; a large number of parents is not actually interested in their children's success in school or their behaviour.
      7. the position of school and teachers; if a gravedigger without any education whatsoever can be better paid than a university-educated teacher, then it leaves teachers unmotivated and frustrated because their work is generally underestimated.
      8. non-existent extra-curriculum activities. Such activities will not be paid to the teachers and since there are not many things to do, especially in smaller places, young people spend their free time in cafes, often drinking alcohol or even taking drugs and otherwise behaving in unacceptable ways.

    These are only some of the factors that cause violent behaviour in our schools and techers can hardly do anything to change that.

    3. Cyprus: Saint George Lyceum

    Charter for a Democratic Schools without Violence.
    Introduction

    The ultimate value of Europe is the formation of responsible citizens that will strongly feel the need for constant improvement towards democracy, equality, peace and stability. The most effective way for this effort to be succeeded is to focus on young people mainly and more particularly in schools throughout Europe. The editing of a Charter for democratic non-violent schools will lead to this objective, as it is a step forward towards the European idea. In this way, the educational level will be higher and students will be prepared to be successfully accepted by the European society.
    The objectives of this Charter will bring adults and young people closer and in particular students, teachers and parents. At the same time, the co-operation during the application of the Charter’s rules will improve the relationship between the two ages; the generation gap will be reduced.
    In addition, there is no doubt that proper adaptation of the "rules" will lead to the prevention of any violent incidents, not only in school but also outside. The democratic proceedings that will be promoted by the Charter will smoothly push a great number of students to take part actively and in the end to serve the community.

    Most important aspects identified to prevent and /or reduce forms of violence in schools

    Violence at school is a very important issue that affects many people in different levels. Some principles that will help students avoid being violent and schools work more efficiently are identified. The focus is on the prevention of violence as well as students' and teachers' rights and responsibilities on school matters.

      · Everyone is equal and has the right to express their opinion
      · Regulations are decided collectively and are known to all parties
      · Everyone is needed - the school needs to reinforce the feeling that everyone has something to contribute in the school system
      · Emphasis is on prevention, which is less costly, both financially, socially and psychologically
      · Emphasis is on a wholistic approach within education to promote healthier young individuals
      · Tolerance of diversity
      · Emphasis on self esteem through reinforcement

    These principles can be reinforced by the following aspects:
    1) Understanding and respect

    There must be understanding by both teachers and students. It’s important to listen to each other’s thoughts and express their opinion in a democratic way, preventing in this way the students from expressing themselves violently. Different ways for preventing students from harassing each other and also teachers from being contempt to the students are the following:
    · Teachers must not make fun of the students and give a sense of irony and displeasure when a wrong answer is given. For such behaviour they can be reported to a student council, which will be elected at the beginning of the school year who will transfer the complaints of the students to the class sponsor or management.
    · Teachers should encourage their students and help them find the right answer. By making them feel useful and important, they gain more confidence.
    · Teachers must not allow students to be ironic or make fun of each other. If this occurs, teachers should advise students not to repeat their action. If this reoccurs, the students should be punished in an exemplary way.

    2) Communication
    There should be constructive communication between teachers and students. Using a dialogue, democratic decisions can be taken more fairly and easily for school matters, thus reducing the possibility of violence at school. The following points will help communication between students and teachers:
    · Decisions taken by classes and school should be arrived through a dialogue and if there is a disagreement, the problem should be resolved by voting.
    · Teachers should not be distant from students. They should be approachable and able to discuss matters and express their opinion.

    3) Building up self-esteem
    Many students have low self-esteem and confidence, which prevent
    them from freely expressing their opinions and views. The following points explain how teachers can help students with low self-esteem build up their confidence:
    ● When school trips and other events take place at school, academically weak students should be involved in the organisation, so that they would feel more useful.
    · If students misbehave, teachers should not tell them off or punish them in front of other students, as they feel humiliated. They should try to make them aware of their mistake so that it will not be repeated.
    · Teachers should build on students’ strengths and talents that should be emphasized.

    4) School Environment
    · School Security

      Duties at the yard should be chosen carefully so as to limit the risk of students leaving the school premises or outsiders entering. Technology devices such as cameras should be used.

    · Discipline

      A discipline council consists of teachers and students. The council examines each case and teachers along side with students decide on the punishment. Second and third year students who have undergone training from the previous school year and have been chosen by the teachers are members of this council. The type of punishment should be relevant to the offence committed.

    · Other Factors

      School needs to monitor closely: attendance, discipline, behaviour and behaviour change, changes in academic performance.

    Applied programme for a democratic school

    We feel that school democracy and ultimately democratic citizens can only exist through training which aims at raising awareness levels on several issues and promoting healthier attitudes, and thinking. Individuals who have a healthy self-concept can communicate feelings and opinions in a respectful manner. They can meet life’s challenges with dignity and with a problem solving orientation. They are most unlikely to resolve to violent behaviour and choices. On the contrary, these individuals are most likely to act democratically and have satisfying lives.
    Thus, we are suggesting a programme that emphasizes prevention. The programme should be implemented on a school year basis. It involves both teachers and students working with each other on several issues. In addition, it deals with issues that trouble today’s youth.

    Training Groups
    Training groups run through the year and aim to train the school population on several issues so as to prevent bullying, harassment or violence.
    Self-awareness group
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to encourage students to develop feelings of adequacy through self-identity and to understand others.
    Assertiveness group
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to acquire skills and behaviours that promote honest and socially appropriate expression of feelings (positive and negative), preferences, opinions and needs.
    Prefects group
    This training programme runs throughout the year for students in the second and third year of senior high school. The objective is to train these individuals to prevent and report yard misbehaviours, to the teachers who are with them on yard duty. (Students and teachers do yard duty.) Prefects are students elected every April or March by a council, consisting of teachers and senior students. The fact that someone is a prefect is a prestigious status noted on their portfolio. They are also given special privileges such as extra excursions.
    Decision making group
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to identify problematic or difficult situations and teach students a set of prescribed steps so as to identify alternative solutions that can be adapted and implemented.
    Conflict resolution group
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to train individuals to identify early on potential conflict issues. In addition they are trained to mediate and thus resolve conflict.
    Self esteem group
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to help students gain knowledge and understanding of the self, identify strengths and weaknesses and acquire -through a set of activities and strategies- skills to ensure successful experiences; thus creating a positive self-evaluation.
    Mentoring group- teachers
    This training programme runs intensively at the beginning of the year and less regular meetings are held through the rest of the school year. The objective is to train teachers to become personal mentors for students that are identified as being at risk. Teachers need to volunteer and have a special relationship with the student that they will mentor.
    Mentoring group - students

      This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. First year students are trained intensively. Students of the second and third year are re-trained at the beginning of the year and then receive monthly follow up meetings. The objective is to train students to act as mentors for students that are identified as being at risk.

    Peer helpers group
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to train students to be good listeners for their fellow students. Training involves teaching them listening and communication skills, making referrals when the need arises and raising their awareness level concerning issues troubling teenagers (bulimia, substance abuse, harassment, depression). Meetings are held every fifteen days so as to support the peer helpers.

    Sponsor Training
    This is a short-term training during the beginning of the year involving teachers that have been assigned class responsibility by the management of the school. A Sponsor is chosen to be responsible for the bureaucratic issues of the class as well as for the healthy functioning of the class environment. The objective of the training is to ensure that teachers know: regulations, procedures for making referrals within the school and educational approaches that should be enforced. They are also trained to be sensitive and understanding to student behaviour. The Sponsor knows well their students. The Sponsor meets with them once a week to discuss matters identified by the class as pressing.
    Communication Skill training
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to improve their listening and responding skills that will have a positive impact on their social environment. The competencies taught will help meet life’s challenges.
    Study/Learning Skills
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to make students understand the positive value that certain factors have on their study. In addition, they are trained to acquire specific study skills.
    Career Education
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to help students utilize knowledge skills and attitudes that make their work meaningful, satisfying and productive. The underlining thought is that students that lack future orientation have greater chance of being involved in violence and dropping out of school.
    Coping Skills
    This training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to teach students healthy coping mechanisms and interventions to cope with stress.
    Realistic goal setting
    This Training programme runs throughout the year for all classes. The objective is to train students to set realistic goals while taking into consideration time constrains and abilities. They also acquire skills to identify the available resources.
    Class Committee training
    Elected members of the school committee undergo a short-term training. Training involves knowing school regulations, coordinating class activities and acting as a link between their class and class sponsor or school management.

    School Calendar

    September

      · Training of teachers who will serve as advisors.
      · Allocation of “yard” duties to prefects/ teachers/ students.
      · Assignment of class sponsors.
      · Formation of a disciplinary council and retraining.
      · Retraining of prefects selected from the previous year.

    October

      · Elections of class councils & students brotherhood.
      · Formation of mediation/ conflict resolution council.
      · First meeting of the teaching team of each class–identify students at risk.
      · Group training starts with students from the second and third year.

    November

      · Identified students at risk are sent to the school counsellor.
      · Continuation of groups training.
      · Mentor groups begin.

    December

      · Second meeting of teaching teams to ensure or check the progress made on their suggestions or modify previously decided strategy.
      · End of term one. Teaching team along with the class advisor identify students that need academic assistance.
      · Mentor groups' meetings follow up.

    January

      · Training groups start involving students from year one.
      · Training groups with students of year two and three continue.
      · Mentor groups' meetings follow up.

    February

      · Training groups continue.
      · Mentor groups' meetings follow up.

    March

      · Students from year one are selected to become prefects.
      · Training groups continue.
      · Mentor groups' meetings follow up.

    April

      · Training of prefects (from year one, year two, year three).
      · Training groups continue.
      · Mentor groups' meetings follow up.

    May

      · Training groups continue.
      · Mentor groups' meetings follow up.

    The Working Group
    Eight students around 15-16 years old worked in sub-groups to create our proposal. Each group worked on a different subject. There were also four teachers who worked along with the students. In addition, there was a vice principal who supervised the whole project. Students brought ideas to their group that were discussed. Meetings were held on a weekly basis. Once each group prepared their subject, the whole group met together to discuss and give feedback to each sub-group. The work of the sub-groups was combined to create the final proposal.

    Cyprus: Lycee Lanitio A, Limassol

    La Charte du respect

    Je ne cherche ni l’arręt
    Ni le retour en arričre
    Je cherche la tęte, la sensibilité
    Et le courage des gens
    Qui marchent toujours devant !
    Georges Seferis

    Chapitre 1 DROIT A LA PAROLE
    Toutes les personnes (adultes et jeunes) sont libres de s’exprimer librement et sans crainte. Ils doivent le faire sans cri ni vulgarité, dans le respect de la parole de l'autre.
    Chapitre 2 RELATIONS ENTRE ELEVES
    Les grands ne doivent pas abuser de la faiblesse des petits.
    Ils doivent les accueillir, les respecter et leur montrer le bon exemple.
    Chapitre 3 RESPECT MUTUEL
    Chaque adolescent doit respecter les adultes et l'autorité des enseignants.
    De męme, les adultes doivent respect et considération ŕ TOUS les élčves.
    Chapitre 4 CONTRE TOUTE FORME DE VIOLENCE
    Les bagarres et les insultes ne résoudrent pas les problčmes. Aucune violence verbale, physique ou psychologique, aucune arme dangereuse n'ont place au lycée.
    Chapitre 5 AU TRAVAIL
    NON ŕ ceux qui nuisent ŕ la sérénité de l’école. C'est une chance de pouvoir
    étudier, tout le monde doit pouvoir le faire dans le calme.
    Chapitre 6 NOTRE LANGAGE

    Nous évitons la violence verbale. Nous développons des compétences de communication,
    en respectant l’autre et l’opinion différente.

    Chapitre 7 La prévention de toutes les formes de racisme
    Toutes les couleurs, les religions et cultures méritent le respect.
    Nous sommes tous sont égaux et ont le męme cœur.
    Chapitre 8 L’ENVIRONNEMENT SCOLAIRE

    Elčves et enseignants doivent respecter notre environnement scolaire.

    Contribuons TOUS ENSEMBLE ŕ le rendre meilleur.

    RAPPORT

    Un comité d’action nommée "Ensemble pour une meilleure école", fondé par des enseignants de plusieurs disciplines (18), des représentants du Conseil général des élčves (3) de l'établissement, le conseiller pédagogique et des représentants actifs des élčves (20) travaillent depuis le mois de septembre en étroite collaboration avec des représentants du Département de la Psychologie Scolaire de notre ville, l'Association des parents d'élčves et une commission formée au lycée voisin. Les objectifs étaient de cerner le problčme de violence dans notre établissement, trouver les causes, agir et améliorer les relations avec les élčves et les enseignants du lycée voisin. (Il y a souvent des conflits entre les élčves)

























    Constatations:

      - Lieu déprimant qui favorise la violence
      - Besoin de développer le respect mutuel et une culture commune au lycée et avec le lycée voisin
      - Besoin de renforcer le contact et la collaboration entre les enseignants, les délégués des élčves et des parents d’élčves.
      - Besoin d’organiser des formations de citoyenneté pour les élčves et les enseignants.
      - Elaboration d’une enquęte pour cerner tous les paramčtres du problčme.

    «Tu es jeune et le monde t’appartient.
    Allez alors, le printemps dépend de toi.»

    Odysseas Elytis
    Novembre: Décoration des murs du lycée avec des vers des počmes ainsi que des chansons ayant des messages de force, de courage et de respect.
    Décembre:

      · Séminaires de formations pour l’éducation au respect.
      · Des professeurs, des élčves et des parents sont venus peintre des murs extérieurs et des bancs (couleurs vives).

    Janvier: Dans 28 classes du lycée, pendant le rencontre avec le professeur principal, les élčves en groupes ont relevé les problčmes de violence dans leur lycée, les causes et ont donné des propositions d’intervention dans trois domaines : le lieu, le programme scolaire et la communication.
    Février:

      · Réalisation d’un journal en collaboration avec une équipe du lycée voisin.
      · Dans le cadre d’un échange Comenius avec le lycée Marie Curie de Strasbourg, une classe a réalisé un mini questionnaire sur la violence en français et en grec et a analysé et comparé les avis de deux groupes, pendant la leçon de français.
      · Ensuite les élčves ont dégusté des spécialités de deux pays.
      · Réalisation d’une enquęte (sur un échantillon de 150 questionnaires sur 800 lycéens) nous avons réalisé une enquęte avec des questionnaires sur les problčmes de violence et de non-respect dans notre établissement. Nous avons proposé notre questionnaire ŕ l’établissement voisin.

    Mars(du 12 au 19 mars): Semaine de citoyenneté contre la violence « Donne-moi la main » Nous avons préparé des manifestations diverses.

      · musique pendant les trois recréations, prise en charge par des groupes différents, match de football et de basket avec des équipes mixtes des profs et des élčves,
      · des groupes de discussion profs-élčves, "donner vos idées pour la charte",
      · peinture des locaux pour les rendre attractifs par des profs, des élčves et des parents d'élčves et
      · un concours des slogans pour "mieux vivre ensemble"
      · Une journée- congrčs le vendredi 18 mars en collaboration avec le lycée voisin ou les élčves ont présenté les résultats de l'enquęte ŕ deux délégués de chaque classe de deux lycées et aux enseignants. Deux psychologues scolaires commentaient les résultats.
      A la fin de ce congrčs, les élčves ont présenté une premičre charte qu'ils ont élaborée et l'assemblée a modifié, ajouté ou męme annulé des articles. Les délégués présents ont été appelés ŕ voter la charte et prendre la responsabilité d'en parler ŕ leurs camarades et de s'engager.
      Voilŕ en bref nos actions. J'aimerais savoir quelle est la date limite de l'envoie des travaux pour vous les soumettre.
      Vous trouvez en dossier attaché aussi :
      - le questionnaire (on pourrait vous fournir l’analyse de résultats sur « Power Point », si vous le souhaitez et beaucoup de photos de nos manifestations ainsi qu’une vidéo de notre journée finale.
      - La charte et la feuille d'engagement
      Nous nous sommes rendus comptes que notre programme d’action nous a poussés ŕ nous remettre en question, ŕ ouvrier des canalisations de communication et d’entente entre nous d’abord et ensuite avec nos enseignants, surtout les membres du comité, et nos camarades du lycée voisin. NOUS AVONS SURTOUT CRU QUE NOUS POUVONS CHANGER LES CHOSES. Nous nous sommes sentis vraiment engagé ŕ une cause, pour la premičre fois pendant notre scolarité, nous avons participé aux réunions semestrielles en tant que membres égaux d’une męme équipe.

    SLOGANS: «Ensemble pour une école meilleure»
    «Tu es jeune et la vie t’appartient»

    QUESTIONNAIRE-traduction du grec

    Premičre partie

    Notez avec √ ce qui vous concerne:



    1. Sexe: Garçon Fille



    2. Ecole:
    Lycée Lanitio A Lycée Lanitio B



    3.
    Classe:
    Α’ Β’ Γ’

    Deuxičme partie

    Notez le degré de votre position en encerclant le chiffre de votre choix :
    1= pas du tout 5=Beaucoup

    Est-ce qu’ŕ votre avis, les problčmes ci-dessous existent dans votre lycée ?

1. Violence

1

2

3

4

5

2. Agressions

1

2

3

4

5

3. Disputes

1

2

3

4

5

4. Tags

1

2

3

4

5

5. Vols

1

2

3

4

5

6. Insultes

1

2

3

4

5

7. Manque de respect

1

2

3

4

5

8. Absences

1

2

3

4

5

9. Problčmes d’uniforme

1

2

3

4

5

10. Retards

1

2

3

4

5

11. Retards fréquents

1

2

3

4

5

12. Manque de communication

1

2

3

4

5

13. Différences avec d’autres écoles

1

2

3

4

5

14. Dégâts des lieux

1

2

3

4

5

    B. Quelles sont, selon toi, les principales causes de violence ?

1. L’échec scolaire

1

2

3

4

5

2. Les problčmes familiaux

1

2

3

4

5

3. Les problčmes sociaux

1

2

3

4

5

4. Les problčmes de l’éducation

1

2

3

4

5

5. Le manque de communication

1

2

3

4

5

6. Les lieux

1

2

3

4

5

7. Le manque de temps libre

1

2

3

4

5

8. Le stress des leçons

1

2

3

4

5

9. Le comportement des professeurs

1

2

3

4

5

      Autre(veuillez noter) ……………

1

2

3

4

5

    Es-tu satisfait de la communication entre ….

1. élčves-professeurs ?

1

2

3

4

5

2. élčves-professeurs dans ton lycée ?

1

2

3

4

5

3. élčves-élčves du lycée voisin ?

1

2

3

4

5

4. professeurs-professeurs ?

1

2

3

4

5

5. élčves-parents ?

1

2

3

4

5

6. professeurs-parents ?

1

2

3

4

5

    Es-tu satisfait …..

1. de l’enseignement

1

2

3

4

5

2. des manuels scolaires

1

2

3

4

5

3. des salles de classe

1

2

3

4

5

4. de la cantine

1

2

3

4

5

5. de la technologie

1

2

3

4

5

6. de la climatisation

1

2

3

4

5

7. des bâtiments

1

2

3

4

5

8. des activités extra-scolaires

1

2

3

4

5

9. des activités scolaires

1

2

3

4

5

    Ε. Quelle importance a pour toi…

1. La famille

1

2

3

4

5

2. L’école

1

2

3

4

5

3. L’église

1

2

3

4

5

4. Les amis

1

2

3

4

5

5. L’argent

1

2

3

4

5

6. Les loisirs

1

2

3

4

5

    Deuxičme partie

    Note tes réponses. Le numéro 1 est le plus important

    Α. Si tu es victime d’une violence, ŕ qui t’adresseras-tu ?;

1. A tes parents

 

2. A un professeur

 

3. Au professeur principal

 

4. Au Proviseur

 

5. A ton/ta meilleur(e) ami(e)

 

6. Au Conseiller d’éducation

 

A un autre adulte de l’établissement (notez qui) ……………………

 

    Β. Quelles idées te paraissent efficaces pour combattre la violence ?

1. Augmenter les surveillances des professeurs

 

2. Installer un systčme de surveillance

 

3. Appeler la police

 

4. Organiser des séminaires – conférences avec des spécialistes

 

5. Organiser des manifestations culturelles

 

6. Construire des murs

 

Autres (donne des exemples) ….……………………………………

 

    C. Quand tu es ŕ l’école, tu te sens ……

1. Content(e)

 

2. Indifférent(e)

 

3. Opprimé(e)

 

4. Joyeux(se)

 

5. Créatif(ve)

 

6. Stressé(e)

 

7. Autre (e) …………………………………….

 

    D. Qu’est-ce que tu aurais changé, si tu avais la possibilité

      1) Au lieu

    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

      2) Au programme

    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

      3) Aux relations des personnes ŕ l ‘école

    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    Merci pour ta collaboration

    4. Finland: Gymnasiet Lärkan, Helsingfors

    Short introduction to the Charter

    The organization of the everyday school life should:

      · Give the opportunity to every student to have his or her voice heard.
      · Strive for a better work atmosphere where the teachers as well as the other students encourage each other to better results
      · Have remedial training at disposal to everyone needing it
      · Work for a more fluent information exchange between teachers and students
      · Give students the right to participate in teachers-meetings which discuss matters concerning the pupils
      · Arrange theme days in order to give the school life a bit of variety
      · Arrange extra-curricular activities
      · Try to reduce the students’ performance pressure, which can lead to depression and mental illness among the students

    A short report on our school’s active scheme

    In our school we have three student-groups through which students can influence their school life. The Student Forum consisting of 2 representatives from every base group (our pupils are divided into 12 different base groups) is a discussion forum for the students. Ideas brought up in the Student Forum are implemented by the Student Board. The Student Board consists of 6 students elected by the students themselves. Their task is to organize different extra-curricular activities. The third group is the Friend Students-group who help first-class students to adopt to the new school.

      As you can see, our school system has similarities with e.g. a state or the EU system. The Student Forum functions as a Parliament where most of the discussions are made and where new ideas are born. The representatives for each base group are responsible to connect their own group to the Student Forum. Students can also come with ideas directly to the Student Forum meetings, in order to give every student a chance get his/her voice heard. The Student Board functions more like a Government or the EU Commission, which takes the bigger decisions and organizes happenings at school. The Friend Students and the school’s headmaster are like for instance The EU Court that pursues to keep all pupils happy.

    Slogan

    Working for a peaceful school – together

    5. Germany: Jörg-Ratgeb-Schule, Stuttgart

    Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence

    Contents

      I. Respect
      II. Communication
      III. Equality
      IV. Acceptance and Tolerance
      V. Prejudice
      VI. The Right to Participation in the Decision Making Process
      VII. Support
      VIII. Friendly Atmosphere

    The paragraphs which are written in bold letters contain the basic articles of our charter. They have been ranked according to importance. While the order of the bullets, which serve to illustrate the articles, is arbitrary.

      I. Respect

    Everybody, students and teachers alike, should treat others with respect. Respect does not mean that you are afraid of the other person but means that you show consideration for the other’s personality and that you avoid offending the other in every respect.

      II. Communication

    The only acceptable means of finding a solution to a conflict is through words. Violence must never be a solution to any kind of conflict.

      1. Everybody should choose their words and tone carefully. The use of offensive language should be avoided and nobody should feel hurt or attacked verbally. Students and teachers are obliged to take care that they use the right tone and thereby make sure that even important matters are discussed in a peaceful manner.
      2. Participants in conversations and discussions should not interrupt each other and listen attentively.
      3. The rules of communication mentioned in 1. and 2. should be practised in class. Everybody should have the opportunity to learn these rules of behaviour.

      III. Equality

    The worth of each person at school does in no way depend on their position, origin, social background, religion, age or sex. This fact must always be taken into consideration.

      1. A teacher has to treat all students equally

              Ř Likings or dislikings must not influence a teacher’s decisions, be it in the way s/he treats a student or in judging a student’s performance. Students, too, should be fair and attentive to their teachers.

      2. Teachers should not ask anything of their students, what they themselves cannot perform.

              Ř For example, teachers who are always late should not ask punctuality of their students.
              Ř Students who are neglecting their obligations (e.g. homework) should accept it for example, if teachers need a lot of time for the correction of a class test.

      3. There shouldn’t be any outsiders at school. Everybody should take care that nobody feels left alone.

              Ř Cliques and groups should never be exclusive but open for others.
              Ř Teachers should help newcomers to be accepted by and integrated in their new class.

      4. Teachers and students should accept any kind of objective critique, if it is expressed according to the rules of communication described in article II. Nobody should feel prevented from uttering justified critique because s/he is afraid of sanctions.
      5. Drawing lots to decide on the seating plan or group work are possible methods to foster the sense of community in a class and thereby achieve the aforementioned ideals. The most efficient means and methods, however, are those which have been worked out by a class on their own.

      IV. Acceptance and Tolerance

    Everybody should accept the characteristics and preferences of other people.

      1. Allusions to e.g. the family background of a student should be avoided in order to respect the privacy of each individual at school.
      2. Nobody should be laughed at or bullied in any case.
      3. Nobody should be put at a disadvantage for having a different opinion on a certain matter. The opinions and believes of each person must be respected by all.

      V. Prejudice

    Nobody should be prejudiced against individuals or groups. Offences, judgements, humiliations or exclusions based on prejudice must not be tolerated.

    Even short and thoughtless statements based on prejudice should not be ignored but discussed. It is the duty of each teacher to prevent the formation of prejudice and to work on their elimination. The best way to achieve this is by enlightment.

      VI. The Right of Participation in the Decision Taking Process

    In order to foster democratic structures at school students should have the opportunity to vote on important issues. Everybody should have the right to vote and each vote should have the same value.

          1. Students should have a right to decide on matters like curriculum, teaching subjects, methods and materials.
          2. When there are important decisions to take, which affect them strongly, they should be heard in school conferences.
          3. Important decisions should be based on a 2/3 majority.
          4. Students should have the opportunity to explain their point of view to the teachers in matters like tests and examinations.
          5. Teachers should always be able to explain and justify their marks.

              Ř When marking an essay or a composition teachers should always add a short text in which they explain the given mark.
              Ř Oral marks should always be explained to a student in a personal conversation.

        6. Before taking decisions it should be made sure that each party has had the opportunity to express their point of view and convince the others.

      VII. Support

    If a student addresses a teacher, caretaker or social workers working at the school because s/he has a problem, they should take this seriously and feel obliged to deal confidentially with it. Moreover, they should help the student in solving the problem. Considering the fact that everyday life at school does not usually provide students with situations in which they can address their problems confidentially, it should be possible to reach teachers via e-mail.

      VIII. Friendly Atmosphere

    At a modern school a friendly atmosphere should prevail.

    This can easily be achieved by little gestures like opening doors for others, greeting each other, etc. Nobody should be afraid of anything or anybody. Moreover, there should be a sense of community.

    Social work at our school

    At the school there are two social workers. They help the students to solve their problems and conflicts. Students who have problems at home, with teachers, other students or somebody else can ask them for help and advice. The aim of the social work project is not to solve conflicts for others, it is rather to help them to solve their problems. Therefore, they are using individual consultations, conversation in groups, pedagogical games and sociograms.

    Mediation of conflicts at our school

    Since 2002 we have mediation at our school. Mainly, it works with communication between the students without asking a teacher. If there is an argument or a fight, the students should ask a mediator, who is also a student, to help them by solving their problems. Mediators do not decide who is guilty or who has to be punished like judges do, they only listen to every person involved and finally they try to find a solution which satisfies everyone as much as possible. All mediators are perfectly skilled at how to articulate and how to paraphrase every sentence, so that every guest feels understood well. Of course, it is strictly forbidden to tell anyone anything about the case; they are all bound to observe confidentiality.
    To become a mediator, students have to attend training for one year. The group is meeting at about one time a month for probably 2 hours. There is also a course for two days. As already said the students learn the different ways of talking to each other, they learn how important it is to look into someone’s eyes while you are talking to him and they become skilled in understanding body language. They are taught by two teachers, who had also received a training in how to educate mediators. In the end every student who took part till the end gets a certificate and he/she is now called a mediator. Two mediators are responsible for two classes and they introduce themselves to the students. In the beginning we only had mediation for the lower forms, but now, with about 20 new mediators each year, we are able to look even after the 14-16-year olds, though they became “too old”.
    The mediation is very important to avoid violence at schools. With these methods of solving problems with words and not with fists, the number of students who call each other an enemy is decreasing every year at our school.

    Participation in the decision making processes at our school

    The students at our school have a right to say what we think about different issues and the right to participate in decision making. We send three pupils who represent us to the “Schulkonferenz”. This is the most important conference at our school. It consists of six teachers, our head mistress, three parents and three students. This conference is the highest council of our school. All important issues are discussed there. And each member has the same rights. So you can see, we have very democratic structures at our school. The students also support most of the events at our school. Some teachers, for example, had the idea to pass guidelines, for general behaviour which are now formally written down. These guidelines are compulsory for everybody. No matter, if you are a student, a teacher, a parent, or somebody else, who has something to do with our school. Every class delegate got a first blueprint, made by teachers, and they were asked to add suggestions of improvement. The people who represent the parents also got a first blueprint. So these guidelines were made by all representatives. The most important issue of these guidelines is that everybody is equal and has to be respected by everybody.
    Another project we made with the parents’ council is that we inform especially the younger students about “Alcopops”. Alcopops are drinks that consist of vodka or rum mixed with soda. These drinks taste like lemonade. That’s why they are very popular among young students. They do not think about the risks. One drink contains as much alcohol as two schnapps. In Germany you are allowed to drink these Alcopops when you’re 18. The problem is that a lot of kids between age 10 and 15 drink these drinks. So we will organize information evenings and a disco for the young students, in which we will show them how to have fun without alcoholic drinks. Alcohol is one reason for violence and we want to fight it.
    So you see the students are very much involved at school in fighting against violence and non democratic actions.

    6. Greece: 1er Τ.Ε.Ε DU PIREE, GREECE

    « UNE CHARTE EUROPEENNE POUR UNE ECOLE DEMOCRATIQUE ET SANS VIOLENCE »

    Avec la participation de l’ensemble des élčves

    TABLE DES MATIERES

    «ECOLES DEMOCRATIQUES SANS VIOLENCE EN EUROPE »

    1. Les objectifs et la fonction de la charte pour l’école démocratique sans violence en Europe.
    2. La stratégie de lutte contre la violence au 1er Τ.Ε.Ε. du Pirée.

        2.1. Enquęte par questionnaire – la cartographie des opinions
        2.2. Les conclusions de l’enquęte et les propositions.

    Afin de formuler les propositions susmentionnées, nous avons recueilli les points de vue de la majorité de nos élčves (70%.) Les réponses que nous avons obtenues ont subi un traitement statistique dont nous avons présenté les résultats. Les réponses aux questions d’approfondissement nous ont permis de donner aux propositions des élčves leur forme définitive.
    Nous avons également recueilli les propositions des professeurs concernant le développement de stratégies de lutte contre la violence dans notre établissement.
    L’ensemble de la procédure a contribué ŕ élaborer les propositions que nous avons présentées et ŕ sensibiliser tous les membres de la communauté scolaire du 1er TEE sur les questions : Démocratie ŕ l’école, Paix, Tolérance de la différence.

    « ECOLES DEMOCRATIQUES SANS VIOLENCE, EN EUROPE »

    1. Objectif et fonction de la charte pour les écoles démocratiques sans violence, en Europe.

    En tant que phénomčne social, la violence est liée ŕ l’inégalité sociale, l’exclusion sociale, au refus de la différence, ŕ la délinquance, ŕ l’annihilation des principes de la démocratie. Il n’existe pas de personnes violentes. Toutefois, l’on peut devenir violent, sous certaines conditions, dans l’interaction avec le milieu1. La violence ŕ l’école fait partie intégrante de la violence et de la délinquance qui se manifeste au sein de la société.

    Depuis trčs longtemps, l’on a pu observer des manifestations de violence s’exprimant de diverses maničres dans la communauté scolaire. Au fil du temps, l’on a pu observer toutes les formes de violence. Aussi bien les bourreaux que les victimes proviennent de tous les groupes sociaux de la communauté scolaire. Parfois męme, des personnes provenant du milieu social élargi y sont inclues. Souvent, la violence s’exprime contre le bâtiment, le patrimoine et les environs de l’école. Jusque récemment, dans notre pays et, plus précisément, dans notre école, les cas de violence étaient envisagés comme des faits isolés sans que des mesures claires de prévention soient prises. En fonction de la gravité, des sanctions étaient imposées par l’école, par des privés – victimes et, parfois, par la justice.

    Toutefois, étant donné que le phénomčne de la violence ŕ l’école continue ŕ ętre présent et, souvent, ŕ menacer l’ensemble de la société, le besoin se fait de plus en plus sentir de décrire ce phénomčne et de l’analyser, afin d’élaborer des propositions et des stratégies de prévention et de contrôle de telles manifestations dans les écoles.

    Pareil cadre d’action peut contribuer ŕ lutter contre et ŕ réduire le phénomčne de la violence ŕ l’école. Nous proposons, en effet, qu’il soit intégré dans le travail d’élaboration de la Charte Européenne pour une école démocratique, sans violence.

    Νous considérons qu’une telle Charte Européenne viserait ŕ :
    · Sensibiliser les professeurs et les élčves ainsi que tous les acteurs impliqués dans l’enseignement, sur les questions relatives ŕ la violence ŕ l’école.
    · Rechercher les causes qui sont ŕ l’origine de la violence ŕ l’école.
    · Lutter contre la violence au moyen de mesures de prévention – modération et d’éradication de la violence ŕ l’école.

    La réalisation des objectifs susmentionnés requiert que la Charte remplisse correctement sa fonction, ŕ savoir, qu’elle organise la vie de l’école en prévoyant le développement de stratégies de prévention et de lutte contre les phénomčnes de violence. Plus précisément, nos propositions consistent en les points suivants :

    · L’information et la formation des enseignants sur des questions ayant trait ŕ la gestion de la violence, les techniques de solution de conflits, etc., par des spécialistes (psychologues, psychiatres, etc.)
    · L’intensification des efforts menés en vue d’accepter et d’intégrer les élčves étrangers dans la communauté scolaire ainsi que de sensibiliser celle-ci sur ses élčves qui sont originaires d’autres pays, d’une civilisation et d’une culture différentes. Pour ce faire, il serait possible d’organiser des manifestations d’information sur leur culture, leur mode de vie, leurs us et coutumes (par exemple, journée consacrée ŕ nos élčves d’Albanie.) Les programmes d’échange d’élčves entre notre pays et ceux dont nos élčves sont originaires auront certainement un rôle positif ŕ jouer dans ce sens.
    · Elaborer un rčglement scolaire fondé sur les principes de la démocratie et de la participation, prenant en considération le fait que la mission de l’école est d’éduquer l’enfant pour l’amener ŕ ętre une personne complčte et épanouie.
    · Considérer et mettre en œuvre, en tant que mesures fondamentales de prévention et de lutte contre la violence, l’éducation réelle et la justice.
    · Cultiver des relations étroites entre élčves, parents et enseignants.
    · Créer les conditions qui permettront au plus grand nombre possible de nos élčves de participer, de maničre créative et dans climat de coopération, aux manifestations de l’école qui concernent la culture, l’écologie, l’environnement, la musique, le théâtre, la santé, etc.
    · Créer une ambiance chaleureuse et développer l’intéręt de nos élčves ŕ l’égard du milieu dans lequel ils vivent, agissent et créent.

    2. La stratégie de lutte contre la violence au 1er TEE du Pirée.

    2.1 Enquęte par questionnaire – une cartographie des opinions.

    Notre école est un T.E.E. (Etablissement d’Enseignement Technique et Professionnel) qui compte plusieurs champs et spécialités d’études. Afin d’enregistrer les problčmes de violence dans notre école, d’une part, et les opinions des élčves ŕ ce sujet, nous avons mené une enquęte qui a été suivie d’un traitement statistique des données.

    Un questionnaire a été distribué ŕ l’ensemble des 438 élčves du 1er ΤΕΕ du Pirée, portant sur l’expression de comportements violents dans l’espace de notre école. Il s’agissait, pour nous, de collecter des informations sur la situation existante de l’école et d’en extraire un certain nombre de conclusions de base, en fonction des paramčtres considérés, qui nous permettraient d’élaborer des propositions et de prendre des mesures préventives dans le domaine de la violence.

    Le nombre des élčves qui ont répondu au questionnaire a atteint les 301, représentant un taux de participation assez important, de l’ordre de 70%, environ. La répartition des genres des élčves qui ont participé ŕ l’enquęte est, d’environ, 50%-50%, tandis que le pourcentage des élčves étrangers atteint, environ, 21% dont la majorité est originaire d’Albanie (17%. ) Notre école compte huit sections d’études, ŕ savoir : Mécanique, Electricité, Electronique, Bâtiment, Economie, Informatique, Economie - Administration, Santé - Prévoyance Sociale et Esthétique - Coiffure. Les sections qui réunissent la majorité des élčves sont les suivantes : Mécanique ( dont les cours sont suivis par 23% de la population totale des élčves ), Esthétique - Coiffure (22%) et Santé - Prévoyance Sociale (19,3%. ) Du point de vue de l’âge, la majorité des élčves (83,4%) se situe dans la tranche de 15 ŕ 19 ans, tandis qu’il existe également des élčves dont l’âge atteint, jusqu’ŕ 28 ans.

    Au départ, il a été posé aux élčves la question de savoir s’ils ont été témoins de quelque comportement violent au sein de l’espace scolaire : 55% d’entre eux a répondu affirmativement et 45% négativement. Plus précisément, environ 80,5% des élčves, qui ont répondu affirmativement, parlent de bagarres et de confrontations avec leurs camarades d’école, 31,1% considčre avoir été victime de comportement violent de la part des enseignants ou de la direction de l’école et, 25,6% par des personnes extrascolaires (tableau 1.)2 Au contraire, environ 80% des élčves qui ont participé ŕ l’enquęte disent ne pas avoir été ŕ l’origine ni avoir participé en tant qu’acteur ŕ des manifestations de violence, au sein de l’école.

    Tableau 1

    Taux des élčves s’étant trouvés confrontés
    ŕ la violence ŕ l’école émanant de :

Camarades d’école

80,5%

Enseignants/Direction

31,1%

Autres personnes

25,6%

    En ce qui concerne la fréquence des comportements violents (tableau 2), un tiers (1/3) environ des élčves a souvent ou trčs souvent subi la violence de camarades d’école, un quart (1/4) d’entre eux a subi la violence de personnes tierces – extrascolaires et 16,7%, seulement, de leurs enseignants.

    Tableau 2

   

Fréquence

Camarades d’école

Enseignants

Autres personnes

Jamais ou rarement

65,6

83,3

74,4

Souvent

20,3

9,6

14,0

Assez ŕ trčs souvent

14,1

7,1

11,6

Total

100,0

100,0

100,0

    En ce qui concerne le fait d’avoir subi un comportement violent, l’on note une différence liée au sexe et ŕ la section d’études suivies. En effet, la majorité significative des élčves des sections suivantes disent s’ętre trouvés confrontés ŕ quelque comportement violent : mécanique (67%), électronique (87,5%), informatique (62%) et esthétique -coiffure (63%) (tableau 3) Notons que, pour les trois premičres sections, ce sont les garçons qui représentent la majorité tandis que, pour la derničre, ce sont les filles qui, principalement ŕ cause de leur apparence, ont vécu quelque comportement violent. En plus, 62,7% des garçons répondent affirmativement, contre moins de 50% des filles (diagramme 1).

    Tableau 3
    Taux d’élčves,
    en fonction de la section d’études,
    ayant été confrontés ŕ la violence au sein de notre école

 

    Mécanique

    Electricité

    Electronique

Bâtiment

    Informatique

    Economie -Administration

    Santé –Prévoyance

    Esthétique -Coiffure.

Oui

30,4

57,9

12,5

41,2

37,9

65,4

70,2

36,9

Non

69,6

42,1

87,5

58,8

62,1

34,6

29,8

63,1

Total

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

    Diagramme 1
    Taux d’élčves ayant vécu des comportements violents dans notre école,
    en fonction du sexe

    Il a été, ensuite, posé aux élčves la question de savoir ŕ quelle forme de violence ils se sont trouvés confrontés : violence verbale (injures, vexation, humiliation), physique (bagarres entre élčves et groupes d’élčves ou d’autres personnes) ou psychologique (chantage.) Il s’agissait également de répondre ŕ la question de savoir si le comportement violent en question était le fait d’individus isolés ou d’un groupe de personnes. La quasi-moitié des élčves (47,8%) ont répondu que le comportement violent auquel ils ont été confrontés était verbal et qu’il était le fait d’individus isolés. Un pourcentage relativement inférieur d’élčves dit avoir été confronté ŕ des manifestations de violence physique émanant de groupes de camarades d’école ou d’autres personnes (12,3%.) Notons que la question concernant la forme de violence avait été formulée de maničre ŕ ce que les élčves aient la possibilité de mentionner plusieurs formes de violence.

    Tableau 4

    Taux d’élčves répondant avoir été confrontés ŕ quelque comportement violent, répartis selon les formes de violence

Forme de Violence

Taux

VERBALE

Individu

47,8

 

Groupe

22,6

PHYSIQUE

Individu

23,9

 

Groupe

12,3

PSYCHOLOGIQUE

Individu

22,9

 

Groupe

11,3

     

    Une autre question portait sur les raisons pour lesquelles les élčves considčrent avoir été victimes de violence au sein de l’école. Un taux significatif d’entre eux (20-21%) ont le sentiment d’ętre victimes de comportement violent ŕ cause de leur apparence et, de maničre générale, de tout trait différent par rapport aux données et aux normes sociales. Un taux un peu plus faible (15-17%) considčre que sa performance scolaire ainsi que ses préférences sportives représentent des raisons non négligeables conduisant ŕ l’expression de comportements violents ŕ son égard. Au contraire, le statut socioéconomique, les convictions religieuses et politiques des élčves ne semblent pas, d’aprčs les résultats de l’enquęte, ętre des raisons sérieuses d’expression de la violence entre les élčves de notre école.

    Diagramme 2
    Répartition des élčves ayant été confrontés ŕ quelque comportement violent,
    en fonction de la raison ayant conduit ŕ la violence

    Les données ont permis de constater une différenciation des causes de comportement violent en fonction de la section d’études. Plus précisément, parmi les élčves disant avoir été victimes de comportements violents, 37% sont en mécanique et 28,3% suivent les cours de la section esthétique – coiffure. Ces deux sections réunissent les élčves aux performances scolaires les moins bonnes. Parmi ceux qui se disent avoir été victimes ŕ cause de leur apparence, la majorité sont des élčves de la section esthétique – coiffure tandis que, ceux qui disent avoir été victimes de violence ŕ cause de leurs préférences sportives sont des élčves des sections de mécanique, d’électronique et d’informatique.

    Tableau 5
    Taux de répartition des élčves, en fonction de la section d’études
    et de la cause du comportement violent

Cause du comportement violent

    Mécanique

    Electricité

    Electronique

Bâtiment

    Informatique

    Economie .-Administr.

    Santé -Prévoyance

    Esthétique -Coiffure

    Total

Performance scolaire

37,0

4,3

8,7

4,3

2,2

2,2

13,0

28,3

100

Apparence

14,5

3,2

3,2

8,1

12,9

6,5

16,1

35,5

100

Préférences sportives

48,0

6,0

16,0

-

16,0

4,0

6,0

4,0

100

Différence

23,8

4,8

9,5

11,1

3,2

9,5

9,5

28,6

100

    Lorsque les élčves furent appelés ŕ mentionner des cas caractéristiques de violence s’étant déroulé dans l’espace de l’école, la majorité a fait référence ŕ des cas concernant des conflits entre élčves. Il s’agissait plus particuličrement de conflits entre élčves grecs et élčves étrangers de notre école. La cause avait également trait ŕ des différences caractérisant certains élčves (par exemple, dyslexie, apparence, préférences sexuelles, utilisation de drogues.)

    Les élčves ont d’ailleurs souligné le fait que la majorité des cas a été réglée par les élčves eux-męmes, sans intervention des enseignants ou de la direction –qui ignoraient totalement ce qui s’était déroulé. De plus, ils ont particuličrement souligné le rôle des conseils d’élčves qui ne contribuent pas de maničre positive ŕ faire face ŕ des cas similaires. Au contraire, disent-ils, les conseils prennent souvent part ŕ ces conflits violents.

    Cela ne relčve donc pas du hasard si, ŕ la question de savoir dans quelle mesure ils considčrent que les acteurs de l’unité scolaire (direction, enseignants, conseils ŕ 15 membres, conseils ŕ 5 membres, camarades d’école et parents) agissent selon les principes de la démocratie et de la tolérance face ŕ la différence, les élčves ont répondu que les parents, les enseignants et la direction agissent de maničre plus démocratique et font preuve de tolérance moyenne face aux traits différents que peuvent porter ou manifester les élčves (Indicateur Moyen ≈ 3, signifiant un degré moyen de démocratie et de tolérance.) L’opinion contraire prévalait concernant les camarades d’école et les conseils d’élčves. Ils considčrent que le conseil ŕ 15 membres ne fonctionne pas selon les principes de la démocratie, en tout cas pas au degré auquel ils s’attendraient (Indicateur Moyen = 2,23, signifiant peu de démocratie et de tolérance.)3.

    Tableau 6
    Indicateur Moyen

Direction de l’Ecole

3,00

Enseignants

3,01

Conseils ŕ 15 membres

2,23

Conseils ŕ 5 membres

2,59

Camarades d’école

2,65

Parents

3,01

    Une autre question, également importante, qui fut posée aux élčves avait trait au fait de savoir s’ils avaient reçu des informations, par les instances de l’école, sur la violence ŕ l’école et ses conséquences. Le résultat a été considéré décevant car plus des deux tiers (2/3) des élčves ont déclaré n’avoir reçu aucune information sur le sujet. Ceux qui avaient reçu quelques informations considéraient que cela avait fait de maničre qui n’était pas particuličrement satisfaisante. Ils affirment ętre préoccupés par la question car ils y font face tant au sein de l’école qu’en dehors de celle-ci. Ils souhaiteraient écouter les opinions et avis des spécialistes, en ce qui concerne aussi bien la prévention que la maničre de faire face ŕ des situations de ce type, pour aborder ces questions d’une maničre différente par rapport ŕ celle ŕ laquelle ils sont habitués ŕ cause de leurs vécus et de leur jeune âge.

    A la fin du questionnaire, les élčves ont répondu ŕ la question de savoir s’ils vivent des cas de violence en dehors de l’espace scolaire et, si oui, dans quels lieux. Parmi les 301 élčves, 186 (64%) disent avoir vécu des cas de violence en dehors de l’espace scolaire et ce, plus particuličrement, dans des lieux publics (73% des cas) ou autres (19%), sans donner plus de précisions. Un taux de 14% dit subir un comportement violent ŕ la maison et, 10%, sur les lieux de travail – étant donné que plusieurs parmi nos élčves travaillent.

    2.2. Les conclusions de l’enquęte et les propositions.

    Les réponses que nous avons pu recueillir grâce au questionnaire nous ont amené ŕ élaborer des stratégies précises quant ŕ la lutte contre la violence dans notre école. Le fait que 55,5% des élčves aient répondu par l’affirmative ŕ la question de savoir s’ils avaient été victimes de comportements violents signifie bien que notre établissement doit prendre des mesures.

    Etant donné que, parmi nos élčves, 34,4% ont souvent ŕ trčs souvent été victimes de comportements violents par des camarades d’école, 25,6% par des personnes tierces et 16,7% par des enseignants, nous avons abouti ŕ la conclusion que la formation sur des questions ayant trait ŕ la violence est nécessaire non seulement aux élčves mais, aussi, aux enseignants. Parmi nos objectifs figure l’organisation de séminaires sur « prévenir la violence dans la classe et enseigner dans un milieu défavorisé. » « L’objectif de cette formation est de rendre l’enseignant confiant en sa compétence ŕ gérer les différences de performance scolaire et de comportement, ŕ travailler avec des élčves d’un niveau socioculturel différent du sien. Apprenant leurs lacunes et leur richesse, il deviendra capable de décoder le langage et les attitudes, ŕ orienter les objections et ŕ dévier l’agressivité latente. » (Jacques Fortin)

    A la question traitant des raisons pour lesquelles, selon eux, ils ont subi des comportements violents, un taux important d’élčves a répondu que ces raisons étaient liées aux différences qu’eux-męmes pouvaient présenter par rapport aux données et aux normes sociales ainsi qu’ŕ leur apparence. Nous avons donc été amenés ŕ entreprendre des actions selon les cas.

    đ En ce qui concerne la différence des élčves d’origine étrangčre, nous avons décidé d’établir des échanges de points de vue portant sur les us, les coutumes, la tradition musicale des cultures des étudiants étrangers (p.ex., danses folkloriques des Balkans.)

    đ En ce qui concerne l’apparence qui serait ŕ l’origine de comportements violents, notre objectif était de renforcer la confiance en soi et le prestige de nos élčves. Nous cherchons ŕ en accroître le niveau d’éducation, leur offrir un enseignement de fond, leur offrir les moyens de se connaître eux-męmes. Ces éléments les amčnent ŕ une socialisation adéquate et ŕ faire face aux phénomčnes de violence sans adopter la position de victime.

    đ En tant qu’enseignants, nous demeurons attachés ŕ l’idée selon laquelle chaque enfant est une personne différente dotée de ses propres compétences et défauts. On peut ętre mauvais en mathématiques mais trčs talentueux en peinture. En découvrant un aspect positif du caractčre d’un élčve agressif, on lui permettra de se sentir fier, utile et bon. Par exemple, chaque fois que nous avons intégré, dans les manifestations organisées par notre école, des élčves qui présentaient un comportement violent et antisocial et que, ainsi, nous leur avons permis de mettre en avant d’autres compétences (jouer un instrument de musique, chanter trčs bien) il en a résulté un changement positif dans le comportement des élčves concernés.

    đ Etant donné que, des réponses que nous avions obtenues auprčs des élčves, il découlait un sentiment négatif quant au rôle joué par les conseils d’élčves, nous nous sommes efforcés de trouver des moyens qui les convaincraient du fait que leur participation au processus de prise de décision présupposait qu’ils choisissent les bonnes personnes, que les élčves fassent preuve de maturité pour qu’ils puissent saisir la valeur que revęt leur participation aux procédures. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous avons informé les élčves sur les résultats de l’enquęte, de maničre ŕ leur permettre de constater qu’il s’agissait de l’opinion de l’ensemble de leurs camarades d’école. Ensuite, nous avons organisé des débats dans les classes afin d’amener les élčves ŕ comprendre l’importance du choix correcte des personnes qui les représentent.

    Enfin, nous demeurons attachés aux points suivants :

      · L’enseignant se doit de faire preuve de respect, d’estime et d’amour ŕ tous les élčves et de leur donner, ŕ tous, l’occasion d’exprimer leur point de vue. Il dot créer les conditions qui permettront aux élčves de le respecter et de lui faire confiance.
      · Adopter une attitude stable et immuable face aux phénomčnes de violence et de conflit social.
      · Enseigner la paix, l’égalité, le droit ŕ la différence, au moyen de programmes scolaires qui sont développés cette année-ci dans notre école.
      · Familiariser nos élčves avec les techniques de résolution non-violente des conflits.
      · Résister ŕ la tendance ŕ « étouffer » les conflits ; débattre et trouver des solutions aux problčmes.
      · Définir des limites claires qui seront connues des élčves, de maničre ŕ ce qu’ils puissent, eux-męmes, comprendre que le fonctionnement démocratique de la communauté scolaire implique le respect et l’autodiscipline.
      · Offrir des issues positives et tenter d’aller au-delŕ d’une école de routine, de maničre ŕ canaliser la vitalité débordante des élčves vers des actions créatives (par exemple, notre école a participé au programme « Allons au cinéma », au programme sur « l’égalité des sexes », etc.) et ŕ bâtir l’estime de soi qui permet de choisir des attitudes positives de vie.
      · Notre école progresse dans le sens de la mise en valeur des possibilités qu’offre l’enseignement. C’est pourquoi, nous nous efforçons de travailler de
      · concert avec la famille, les pédagogues, les acteurs sociaux et l’état.

    Slogan:
    Maîtres et Elčves,
    Exprimez l’ aspect positif,
    pas aggresif, de vos caractčres.

    7. Hungary: BATTHYÁNY LAJOS SECONDARY SCHOOL

          NAGYKANIZSA / HUNGARY

    LEARNING DEMOCRACY
    CONTENTS:

    PREFACE
    DRAFT PREAMBLE
    MAIN ASPECTS AND PROPOSALS
    ANALYSIS - BACKGROUND INFORMATION TO THE CHARTER:
    REPORT ON A DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL
    - Including the goal levels of democratic school work -
    VIOLENCE AT SCHOOL
    APPENDIX: SURVEY

    PREFACE

                "Together, we are stronger. Together, we have a better chance to succeed in rising to the challenges we face. We shall work together for more social cohesion, tolerance, mutual understanding, intercultural and inter-religious dialogue." 4

    ‘School democracy’ is more than only a comprehensive system of rights and some responsibilities. It is, or becomes a part of students’ everyday life, behaviour and way of thinking.

    A democratic school is an institution built on an authentic community of students and teachers, boys and girls, young and old, - where they can learn to share and care for others. That is how the community of the school can develop in the course of the school years – and hopefully positively.

    But some kinds of conflicts, differences of opinions can occur from time to time at school – /also because pupils and students spend there a lot of time together/ – and they ‘try’ to solve those “in their own way” – often in an aggressive, violent way. /This kind of human aggression exists not only inside the school; there are different sources they often try to imitate or copy. / What can we do against this?

    The “European School Charter” project launched by the Council of Europe aims, that students together with their teachers should take part in solving their local conflicts and should get involved in the decision-making of their own community, - and learn to feel responsibility for each other.

    Bearing in mind these thoughts, we have investigated our school - environment, gaining experiences, collecting information in order to do something against the prevailing violent phenomena. /i.e. - respecting others cultural heritage and customs, understanding and accepting their needs within their communities. /

    This paper, and our study is for all those /like teachers, parents, educational and youth experts, etc./ who could or would like to do something for helping to solve the occurring conflicts, bring their arguments for finding ‘peace’ in their community.

    Nagykanizsa, March 2004
    Preamble

    (DRAFT)

    Considering that the aim of Council of Europe is to defend human rights, parliamentary democracy and the rule of law; to seek the possibilities of overcoming social problems like violence among young people and intolerance; to keep the standard of living of European citizens; and to consolidate the democratic stability of European societies;

    Bearing in mind the right protective, anti-violent, non-discrimination and tolerance promoter regulations, policies and declarations adopted by the Council of Europe, the European Union, the United Nations, respectively, as well as by other governmental and non-governmental organizations;

    Worried about the continuing presence of violence, aggression and bullying in the most different forms throughout Europe, which poses a major challenge and danger for every citizen of our societies, with special regard to young people;

    Recognizing the escalating danger of teachers’ and students’ alienation as a result of unsolved school grievances;

    Drawing inspiration from the successes of democratic institutions and other controlling establishments functioning on different social fields;
    Recognizing that the student, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should definitely learn and be educated in a peaceful and undisturbed school atmosphere;
    Taking due account of the importance of the core democratic values like respect for human dignity, openness, liberty, equality, non-discrimination, tolerance and solidarity;

    Recognizing that all existing and potential barriers should be cleared away from the enforcement of students’ rights, and these rights can be asserted only if it becomes unambiguous who is obliged to enforce students’ rights;

    Declaring that therefore we are ready to take every possible and reasonable means;
    Accepting the fact that the enforcement of students’ rights can only be successful after due consideration, and on the basis of procedure rules which should be known on an adequate level by the parties involved, and cooperation within the framework of these rules is inevitable;

    Hoping that after the adoption and worldwide dissemination of the Charter students and teachers can work together in a non-violent, positive, familiar, peaceful school atmosphere and they can resolve the occurring conflicts in a constructive, satisfactory way;

    We have agreed as follows:

    The content of the agreement should be worked out considering the following aspects, proposals, analysis’s of the next chapters.

    MAIN ASPECTS AND PROPOSALS

    The following aspects should be logically covered by the Charter concerning the prevention of bullying and violence at school – in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations), the European Convention on Human Rights (adopted by the Council of Europe) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

        - Any discrimination towards students shall be prohibited
        - Any action, rating, evaluation, public statement containing offence, insult, denunciation, ridicule, humiliation and dishonour insults the student’s honour and reputation
        - Neither another student nor a teacher or another staff member is allowed to hit, maltreat, injure, chastise a student
        - Students should not be forced to behave in a certain way neither by physical, verbal, or mental violence and manhandle, nor by threat or bullying
        - Students’ freedom must not be arbitrarily restricted at any points

    GUIDELINES FOR STUDENTS

(SOME IDEAS FOR THE RULES OF SCHOOL)

1. Respect should be paid to a person talking - whether a teacher or a fellow student/pupil - never interrupt them!
2. We have the right to express our opinions, thoughts and feelings but never hurt an other person’s dignity
3. We have to respect each-other’s opinion, thoughts, feelings and achievements / also in sports! / We have to learn to be tolerant to each other, and keep away from quarrelling
4. We should bear in mind that the class/a form is a community built up by students. We should accept each other’s personality, character and also differences
5. Do not bully other children, do not frighten or hurt someone –/ a new boy in class, – or someone weaker than you/, - neither by thought, words or deeds. Refrain from any aggressive behaviour and from using bad language and obscene words
6. We should be aware of each other’s abilities. We should never embarrass or tease anybody by abilities or results
7. We should not hurt/hit anybody or fight with each other! Our class- or schoolmates should refrain from drinking, smoking or drugs/ harmful to health!/ and can easily lead to violence. The phenomenon has to be reported for an adult /if someone is doing it/
8. Do not seize or grab other’s money / property or other valuables!
9. Do not damage school equipments!
10. Do not bring any kind of weapons, guns, knives or other dangerous things to school, not even “for fun”! It will be taken away!

IN A DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL
THE POWER OF COOPERATION IS TO PREVENT VIOLENCE

    ANALYSIS TO THE CHARTER
    BACKGROUND INFORMATION

    REPORT ON A DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL

    At the beginning of the 21st century, school – side by side to the family – is the other vitally important establishment of our society. Today, youngsters often spend much more time at school (in and out of classes) than with their parents. This can be attributed to the fact that the learning time has been expanded; the mass of knowledge to fulfill the functions requested by the society has been multiplied in a short time and it is continuously enlarging, while also the adults’ roles became more and more complicated, complex and contradictory. According to Maria Montessori5 “the school is an exile into which parents send their children as long as they have learnt to live in the world of adults without disturbing them.” On the other hand, the “world of adults”, that Montessori mentions, is equal to the society in a way, to which the individuals relate as they have learnt in the course of socialization. From this aspect, the school – like one of the most important stages of the socialization – and public education play an immensely significant role: They have great responsibility to educate citizens coming out from the school benches who are able to adapt successfully to the democratic society, accepting all its norms, at the same time, they continuously insist on the alternative possibility of choice and change, and they can shape the society according to their own request. In this way, school in democracy fulfils not only its function of transmitting factual knowledge, but it also educates European citizens who are able to communicate with each other, team up together; treat each other as equal; get to know and respect the values of other nations and cultures, know and use the democratic institutions.6 So that the latter can be achieved students (even at this age) have to be enabled to recognize their needs, become acquainted with their rights, responsibilities and possess the appropriate instrument to enforce their own rights. According to this interpretation it is essential that every participant of school life – students, teachers and parents – be aware of rights and duties and, in this manner, they can participate in the course of education with dignity.7 If these rights are not enforced, or rather are broken, or a hierarchy emerges between rights and duties, the school socialization will not be adequate.

    The effects of the political-economic-social transformation in Central/Eastern Europe have resulted in radical changes in the Hungarian society as well. Fifteen years after the fall of the iron curtain, the Hungarian democracy could not be called experienced, compared to western countries with hundreds years old democratic traditions. The change of the political system and capitalization demanded top elasticity from individuals and communities, which has both positive and negative points. The differences between the poor and the rich have grown regarding income, way of life and perspectives. We can evaluate the increase of deviant behaviour forms as a negative process, not mentioning the fact that the social circumstances of teaching and education have become harder to handle.

    The change of the political system brought the elemental experience of transition: at the beginning of the 1990s, parents, children and also teachers became uncertain. Schools have become heavily orientated towards exam results and achievements since then. The previously applied and widely interpreted social and educational functions have been surpassed, new pedagogical and educational methods transmitting democratic values and principles have appeared only in part. Pedagogues are often not ready for resolving the new educational tasks, problems (which derive for example from the latent spread of drugs, from unemployment of the parents or from regrouping of values and ethics).
    After fifteen years, a lot of things are still in the slow progress of transition in the educational institutions. Citizens are still learning about the quickly and suddenly arrived democracy; therefore, it would be reasonable to place greater emphasis on education for democratic citizenship at school, so that a change could be expected in the whole society as far as general outlook is concerned.

    If the school wants to fulfill its important function of civilizing students then it would be essential for the school to provide democratic civil education so that students become acquainted with fundamental democratic values. To transmit these values and competences perhaps not only new or further textbooks and learning materials are necessary but it is vitally important to have mutual-symmetrical relations among the participants of the process – opposite human contacts based upon authority.8 However, rather this latter one dominates between students and teachers in today’s Hungarian schools, which makes it quite difficult to achieve a relationship based on equality and partnership which would be inevitably required for democracy.

    THE GOAL LEVELS OF DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL WORK:9

    One of the vitally important segments of democracy developing in the political-social life is the democratization of school life.
    As follows we shall examine those criteria which should be fulfilled to develop a democratic school culture.

    Political competences:

      Students and teachers should:
      - be committed to democracy above all
      - accept democratic decisions
      - respect each other rights and fulfil their own obligations
      - believe in the citizens’ ability of changing the given conditions and situations out of their own power
      - be able to analyze and evaluate the social conditions and circumstances
      - be competent concerning political and social questions
      - show political-social commitment
      - have trust in the democratic political system

    Social competences:

      Students and teachers should:
      - are committed to justice above all
      - assume the responsibility if they recognize its possibility
      - obey the regulations concerning them and the school life
      - be able to inspect a situation from other people’s points of view
      - have communicative competence (They pay attention each other and tell each other their emotions and necessities)
      - respect and believe in the importance of democratic values (like respect for human dignity, openness, liberty, equality, non-discrimination, tolerance and solidarity)
      - be able to acknowledge and say criticism in a correct way
      - think highly of cooperation

    Participating in school life:
    Students and teachers should:

      - know exactly how school-decisions are made
      - realize the possibilities of co-decisions
      - want to participate in decision-making at school
      - There should be unambiguous rules and regulations at school (both for students and teachers)

    Integration of the school to its environment

      - Parents are systematically involved in school work and decision-making
      - The school have permanent contacts to many kinds of partners (partner institutions, cultural organizations, counselling centres, police, court of justice etc.)
      - Both students and school staff take part in aiding people with deprivation and disadvantages

    VIOLENCE AT SCHOOL

    The Hungarian and international press (usually through some cases picked out) have called people’s attention several times to violence in the family and the spread of aggression in the last years. Although not as radically as it is often suggested by the media but the proportions of aggressive behaviour have undoubtedly increased in the last years which inevitably affects our whole society.10 Crimes, extortions, thefts committed by or against adolescents are not regarded as exception any more and the phenomenon of violence at school – named bullying – is enlarging nearly inescapably.

    Even today, violence at school is regarded as a taboo matter in nearly all institutions; violent behaviour at school formally did not “exist” several years ago. The reason for this is that most cases have been concealed and covered – in order to safeguard the reputation of the institutions or the teachers working there and in order that the difficult pedagogic problems which refer to the psyche’s deviant behaviour would not get publicity in the media. As schools are frequently not prepared for the violence and aggression, they have to require the assistance and intervention of the police more and more.11 The phenomenon has involved unexpected consequences like students becoming less respectful of each other and teachers who are hardly able to accomplish their pedagogic and upbringing mission at the same time, the elementary trust between students and teachers has been shaken and lost. This kind of respect-deficit leads to certain helplessness, perplexes that peers try to solve in their own way – through verbal or physical aggression, bullying – that is to say, by violence.
    The quantitative difference between the former and present situations means that violence appeared in new or different forms. According to the unanimous opinions of psychologists, today’s adolescents feel themselves more brutal, cruel, wild and unrestrained, uncontrolled. While there used to be a simple fight between boys (for example because of girls) in former times, now another type of violence dominates in the everyday life of youngsters, which they consider rather natural and common.

    The meaning of violence could not be defined easily because everybody perceives different behaviour as violent. Nevertheless, defining what violence is especially important if we are not only discussing it but also want to do something about it and prevent it. “Violence” is often mixed with other terms describing similar phenomena, like “bullying” or “aggression”. While, for instance, some definitions focus on physical violence, some others also include verbal and mental forms.
    Two internationally common definitions of violence are the ones from Olweus and the World Health Organization (WHO):

    Olweus (1999, p.12): Violence is “aggressive behaviour where the actor or perpetrator uses his or her own body or an object (including a weapon) to inflict (relatively serious) injury or discomfort upon another individual.” 12

    WHO (1999, p.2):”The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation” 13

    A common definition of bullying is given by Olweus (1993, p. 9):
    "A student is being bullied or victimised when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students.”14

    “The key condition for bullying is not having the same balance of power between the aggressor and the victim. Typically, it is an aggressive act frequently accompanied by physical insult as well, usually regarded as a symptom of deviant behaviour. The delay of adult intervention leads to more serious symptoms both on the side of aggressors and victims.”15 It has become well-known by means of many works of fiction.16

    Reasons and motivations

    One of the most important reasons is hidden in the family. Family problems stand incessantly at the beginning of the reaction chain. The number of divorce is rapidly growing, more and more family are splitting up – and the losers are always the children. They have to accept what adults, parents do with their life and at the same time they should face and overcome such problems, challenges which they mostly cannot meet. Even if parents are together but there are constantly quarrels, conflicts and tragedies – not always without violence – then it also negatively influences the personal development of the children. Children at young age have to face such complex, for him insoluble problems like unemployment, privation or alcoholism. When the family background is not ideal, children are not able to fulfil the expectations and requirements at school and to concentrate on the results. A similar phenomenon of behavioural deviance can be recognized in well-to-do, wealthy families, which made their fortune suddenly; it is the other extreme – spoilt children of rich parents seeking their own “position” and trying to excel among their fellows with striking behaviour at school. However, school psychologists do not always regard it as their task to find out that the child has problems with their parents.

    Over and above family life, it concerns other out of school activities as well. The occasional or frequent alcohol- and drug consumption in their free time is playing a larger and larger role, which can catalyze the spread of deviant behavioural forms. The problem is even more difficult if the teacher sets the awful example: From the description recounted by many students of another high school in town we could learn about the case when a young teacher on a school excursion got so intoxicated that the students had to take him home from the bar. The fact that apart from the students, almost everybody keeps quiet about this scandalous case, and that there have been no consequences of this incident, exactly demonstrates the current circumstances and paradoxes.
    Obviously, school does not have to criticize how students should spend their leisure time but it partly depends on teachers to what kind of topics they turn the students’ attention.
    (Every topic can be formed in such a way that it should be appealing to students)

    Another reason for the problem is that television and generally the electronic media almost glorifies violence. When television became widespread – at first in the United States then across the globe – there were lots of debates on its effects on the viewers, and on the younger generation, to be precise. We can raise the question if it disturbs the family and school life or how much it modifies the spending of leisure time, what connection there is between the increase of violence on television and the expansion of aggression among children, adolescents and adults.17 The replies to these questions were given not only by surveys and studies but by life itself too. The difference between the “movie” and “reality” has already faded away for a large number of teenagers and they have nearly lost the sense of human relationships.

    Today, almost every youngster has an access to the World Wide Web, the internet either at school or at home. Unfortunately, the internet addiction and internet abuse are more and more of a common phenomenon which mainly develops from the wrong and excessive, addictive use of the Internet.18 Typically, instead of browsing useful, informative websites, they are rather downloading games which usually stimulate pupils to aggression.

    Besides the negative sources and effects pointed out, there are other disadvantageous factors that contribute to becoming a potential victim. (Isolation in the class, feeling unpopular; having fewer friends than others; being more reserved and tremulous, having less confidence and self-esteem, fear of not measuring up to anything, not having appropriate interpersonal capabilities, poor social competencies)19

    If we consider these frustrating factors (problems in the family and at school, leisure time, media) it is to be stated that the social stability often collapses. Adolescents can hardly realize what it means and they can hardly cope with this situation without any harm. However, they frequently withdraw into their own world, and if their eagerness for a perfect life gets too strong, they try to break up the boundaries. Its outcome is physical violence which is the result of mental (inner) violence. Then the frustrated youngsters choose the aggression as an instrument to resolve the conflicts.

    Types and categories of violence at school (bullying) 20

    Physical violence (e.g. maltreatment, outrage, thrashing, vandalism, damage to property: students damaging the teaching aids, the desks, benches or chairs, the school building, the objects of the school staff and the students; extortion, intimidation, threats)

    “Several years ago, one of my classmates stole my mobile phone which I had left in the class by accident. In the beginning, she did not want to give it back to me so the police had to be called, […] and she was expelled from the school. […] One of my classmates witnessed what happened, she was later wounded with a knife, out of school – by “unknown” people…It’s horrifying!” – speaks a 17 year old girl about her shocking experiences.

    Another student has told me another case:
    “An older boy recently stopped me on the corridor, and then he began to jostle me without any reason, he threw me against the wall. Fortunately, I managed to flee from him but then I virtually had to shun him and I was in dread of running into him again. I have not found out about his reason since that…” (A 14 years old boy)

    Verbal – psychological violence: Students, either because of their behaviour, appearance, not up-to-date clothes or school results are insulted by their peers or teachers through cutting, spiteful remarks. It may happen in corridors, on school yard or during classes. The softest method of this type is the slander behind the student’s back, but it often goes on directly and face-to-face, too. Both students and teachers are concerned as well.
    It turned out at some point in our interviews with children and educators that verbal violence is even much more usual. It is to demonstrate it only with one example among many:
    “Because of my relatively bad results, I was repeatedly affronted by my classmates – they passed abusive remarks on me, and even a teacher, which especially offended me. After a while, I simply did not feel like going to school… Finally, it was dropped somehow… But what could I have done about it? Against a teacher, obviously, nothing…” (16 years old boy)

    Silent violence: silent, tacit scorn, ill-treating in the class or community. This form is especially humiliating and offensive, but it commonly remains hidden from the pedagogues. Plenty of instances can be found, but it is not easy to mention any exact case. The reason for ill-treating someone in a class is simple: the lack of tolerance or intolerance to differences. The competent and helpful pedagogue can or could do a lot to decrease the occurrence of these phenomena and that would be an important task, by the way.

    Nevertheless, pedagogues can be both victim and offender. Today, it is not regarded as an exceptional case any more if a student threatens their teacher. A teacher employed in a local high school told me about the following case: After handing out the bungled tests two students of the class threatened the teacher to “crash” her new car. She ran out of the class weeping. The two boys had to face disciplinary proceedings after the case is heard.

    It is also a true case that a P.E. teacher made the exempted, seeming ill children stand in the blazing sun in a class claiming that these students wanted to boycott his lesson.
    One of the most extreme cases is the following. Although it did not happen in our school, it has been confirmed by many high school students (but strictly confidential, sotto voce...) Not long ago, a student made his teacher so angry that he threw every single object on the desk at the boy who had bleeding wounds as a result of it. However, this terrible case was concealed both by the student and teacher and even by the class collectively, so it has remained a secret before the school board, so far.

    A strange but even more sneaking form of violence is the “bomb alarm” at school which was very “popular” particularly in the ‘90s. A certain anonymous caller threatened with bomb explosion, exactly when many tests should have been written in some class. The false alarm concerned the school unpleasantly; both the students and teachers had to wait for a long time in the street or in the schoolyard, and who had to make up for the missed classes. In our school, the caller managed to bring to ruin a graduating ceremony a few years ago. The perpetrator became known soon but their name was not made public by the police, which is not quite understandable for me. What is the message of this procedure? Who is protected by the law in this case?

    Everybody can imagine if somebody has lifelong to bear a sign which cannot be erased (for example blacker or brighter skin) and how feels if they have on a sign or symbol because of their cultural background (e.g. Magen David (‘Star of David’), cross, or a point/spot in the middle of the forehead) which they cannot and do not want to explain everybody. Concerning either adults or children, they have to face continuous taunting, pestering, threatening, harassing, but they are often tried to be compelled to get rid of the sign.

    We can more and more often hear of violent offences, incidents which are perpetrated against youth members of national and ethnic communities – for racist or xenophobic reasons. Firm steps must be taken against these phenomena even at young age.

    Pondering over the examples above, not forgetting the possible background reasons examined, we must unavoidably put the question: whether aggression is an innate or learned behavioural form, respectively its numerous manifestations at school?
    It is justified to ask this question because it can be observed in our school – where there are also a great number of children aged between 10-14 (“juniors”) – that pupils belonging to forms 5 or 6 often complain that “the older ones” (forms 8-12) send them off the football field or perhaps seize their ball. We must admit such incidents indeed happened, happen – and will happen in the future, supposedly. On the other hand, these “offended” children -having reached higher forms - do not do the same with the younger kids?

    Consequences

    Bullying at school can carry negative consequences both for victims and perpetrators. The concerned adolescents rather do not talk about the troublesome incidents, problems neither to their parents nor to their teachers in the overwhelming majority of the cases. Victims are afraid of being stigmatized as “informer” or “traitor” and they probably have to confront reprisal, further bullying, intimidation and terrorization. Perpetrators fear Draconian punishment, which usually does not happen.

    “My classmates and other students frequently used to tease me... because of my appearance. I hardly wanted, or dared to tell it to my parents, or my form teacher. Finally, I yet turned to them but my supplication fell on deaf ears because the teacher did nothing for me. I was left alone lonely in the class.” (A girl age 16)

    Surveys proved that the reintegration to the community is much easier for girls, boys find less social support in school, and the angst and fear are getting stronger and stronger. The criminal career is certainly “open” to the perpetrators.

    “One day, when I left school, four or five pupils stopped me not far from the school building. They threatened me to beat me up if I do not give them my watch and my money. I was alone; I could do nothing against them. […] If I reported the incident to the police, they would not do anything about it, either… It is not so serious for them… Nevertheless, I will never forget it in my life, I am sure.” - tells his terrible story of a 15 years old boy who was attacked by potential juvenile delinquents.

    According to the experts, violence at school is contributing more and more to the spread of juvenile depression and the increasing number of suicides.

    Prevalence

    It is not easy to mention statistics as for how frequently violence and bullying occur at school, considering the fact that a large number of incidents remain latent and the parents, teachers or the school board have no knowledge of them (And even if they have, then it involves the risk of concealing.)

    In Hungary, statistics concerning the children’s mistreatment have been made so far, there has not been any survey on the bullying-phenomenon itself. (Not including the studies of György Ligeti and the Kurt Lewin Foundation. Though they deal with the problem as the way of conflict management but do not investigate the bullying-phenomenon from all aspects.)

    According to a research carried out in Switzerland, at least every tenth student is involved in bullying in some way.21 According to other facts, approximately 15 per cent of children are involved in violence either as attackers or as victims. As a control of data published in technical literature we have made our own survey involving pupils and teachers from our school.

    It has turned out from it that 69 per cent of the responding students have already experienced violence against themselves or other schoolfellows in the school, 18 per cent themselves have been attacked (verbally or physically). The results of the survey can be seen in the APPENDIX in greater details.

    In general, it can be stated that verbal and physical aggression occurs indeed rarely in classes with an appropriate social climate.

    The possible key to solution:
    upbringing and prevention

    „Education is personal example and love – otherwise nothing.”
    Friedrich Froebel22
    „The best way of education is what you cannot realize indeed.”
    André Malraux23

                  Who would like to save on education, will bring up uneducated young people to become cannon fodder”

    Yehudi Menuhin24

    On the basis of international (and Hungarian, in small part) experiences, it seems to be evident that one of the most important steps against violence at school lies in approved education/upbringing and the prevention.
    In the opinion of teachers and education analysts, the school is today hardly able to fulfill one of its primary functions; that is the upbringing. In the field of pedagogical work, the emphasis has been disproportionately transferred to the education, the handover of factual knowledge, and perhaps the upbringing is the least effective, its beneficial results, good influences become visible not in few days but perhaps several years later. On the other hand, in long perspectives, upbringing has a huge significance in the struggle against violence at school. The basic principles of education and upbringing drafted along democratic values have been enacted in the pedagogic program of the institution. However, we should not forget that the upbringing at school goes on within a narrow range – it is limited to one form masters class a week, to other lessons and to the relatively minor activities out of school.
    There is more and more teacher-trainings, projects, concepts, programs, materials and websites focusing bullying available for students and teachers.25 (Unfortunately, there have been efforts only in insufficient number in Hungary). However, it is important to mention that the Council of Europe make considerable efforts by means of In-Service Training Programme for Educational Staff to help teachers with conflict management, opinion forming, and the development a European way of thinking.

    Strategies for prevention of violence

    (Based on suggestions and ideas of students, teachers, experts and international practices)

    We must struggle that the big high schools do not conceal the violent offences occurred to children or teachers, a wider cooperation is wanted with the police, physicians and psychologists.

    As also the drug- and alcohol consumption play a larger and larger role in the development of violence between adolescents and the deviant behaviour forms, therefore it would be necessary to set a greater store by providing children drug-prevention education which aims at helping youths in critical situations, and teaching how they can say no. (Here not only pupils are the target group, teachers and parents can further work then.)
    It would be required if the police, physicians, welfare officers and psychologists worked in partnership with educators, students’ parents and above all, the form teacher who should fulfil a certain coordinator-role.

    Many educators’ idea about new syllabus of courses could be taken into consideration to set a greater emphasis on “social learning” (civic education and ethics) and on the communicative competences. This latter one means that teachers should talk much more with their students about “life and world”, i.e. conflicts between kids, school decision-making and democracy.26 A lot of teachers prefers referring to chronic “lack of time” when it comes up why so seldom they talk with the class about these relevant topics. They often argues that students would be “not interested” in this question what is hard to believe considering the fact that bigger and bigger part of the adolescents is falling victim to verbal or physical aggression.27 We should not forget that victims usually try themselves to get over what happened, they turn towards the inside, and may feel ashamed of themselves.28
    The Draconian punishment of the aggressors could not be useful in every case, but immediate, consistent and clear responses are absolutely indispensable. (Teachers must have a word with their parents individually; perpetrators become victims in role-plays, etc.)
    Also students may be involved in sanctions decisions, so they can realize their personal responsibility.
    It should be reacted to verbal violence more consistent than so far (debate about the problem, keeping the compulsory rules in the relations between each other, etc.).29
    We must achieve together that children do not bring weapons and guns to the school, and if they bring anyhow, teachers have to take it away from them. (The Hungarian circumstances have not given any reasons for introduction metal detectors so far, but the card entrance system has been introduced in some institutions, therefore only students and the members of the school staff can enter into the school building.)

    From the aspects of mental health, it can be more to do (with the application of psychological group methods and instruments of organization development) for the purpose that the school environment, the educational staff, all teachers become able to contribute to the positive development of children’s personality better than so far. Consequently, the network of school psychologists should be enlarged (In every school, at least one active psychologist might be employed), as well as such pedagogues in greater number who are competent in the special methods of child protection.30
    The self-confidence and self-worth should be fortified from more sides. (The pupils with poorer capabilities have to be helped; the teachers should not announce the evaluation before everybody but personally; the whole class could get to know the sport or other extracurricular results etc.)
    Even more creative people are able to change the aggression to construction, however, their aggression level increases in direct proportion to schooling.31 This creativity should be brought to the surface at school, for example, intelligent activities have to be invented for breaks (like table tennis, paining walls). Through choir, dance group, orchestra, drama group, different club activities and sport activities, the school climate could get better and the “we”-community feeling would improve what is a primary aim.

    Beside all these, we must always keep it in view: violence does not begin when the child is entering the school door; the symptoms of the later violent behaviour become visible even in the kindergarten. Children who did not attend kindergarten are usually more aggressive and intolerant towards their fellows.
    Until the foundation-stones of a peaceful – accepting differences, tolerant – community life have not been laid, it is not to be expected that the students themselves realize their mistakes and take countermeasures.

    The chance of the Charter

    A generally adopted and widely disseminated European charter – in which the fight against violence, intimidation, bullying has a huge emphasis over the fixing the rights and responsibilities – can be of a great significance in the fight against school violence. Anyway, it may be an effective instrument in our opinion, if the enacted articles of the Charter are obeyed and taken seriously by the parties concerned – students, teachers and parents as well. Dealing with conflicts is a part of the basic democratic principles, what is based at best on esteeming of each other, the understanding of other’s efforts; otherwise the dictate of the stronger party solves the conflicts. If the actors of the education try to arrange the controversial matters in a democratic way in the future, preserving their human dignity, then a more peaceful school climate providing undisturbed school work can develop in the institutions.

    Give a chance to the Charter!

    APPENDIX

    Survey in our school

    Our own, representative survey – made in the circle of students between age 14 – 18 and teachers in December 2003, - have been based on data and opinion collection by voluntarily completed questionnaires, and on personal interviews “confirming” the results of the survey, observation of pupils and teachers.
    Unfortunately, the opinion research could not be named comprehensive, as it did not light on many problems closely or distantly connected with the topic. (No questions concerned such influential factors like for example the family socialization or the television watching habits what are not to neglect.)
    General conclusions can be drawn only in part, even so, the results of the survey are both remarkable and thought-provoking.

    Students

        Number of the respondents:
        Boys: 37
        Girls: 48
        Total: 85 students
        (12 per cent of the peers)
        Age: 14-18

    In the questions on students’ rights, it can be stated that a great number of students are uninformed; they do not have sufficient information on their own rights and responsibilities. 31 per cent of the respondents (the citizens-to-be) do not exactly know neither their rights, responsibilities nor their duties. Almost half of the pupils were not able to decide whether students’ rights are enforced at school, 16 per cent answered with “no”. More than a third of the students do not regard the school as democratic. There is a minority who did not answer these questions.

    It has turned out from the survey, that “some” educators of the institutions “exceptionally” or maybe “often” punish in a way that they send out the recalcitrant child of the lesson. Altogether 12 per cent said there has been no such a case, but 62 percent said it happens occasionally.

    It has already occurred to 43 per cent of the respondents “sometimes” that the school syllabus has come up against their philosophy of life, political views, belief, religious affiliation, and children in more little proportion (21 percent) tried to be influenced (politically, religious, etc.) in lessons.

    By questions concerning bullying and school violence, it renders the clear-sighting difficult that everybody perceives different behaviour as violent. It can be stated, that the majority feel “in safety” or “average” in the school environment and no more than 8 per cent said they do not feel safe, respectively 1 percent feels themselves threatened.

    To the question “Have you ever been threatened?” 43 percent of the boys and 19 percent of the girls replied with “yes”, the greater part in words (68%), but a lot of them by weapon or other means. The scene of the threats was the school or its environment in 42% of the incidents. 69 percent of the students have been experienced violence at school (against themselves or another school fellow), usually in verbal forms (39%), but almost so frequently in forms of thefts or physical aggression.

    In every class involved in the survey, it has turned out from replies of more pupils that a teacher or another student, maybe the whole class maltreat and chastise some children because of their results. It has been confirmed by answers of relatively few students, that it has already occurred that some student got better or worse marks because of their origin or ethnic descent.

    Teachers

        Number of the respondents:
        20
        (23 per cent of the teachers employed in our school)

    Teachers interested in the topic have filled out the questionnaire in the scope of a club activity. It could be experienced uncertainty at one part of the respondents.
    No more than 42 per cent agree with the statement: Bullying is more and more common among the students.
    A half of the respondents do not agree with: It is more and more common phenomenon that a student threatens a teacher.

    The majority of them talk only “sometimes” or “hardly never” about politics, democracy with their students. Conflicts among children come up so much infrequently in the class.

    They evaluate the students’ affinity to violence “average” or stronger. Most of them do something to prevail against violence (e. g. “I respond immediately and try to resolve the problem”, “I try to find out the reasons and take discipline measures”; “I sanction”, “We are talking about the occurred cases in the class”)

    92 per cent of them are convinced that the students’ rights are enforced at school. On the other hand, only 38 per cent of the students think it would be true. Almost the half of the respondents admits they have ever sent out students from the class during lessons.

    80 per cent think they do everything for enforcement students’ rights, but they hardly managed to mention a single actual example.

    8. Iceland: Fjöllbrautaskoli, Selfoss

    Democracy and violence within the school environment

    Surveys and suggestions

    Eyrún B. Magnúsdóttir

    In this assignment an attempt is made to look into of the school (F.Su.) in terms of information flow, how the participants in the school environment feel and their sense of democracy. Furthermore whether violence exists in the school and how it is dealt with as well as the individual’s awareness of their rights and obligations. In order to reach as accurate information as possible a survey was put presented to 100 students and a questionnaire was laid before 10 teachers and the headmaster. 100% 100% of the students answered the questions, however only 6 of the 11 workers answered their part. The students’ daily life was also monitored and observations made on their behaviour when interacting with their fellow students and with other workers. The result are therefore not only present as text but also in form of statistics. (It became clear that the planning of the surveys and questionnaires could have been better and the suggestions presented are put forward by those who worked on the survey and by the students and the staff who were asked. What is particularly important is the need to increase the flow of information to raise the awareness of rights, obligations the possibilities of matters being kept confidential and the necessity of the individuals themselves to be active.)

    A brief evaluation

    Democracy in Fsu is according to my brief evaluation the outcome of pluralism with a certain hint of dictatorship. The main curriculum, issued by the Ministry of Education, is the ultimate reference for all the schools in Iceland about the advancement of education and other matters regarding students and the staff and therefore the schools have a rather limited freedom for their own initiatives in the name of democracy. The schools are allowed to make proposals about courses of study and routes, about facilities for students and staff as well as about cooperation with the industry. These proposals however must be presented to the Minister of Education who decides how closely they fit his values. The students themselves do not have many representatives to present suggestions and their means of being heard are limited. The student’s council has two appointed representatives; three sit on the school council and those representatives only have the right to listen and bring suggestions. So the students don’t have the right to vote, neither on the educational possibilities nor on other matters concerning the school. So the students are dependent on the school council’s mercy, that they take notice of those student representatives.
    ,,The school council is a forum of cooperation for those in charge of the school, for the teachers and for the students and deals with inner matters of the school which are not assigned to the headmaster alone or to a general teachers’ meeting. The school council among other things deals with the school rules, with work and social facilities of the students, with exceptions from the school attendance rules as well as with any other matters which the students present to the school council.  Such matters are to be treated as confidential.  The school council has weekly meetings during the school year (however not during the exam period, unless for special reasons.)“

    The students


    According to the laws of N.FSu (the students’ organisation) meetings are to be held if the student’s council think it is necessary to present certain cases to the student body or if at least 10% of the students demand a meeting. It is clearly stated how many votes are required for suggestions proposed to be passed, however it is not as clear what kind of matters are considered suitable for students’ meetings. Students also need to be better informed about this right of theirs. Even though the rules of students’ organisation are accessible on their homepage, the claim cannot be made that a majority of students inform themselves about these rules and their rights on that homepage. So the flow of information is rather out of touch although the information and the possibilities do exist. When the sample group of students was asked how well they knew their rights as students, (chart 1) 45% still said they knew them, 19% said they didn’t and 36% said they knew a little about them. Still at this point it is necessary to point out the possibility that while a student doesn’t perceive that his rights are disregarded, he doesn’t generally experience lack of knowledge about them either.

    The students’ perception of democracy

    The main curriculum for secondary schools in Iceland states among other things ,,The role of the secondary schools is to promote the students’ general cognitive development in order to make them as well equipped as possible to take an active part in a democratic society.” Still, how conscious are the students in fact about what democracy is and what opinion do they have on it? In some courses in the school the democracy in Iceland is briefly mentioned and its history along with a brief introduction to other democratic societies. In the course “Life skills” of all obligatory courses, the biggest attempt is made to raise the students’ awareness of the fact that democracy is something each and every individual is a participant in and what our role in it is. When the students however, were asked if they feel there is democracy in the school there was no definite result (see chart 2). Still a majority of those asked were of the opinion that democracy did not exist in the school environment.

    When looking at the results of the question about direct democracy it is clear that most of the students find the present state of the society most comfortable, the situation which does not demand a lot from the general public, where the representatives take care of all major decisions for the general public so they can stay passive in the consumer society, and not participate directly in forming their own society. Apparently a majority of the students only want to stay passive in the school environment, not active with direct influence or concessions.

    The question in the survey:
    Direct democracy is the direct participation of the general public in decision making. What is your opinion on this?

      · It is best to leave the decision making to the elected representatives.
      · This could be convenient for some decisions, but should not be used in excess.
      · The aim should be to have all major decisions decided by direct democracy.
      · The aim should be to abolish representative democracy and introduce a direct democracy. (see chart 3).

    There is clearly a long way for the students to realise the possibilities and obligations they have in a democratic society. They have become used to it - like so many others - to be spoon-feed with information. Initiative and independence is something worth taking a better look at in connection with the students’ opinion on democracy. It could be possible to better utilize democracy by introducing assignments about democracy and democratic thinking into obligatory courses such as “Life skills”. To use one week a term/year on assignments which calls making people aware democratic ways of work which both the staff and the students of the school take part in.

    The teachers’ perception of democracy

    A questionnaire on about violence, students’ rights and connected issues was presented to randomly chosen teachers. The results indicate that the teachers on the whole feel there is democracy within the school, for all those involved.


    Answer example:
    Yes, as far as you can talk of democracy where a certain division of work and a hierarchy exists and where everyone has his/her role and where the staff and the ones in charge are not elected in elections but hired by the school board (headmaster) or the heads in cooperation with the school board. The democracy is first and foremost based on the cooperation of the heads between themselves at various meetings, although the headmaster has the final word, but then again he is the one carrying the responsibility. The heads also confer with the teachers at teachers’ meetings and through various informal ways of communication. Voting is seldom used at teachers’ meetings, however people are asked for their opinions and an effort is made to take various viewpoints into consideration.

    The teachers seem well aware of their rights and obligations. A point prominently made by them was that rights also entail obligations, obligations that everyone needs to be aware of. On the whole the teachers say they know about the European Convention on Human Rights, and that they used their knowledge of it in their daily interaction. Although issues are seldom settled at teachers’ meetings by the vote, that option is available to the staff and is used if deemed necessary. The teachers take it for granted that they visit courses or listen to lectures in order to improve their knowledge of their rights and obligations. Everyone can voice their opinion and if delicate matters arise they are dealt with in the same manner as explained in the following chapter about violence.


    Violence –



    Of the 100 individuals asked if there was violence within the school environment 41 said yes, but 59 said no (see chart 4. Those who said yes were of the opinion that the violence was mainly mental, (see chart 5) those who talked of physical violence always linked it with mental violence. This indicates that the violence within the school environment is mostly mental. But how does it manifest itself, how is it used and who use it? 44% listed the students themselves and 19% listed teachers as the active party and 37% did not distinguish between the parties (see chart 6).

    Violence against students

    Among the students in the school there is a strong division of the space they use for their free time in the school. Groups are formed which are characterised by types of clothes or behaviour considered important to fit in with the group, a behaviour well known amongst teenagers in most societies, something that will most likely always exist. Nonetheless this group formation creates a certain type of mental violence for those who don’t fit in with the image the group demands. These students become ostracised in their free time and some have problems with finding a place to stay when not in class. There are some known cases of students who simply leave the school ground during all breaks so they don’t have to stand or sit on their own. The worst cases in this connection are when the students become so reluctant to socialise with other students because of this “discrimination” that they rather choose to stay absent from class until they drop out of school rather than showing up in the school without belonging to a certain group. Here we are obviously talking about cases where the individuals need assistance with more than just finding their own territory, nevertheless this kind of situation, the division of territory and everything connected with that serves as a factor in causing mental repression of weaker students.
    Prejudice also arise parallel to this division of territory: Prejudice against those that are different, not only against those that differ from the norm. When students are asked about prejudice within the school it is striking how many of them were of the opinion that prejudice connected with appearance was dominating: a total of 69% mentioned this. (see Appendix III) Of the four given types of prejudice, this was the only type of prejudice which more than half of the students mentioned.
    Among some students the fear of exposing their intelligence and ability due to remarks from the co-students is prevailing. These remarks are stem, more often than not, from jealousy and inferiority complexes. Nonetheless, the fear of being regarded as different can cause some students no to fully enjoy themselves and make them hold back in terms of school achievement. Here we have an indirect control which can be classified as mental violence. This indirect control can virtually change from being nasty remarks and giggling in class to mobbing, where “the intelligent one” faces constant unpleasantness from other students, in class as well as at gatherings organised by the school. These kind of incidents then again can lead to physical violence, when the passive sufferer no longer is willing to listen to those remarks and retaliates, or when a group of students or individual students, choose physical abuse as an outlet for their envy or feeling of inferiority.
    Physical violence of student’s though is only known at gatherings linked with the school, where it is more difficult for the teachers’ and supervisors to intervene than at incidents that take place during school time. The initiation of first year students when they start at school can be classified as permitted violence among students. Still there has been a lot of development in this contexts: only fifteen years ago the first year students were put under torture: they were dipped into containers filled with cod liver oil and fish broth and forced to serve older students who had “bought” them. “The selling fee” was put in the fund of the Students’ organisation and therefore making it important to get the older students to buy their “slaves” for a high price. Nowadays this has become much more civilised. The beginning students are still auctioned off but there are certain rules which guard that they are not abused and most of them receive a rose and an invitation to the following school dance in return for their “owners” abuse. Nevertheless, this “selling of slaves” is common practice in almost all secondary schools in Iceland and serves to maintain the out of date view about the older students being nobler and serves to maintain a certain class distinction within the school.
    The violence on behalf of teachers seems much more hidden. Discrimination is mostly connected to the students’ sex, the history of older brothers or sisters at the school. The students feel that the teacher decides on forehand what kind of a student/ person he/she is based on the teachers’ precious experience of the same sex or of the student’s older brother or sister. It is also common practice with some teachers to discriminate between the students’ in accordance with their behaviour. If the students are not disciplined enough, some teachers find such behaviour threatening and this prompts the teacher to use the tool of control he knows how to use, that is verbal control. Such control manifests itself in limiting the student’s freedom of speech or freedom of opinion. Some teachers also seem to be willing to bend the rules more for some student than others which the students who are supposed to go by the book perceive as rejection. Fortunately there is no mention of physical violence of teachers. Teachers have a certain moral code which they use in their job and in dealing with other individuals inside the school and they are introduced to those rules at teachers meetings. This moral codex has been approved by the Icelandic Teachers Association and you might say that the teachers’ honour is at stake if they doesn’t abide these rules. Enclosed (see Appendix) is the last revision of this moral code. In the text accompanying them on the school’s homepage it is stated that this moral code is meant to promote professionalism and to act as guidelines for the job.

    It has to be noted in connection with this discussion that the school is naturally only a miniature version of the society and the violence found within the school environment also exist outside it. Teachers and students are only individuals with their qualities and flaws just like any other individual. It is also necessary to underline that less that half of the group of students asked said they experience violence in the school.
    Those students who experience violence need to have means of seeking their rights or at least means of help in order to be able to deal with the situation. The school’s homepage provides information on what to do to find information on ways of reporting or dealing with those incidents that cause dissatisfaction amongst the students or their legal guardians


        ”Generally speaking you can look for information in the office regarding most matters. The office staff can sometimes deal with matters directly, in other cases they hand them over to the right authority. Complaints do not necessarily have to go through the office and can be taken straight to the party concerned as mentioned here below”.

    Still it is a matter of information flow. How many students know that they should look there? This is also a question about the courage of those who feel they are being discriminated against, the courage of the timid ones or the ones who are not well enough aware of their possibilities, who don’t have enough courage to seek their rights or the solution of their matter unless they are guaranteed that their cases will go a decided and safe route.

    Violence against teachers

    It also happens that students try to use mental violence against their teacher. This is mostly the case with inexperienced teachers teaching difficult groups. Those teachers also have a well explained and outlined way of guarding their rights as well as their rights in connection with other matters linked to the school and to teaching.

    Suggestions for improvement or innovation

    Suggestions – Each year-group has one representative on the school board with the right of listening and the right to make suggestions. The student elected keeps his position throughout his time at school unless he resigns or is forced to do so. In that way the student’s representative is more conscious of his obligation and responsibility because of the experience he has gained. Younger representative have to compare notes with the older ones to get viewpoints, which are based on longer experience than theirs. The class for master builders and also students enrolled in the school who are exempt from the rules of attendance in class: each group should have their own representative too, selected for one year at a time, as well as the legal guardians of handicapped students.
    All major issues must be introduced on the school’s inner net where the representatives can explain their viewpoint and get feedback from the students and their legal guardians. It would be worth considering introducing voting over the Internet 2-3 times a term where the students’ vote would count as a certain percentage in combination with the decision of the school board. Each representative could have a “blackboard “ where students could get their message through to them, which would increase the representatives’ access to the students’ opinion so they can work them into their proposals for the school council.
    It is necessary to introduce to teachers and students as well their rights to address the school council with issues as well as to remind the students’ representatives to present the result of the matters - provided these are not confidential - to their fellow students, i.e. via the “blackboard”.
    There is also the possibility of forming discussion groups with students where issues relating to the school and school and educational matters in general are dealt with. These groups could be formed in connection with the “democracy week” suggested here above in the chapter on the students’ perception of democracy.
    Links containing information on ways and possibilities to learn about rights and obligations, how to deal with delicate matters and where to turn to, could be sent to the students as well as to the staff.
    Lectures on the consequences of violence should be given at least once a year, where specialists from outside the school present the issue and its consequences, both for those who are violent as well as for the victims of violence. It is important to make it clear that violence is not only physical and that it is not always visible. It is necessary to point out to the students how important it is to report any suspected cases of violence. The information of ways to seek counselling from outside the school must be visible to all and here again discussion groups might be worth organising.
    Surveys on the supply and demand should be conducted on a regular basis. Is there something that the staff or the students find lacking or simply missing in the school environment? If any findings come out of these surveys they should be presented at the meetings of the school council and following that e.g. on the “blackboard”.

    Result

    In this assignment the aim has mainly been to answer the question how extensive and active democracy is in the F.Su.- school , if violence is practiced, how it is dealt with and how conscious the staff and the students are of their rights and obligations.
    In order to get the answers surveys were presented to students and the staff was given a questionnaire. Also some observations were made on the daily life of students and staff by direct participation.
    The findings were that the staff and the students are generally happy about the school and content although there are some cases of unhappiness caused by violence.
    The violence present manifests itself mostly in mental abuse, during school hours however during gatherings in connection with the school (such as school dances) the violence is physical.
    The teachers are mostly aware of their responsibility, their rights and obligations and use those rights most of the time. The students are fairly aware of their rights; however they lack awareness of the duties and responsibility that these entail.
    The students are not well enough aware of what the idea of democracy stands for and do not seem to be willing to exert themselves in order to gain more knowledge of their awareness, that is those who need it to know more. The teachers are democratically conscious and also conscious of their position within the school environment.
    It is obvious that suggestions on improvement and changes are matters that could fit well within the school environment: as well as within other societies. The main suggestions deal with an increased flow of information to the students and the staff and a better exertion of the rights.

    Sources

    http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/Mmal.pdf
    http://holt.fsu.is/~asananna/af/reglur.html#sidareglurogmedferdmala
    http://www.fsu.is/namskra/markmid_stefnur.html
    http://www.nfsu.is/nfsu.php?a=l&d=1&o=0&menu4=show
    http://holt.fsu.is/~fsu/fsu.php


    Used as a frame of reference
    :
    A folder- The European convention on Human Rights, Issued in 2002

    Appendix I

    Questionnaire regarding democracy and violence in FSu

    1. Age: ______

    2. Sex: Male ‮ Female ‮

    3. Year in this school _________

    4. Which study line? _________________________________

    5. What in your opinion is the meaning of the word democracy?

      ‮ The public can influence the government
      ‮ The public controls the government
      ‮ Only chosen representatives control the government
      ‮ Something else, what? _____________________________________________________________

    6. Do you see the school as democratic?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No
      ‮ Don’t know

      6.1 How active is democracy on the scale 1-5?
      1. __ Close to non existent 2. __ 3. __ 4. __ 5. __ Very active

    7. Do you know the Council of Europe?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No

    8. Do you know your rights as a student?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No
      ‮ A little bit

    8.1 Do you think your rights are violated in this school?

      ‮ Yes (how)_________________________________________________________

    ‮ No

    9. Do you experience violence in this school (mental/physical)?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No

      9.1 If yes, what kind?
      ‮ Mental
      ‮ Physical
      ‮ Both

      9.2 If yes to question 9. Who from?
      ‮ Students
      ‮ Teachers
      ‮ Other employees
      ‮ All parties

    10. Who should sort out conflicts and violence in the school?

      ‮ Teachers and school-authorities
      ‮ Students and teachers
      ‮ Students
      ‮ Experts

    11. Do you think that education and more knowledge reduces violence?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No
      ‮ Don’t know

    12. . Do you think that education and more knowledge promotes democracy?

      ‮ Yes ‮ No ‮ Don’t know

    13. How important is your education on the scale from 1-5?

      1. __ Of no importance 2. __ 3. __ 4. __ 5. __ Of utmost importance

    14. Why did you choose your present line of study..?

      ‮ Interest in the subject
      ‮ Practical
      ‮ Easy
      ‮ Best of what was offered
      ‮ Other. What? ______________________________________________

    15. Do you think there is race-prejudice in the school?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No

    16. Do you think there is social status-prejudice in the school?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No

    17. Do you think there is age-prejudice in the school?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No

    18. Do you think there is appearance-prejudice in the school?

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No

    19. How do you rate accessibility to educational resources in this school (access to computers, books, teachers and so on) on the scale from 1-5?

      1. __ Hardly any. 2. __ 3. __ 4. __ 5. __ Easy to get

    20. What is most important in the school?

      ‮ Online computers
      ‮ Extra time with teachers
      ‮ Books connected to the subject
      ‮ Space and peace to study
      ‮ Non-curricular activity

    21. Do you feel that the students’ organisation works for you as a:

      ‮ Student
      ‮ Entertainment seeker
      ‮ Discount opportunities
      ‮ Information media
      ‮ Other. What? __________________________________________

    22. Would you want more students on the school board? (Now there is only one)

      ‮ Yes
      ‮ No

    23. How much discipline is there in this school on the scale from 1-5?

      1. __ Next to no discipline
      2. __
      3. __
      4. __
      5. __ Severe discipline

    24. How do you feel in school on the scale from 1-5?

      1. __ Feel bad 2. __ 3. __ 4. __ 5. __ Feel wonderful

    25. What political party have you voted for or do you intend to vote for?

          ‮ Framsóknarflokkurinn
          ‮ Sjálfstćđisflokkinn
          ‮ Samfylkingin
          ‮ Vinstri hreyfingin grćnt frambođ
          ‮ Frjálslyndi flokkurinn

      ‮ Others? Which one? _________________________________

    26. Direct democracy is the direct participation of the general public in decision-making. What is your opinion on this?

      ‮ It is best to leave the decision making to the elected representatives.
      ‮ This could be convenient for some decisions, but should not be used in excess.
      ‮ The aim should be to have all major decisions decided by direct democracy.
      ‮ The aim should be to abolish representative democracy and introduce a direct democracy.

    A Questionnaire for the headmaster, the teacher in connection with the survey on democracy and violence within the school,
    All the following questions are fairly open, with the exception of the last two. The participants were asked to answer in their own words because it was important go get as personal answers from the staff at school as possible.

      1. Do you think there is democracy in the school and in what form does it appear? (among the heads, the students, the teachers and other staff of the school)
      2. If you think there is a democracy in the school, how active do you think it is and how do you think it could be made more active if necessary?
      3. Do you think there is violence in the school, how does it appears (mental/physical) and who is violent (students, teachers, heads, other staff)
      4. If you think there is a violence in the school, how well and quickly is it dealt with?
      5. If there are cases of violence, whose job should it be to deal with it?
      6. Do you know the European Council’s human rights agreement?
      7. If you do know the agreement, do you try to use it in your work and try stay aware of the rights of every individual?
      8. If you do not know the agreement, are you interested in learning about it and in what way? (Inside or outside the school)
      9. Do you think that students are informed enough about their own position in the school/community about when it comes to human rights?
      10. What do you think should be the role of the school council and is it in your opinion doing its job?
      11. Do you think having three students on the school council is enough, are there too many or too few students? Support your answer with arguments.
      12. In your opinion do the teachers generally take enough part in decision making in terms of the school, teaching methods, work surroundings etc.?
      13. Do you find that the students generally take enough part in decisions connected with the school and their studies?
      14. Direct democracy is the direct participation of the general public in decision making. What is your opinion on this?

          a. Direct Democracy is the best way is to leave the decision making up to the elected representatives
          b. This could be convenient for some decisions, but should not be used in excess.
          c. The aim should be that all major decisions are made by direct democracy
          d. The aim should be to abolish proportional representation and introduce a direct democracy.

      15. What is your response on this statement?
      In secondary school people attend their jobs just as on the job market. They get their own office space, choose their own subjects and organise their own work. Teachers are only guiding, they are not in charge.

    Appendix II

    The Main Curriculum

    The Main Curriculum issued by the Icelandic Ministry of Education contains an interesting description on the role, objectives and the secondary schools’ mode of work.

      The secondary school has the obligation to attend to all students regardless of how well prepared they have left the former school level.

      In the second paragraph of the laws on secondary schools the following is written:.
      ,,The role of the secondary schools is to promote the students’ general cognitive development in order to make them as well equipped as possible to take an active part in a democratic society to prepare students for working in the industry and for further studies, to promote the students’ sense of responsibility, open-mindedness, initiative, self esteem and tolerance; to train them to work in a disciplined and independent manner, to think critically, to teach the students to enjoy cultural treasures, to encourage them to keep on looking for more knowledge.

      In order to fulfil their role the organisation of the secondary schools needs to be based on various and different factors and they need to be able to cope with the different demands that they face. Furthermore the school organisation has to be flexible in order to facilitate the introduction of innovation in the schools.
      The main goals of secondary schools are listed in the curriculum and these are then developed more precisely in the school curriculum of each school..

      Having finished the school the aim for the students is that:

        · they have received a general education tailored to the requirements of each and everyone.
        · they are prepared for further studies and/or for work in an ever developing society,
        · they realise that learning does not finish when leaving school and that it is important to seek further learning and experience,
        · they are well informed about Icelandic society, that they know the rights and obligations of an individual in a democratic society, that they have acquired an ability to think and work independently, assumed responsibility of their own studies, they have acquired self esteem and learnt to respect themselves and others, they have developed critical thinking, judgement and tolerance, are able to express their views, make decisions and are unafraid of changed in learning or in their work.

    F.Su’s School Curriculum

    The homepage of FSu lists goals and the school’s means to achieve those. Here is a short summary:

    Course of study
    Goals:

    -to promote the student’s general cognitive development.   
    -to prepare the students for further studies or work.

    Means:
    to offer diverse courses of study in as many fields as possible.
    -to provide varied and ambitious teaching.
    -that the school is equipped with specialised teaching facilities and tools.

    The web pages for the courses of study

    Goals
    :   
    -to provide information about the organisation of learning and teaching of the various subjects.
    Means
    :   
    -to provide simple and informative web pages.

    Courses
    Goals
    :
    -to offer varied and interesting courses.
    -to provide accessible the description of the courses.
    Means
    :
    -the regular revision of content and supply of the courses.
    -the development of new courses.
    -to provide the description of the course on the school’s home page.

    Study requirements and regulations
    Goals:

    -to increase productivity in the work at school.
    Means
    :
    -to publish information on the students rights and obligations in an accessible form.

    This term
    Goals
    :
    -to facilitate the access to temporary information dealing with the work at school
    .Means:
    -to collect and publish in one place any important information regarding the term.

    The vision of the school
    The school, Fjölbrautaskóli Suđurlands, stresses that all people are appreciated for what they are worth, they are understood and respect themselves, others and their environment.
    The school aims at a successful and varied school activity where the stress is on knowledge of the subjects, creativity and an ambitious work at developing.

    The school’s role…

      · is to prepare the students for further studies
      · to provide varied vocational training in cooperation with the industry.
      · to prepare the students for daily life in a democratic society.

      The F.Su. homepage is the school’s (Fjölbrautaskóli Suđurlands) curriculum.

    Appendix III

    Question 15 Question 16



    Question 17 Question 18



    Question 23 Question 24







    9. Ireland: Gairmscoil Mhuire (co-ed 2nd level school), Thurles,Co. Tipperary

    Introduction:

    This charter has been developed by the students and staff of Gairmscoil Mhuire and Gaelcholáiste na Siúire, Thurles, Co. Tipperary.

    Aims: This charter aims to foster a democratic and inclusive school environment through peaceful means.

      Under this charter, all students and staff will work together to ensure democracy in a tolerant and peaceful school life
      Students and staff, and all members of the school community will be involved in the drafting of the charter.
      The charter will promote understanding and the need for democracy and team-work.

    Functions: The charter will assist in the resolution of conflicts in a peaceful manner

      It will contribute to the inclusiveness of the school community, and thereby promote understanding and combat violence and conflict.
      Any conflicts that may arise will be solved in a peaceful and democratic manner
      Students will understand the charter and on entry/ admission to the school, will sign and adhere to the charter.

    Aspects Covered by the Charter:

      · Under school development planning, Misneach (The Learner’s Council) will liase with the school management on issues of concern to students. Through the Learner’s Council, the students will be able to democratically air their views and have their say in relation to all school matters, including bullying, harassment and violence at school.
      · Student representatives will provide student input on all policy development issues and parents and staff should also have an input.
      · A lack of understanding has been found to be one of the main causes of
      conflict, leading to violence. The charter should encourage activities
      which promote understanding and awareness. This could be done for
      example , through CSPE (civic education classes) and extra-curricular
      activities.

    Slogan:
    Play your Part- Join the Fight Against Violence- Its in Your Hands.

    Active Scheme:

    In our school, we have a Learner’s Council, which is called ‘Misneach’, which in Irish means ‘courage’. The Learner’s Council is a democratically elected body, who liase with the school management team, in order to put across the students’ point of view and provide feedback on important school issues. Each class elects a class representative, and deputy representative at the beginning of the school year. This body meet regularly to discuss and debate important school issues. There is a team of teachers with the council, who act as facilitators. The group themselves democratically elect a chairperson, secretary and other officers. This council works on issues such as the drafting of policies relating to bullying, drugs and disability.

    There is another group in school called Le Chéile (meaning ‘together’ in Irish), who facilitate a conflict- free transition from primary school to secondary school for incoming first year students. The group of senior students act as mentors for the incoming students and assist them in their transition. They also share with the students their experiences, and help to combat any potential bullying or harassment. The Le Chéile team liase with the staff of the school, ensuring that any conflict is resolved using peaceful and democratic means.

    Through their CSPE class, one class group have developed an anti-racisim charter, which aims to prevent discrimination and racist behaviour. This charter is currently before the Learner’s Council and will be voted on by students and staff.

    10. Italy: Instituto Tecnico Commerciale “Padre A.M. Tannoia”, Corato

    PREFACE

    Every boy and every girl has the right to acquire knowledge, capabilities, skills and crafts which allow the full and complete participation in civil, professional and political life.

    The school is a community of people, students, parents and school staff that, with different functions and dignity, work to guarantee for everybody the right to study, closing the initial gap situations, in harmony with the principles sanctioned by both the Constitution and the International Convention of the rights of students with the general principles of Italian Law.

    The school community, complementing the largest civil and social community, gives realization to the training contract, that is based on the quality of the teacher-student relations and that has, as the aim, both the achievement of cultural and professional objects and personality development, responsibility and autonomy of students.

    The school community must commit itself, in the first instance to

    Abolish any form of
    Abuse and
    Violence.

    1st Phase

      I) The student has the right to proper civil knowledge that includes the awareness of fundamental rules of the civil communal life, the organization of the State, the rights and the duties of citizens.
      II) The student has, first of all, to form a person that can live in a society composed of a lot of people, in the mutual respect of personal rights, abolishing any violence and abuse.

    11. Lithuania: Vilnius Senvage Secondary School

    European Club members of ‚Vilnius Senvage Secondary School’
    Vida Metelioniene – coordinator of European club, deputy headmaster

    Contents

      1. The preamble of a Charter
      2. Vilnius Senvage Secondary School – seeking to be democratic school without violence
      3. Principles and rules of conduct at school towards peaceful and democratic life
      4. Rules of conduct in a classroom towards gaining knowledge and self-expression at a lesson

    Preamble of a Charter

    The globalization tendencies, the more and more uniting Europe, the tendencies of social integration and harmonization, provide new opportunities for personal growth and social development of children. The position of children both worldwide and in Lithuania is closely related with the spheres of social policy and social security. The children welfare problems are actively discussed by students. It is very important to organize the prevention activities in a proper way. It is also important to know that students are all different – all equal and gifted. All the students need to have better participation opportunities to create and be responsible for their own life, the life of their school, community, city, country.

    Slogan: all different – all equal and gifted.

    Vilnius Senvage Secondary School seeks to be a democratic school without violence. School community performs a huge job. There are 1224 students from 6-7 to 19 years of age, 108 teachers. The risk group children consist of 20. A group of teachers are in charge of organising the prevention activities in a proper way. The children are encouraged to take active participation in decision-making together with adults, express their opinion and be listened to. The risk group and children from the socially dysfunctional families are provided with regular socio-pedagogic professional assistance. School Board is searching for optional prevention work instruments.
    War atmosphere at our school is the realm, which must be improved. In order to get closer to that goal, our school’s community has to improve these points: the way students relate to their teachers and terms between pupils. Naturally, it is not easy to compass, because everyone is an individual. However, there are several means how to unite different people and to perfect their welfare. First of all, students have a chance to reverse the atmosphere of school through the medium of School Parliament. Moreover, pupils are offered rather a wide variety of clubs, for example pottery, choir, folk dances, art studio etc. Besides, it is possible to organize a disco and various performances. Consequently, students can improve their skills and get in with each other and with teachers.
    Unfortunately, most students are not self-starter individuals. Therefore, our School Parliament and the majority of clubs are not popular with adolescents. However, various festivities and performances attract a lot of spectators and participants. The strong point of school festivals is the fusion of our community.
    As regards to the welfare of pupils and teachers, everyone has to put in more efforts so that the school’s atmosphere could be warmer and the members of school’s community could feel safe.

    Rules of Conduct in a Classroom towards Knowledge Gaining at a lesson

      - I have the right to be happy and to be treated with compassion in this room. This means that no one will laugh at me or hurt my feelings.
      - I have the right to be myself in this room. This means that no one will treat me unfairly because of my skin colour, fat or thin, boy or girl or by way of look.
      - I have the right to hear and to be heard in this room. This means that no one will yell, scream, shout or make loud noises.
      - I have the right to be safe in this room. This means that no one will hit me, kick me, punch me or hurt me.
      - I have the right to learn about myself in this room. This means that I will be free to express my feelings and opinions without being interrupted or punished.
      - I have the right go learn according to my own ability. This means that no one will call me names because of the way I learn.
      - I have the right to make mistakes and learn from them. My mistakes shouldn’t be considered as a sin.

    Principles and rules of conduct at school towards peaceful and democratic life

    I have the right:

      - to be treated equally with adults
      - to express my opinion and to be listened to
      - to be safe at school and its territory
      - to have my own style (clothes, hairstyle etc.)
      - to feel safe for my belongings left at cloakroom, in a classroom
      - to participate in decision-making together with the teachers
      - to get proper medical treatment
      - to be provided with assistance of social educators and psychologists
      - so study according to my abilities, nobody has the right to offend me for my learning
      - to use breaks for my rest
      - my secrets to be kept when I speak to my teachers
      - to have proper conditions to develop my intellect and creative skills

    Nobody has the right:

      - to shout at me
      - to offend me for my harmful habits, if I am a smoker or drug addict
      - to take my property without my permission
      - to threaten me
      - to laugh at my views, opinion, ambitions
      - to use either physical or mental pressure
      - to call me names because of the way I learn or behave
      - to mug me, mugging is not acceptable
      - to exploit me for personal needs.

    The project was carried out mainly by 5 students (16 – 18 years old) who are members of the European club.

    The group performed the following work:

      - prepared a questionnaire for the students (11 – 18 years)
      - arranged a meeting with the Students’ Parliament
      - consulted the school psychologist and socio-pedagogue
      - discussed the ideas with the School Board
      - presented the project at a teachers’ staff meeting and the Students’ Parliament

    While doing the project they found out that it is necessary to emphasize rules of conduct in a classroom towards knowledge gaining at a lesson. These rules in English and Lithuanian are given to all 5 – 12 forms.

    12. Malta: ’Margaret Mortimer’ Girls’ Junior Lyceum, Sta. Lucia

    European Charter for a Democratic School without Violence

    A short description of two cases of everyday bullying that occurred at school and the students’ and school’s response to such cases of violence.

    The word ‘bullying’ is used to describe many different types of behavior ranging from teasing, deliberately leaving an individual out of a social gathering or ignoring them, to serious assaults and abuse. Bullying can be carried out by an individual or a group of two or more.

    Case 1

    At break time, normally, students gather in the school grounds according to their age groups. One day, a Form 1 group of students went to the netball court. This part of the school grounds is usually frequented by elder students of the fifth grade, . The younger ones wanted to play over there as well but a small group of the Fifth formers were of a different opinion. They targeted them, and started teasing them and calling them names. They threatened them, and even wrote nasty comments about them on the walls. This continued for a number of days but the younger ones did not give up because they still wanted to play netball.

    At first the form 1 students ignored such teasing, but then they felt that this form of bullying was escalating. They told their form teacher that they were not welcome in the netball court. She told them not to go there any more so as to avoid trouble. But the students felt that this was not a reasonable solution to the problem. They still felt it was their right to play over there. Yet, they were afraid to speak up again, because they were afraid that the bullying would increase.

    One day at about two weeks after this incident started, a teacher, who was on supervision duties, noticed and could not stand the bullying. He reported the fifth formers to the Head teacher. She called them in her office, spoke to them at length about how their bullying affected others. The Head teacher warned them to be more careful in the future. She asked them to re-read the students handbook, and summarize the chapter dealing with bullying.

    The Head teacher went to the class of the first formers concerned. She told them that they were to report any bullying cases immediately to either a teacher or herself. She also had a word with their form teacher, who knew about the case without taking any action.

    Other measures which were taken:

      · Parents of the bullies were called to discuss their children’s behaviour at school.

      · All teachers were asked to report immediately any cases of bullying.

    Do you wake up in the morning feeling sick because you have to go to school? Is school a nightmare because your class-mates are teasing you? If you're being bullied and you don't know what to do, take a look at the following case study.

    Case 2

    This situation took place in a Form 4 class. Maria was a very clever student, who always did well at school. She used to get high marks and was often first in class. She was neat in her work and performed excellently. She had a very good reputation at school, due to her examplary behavior.

    The problem started when Sarah, one of Maria’s classmates, became very jealous of her after viewing Maria’s half yearly exams marks. Sarah used to study a lot but Maria always managed to get higher marks. She decided to make Maria’s life miserable. When Maria went to the rest room, Sarah used to lock her up in there. This would end up in Maria showing up late for lessons. When the students were to pass their homework forward during a lesson, Sarah used to either scrunch up the page or even scribble unjust comments, either about Maria or else about the teachers. Sarah also used to steal biros and stuff from Maria’s satchel. To add insult to injury, knowing that Maria’s family was not so well off, she badmouthed her, making her life even worse.

    Maria was so timid that she was afraid to speak up about this problem, even more so because she did not know who the culprit was. At home she used to cry a lot. Whenever her parents asked her what the problem was, she used to bring up valid excuses.

    Teachers noticed that there was something wrong with Maria, but could not get through to her. When they tried talking to her, she told them that her younger brother was messing up with her work.

    Seeing all the attention Maria was receiving from teachers, Sarah envied her even more. Sarah spread more rumours and horrible lies around the school about Maria, leading everyone to abandon her.

    A seminar held at school about the problem of bullying helped Maria to realise that one of her class mates could be responsable for her isolation. She knew that this could not go on. Her life had changed and she could not let this happen to her any longer. Consequently she decided to speak to a guidance teacher about the problem.

    The guidance team discussed the problem and after consulting with her PSD teacher it was decided that the issue of bullying was to be presented and tackled during the following PSD lesson. During one of the activities on bullying during the lesson, Sarah stood up shouting at Maria. Sarah told her that it was all her fault because she always stole all the attention in class. This made Sarah envy her, and lead her to bully Maria. Sarah was referred to the guidance team, where her behaviour was challenged. She was guided on how to work on her bullying attitude and behaviour. Consequently Sarah realised that she had to apologise for her behaviour.

    Problems like these are most likely to occur when a student starts feeling jealous for another classmate. Parents should contact the school, if they notice any change in their child’s attitude and behaviour. Seminars, which increase students’ awareness on the issue of bullying and encouraging bullied students to seek help, are well organised by the school.
    Great care was taken to ensure confidentiality.

    ‘Margaret Mortimer’ Girls’ Junior Lyceum, Sta. Lucia, Malta

    Aims

    •To encourage democracy and reduce violence in schools.
    •Both students and teachers should have equal rights and opportunities.

    Introduction

    •Everyone has the right to education… Education should be directed at the full development of the human person so as to enhance respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
    •A democratic environment at school provides an opportunity for students and teachers to express their opinions and helps in promoting equality.
    •Democracy at school helps to reduce violence between students.

    Students’ Rights

    •Schools are to be safe and secure.
    •All students should have equal access to resources and facilities.
    •Students should be treated equally irrespective of race, sex and religion.
    •Students’ individuality, opinions and privacy are to be respected.
    •Students have the right to participate in democratic decision-making processes to develop school policies and rules.
    •Students should have adequate time for rest while they are at school.

    Teachers’ Rights

    •Teachers should have the right to confidentiality.
    •Teachers’ opinions expressed during staff debates should be respected.
    •Teachers should correct and report students who deviate from school rules.
    •Like students, teachers should have a safe and secure place of work.
    •All teachers should be trained to carry out procedures in case of an emergency or accident.

    Developing strategies and policies for the prevention of violence

    •Crime Stoppers: Students are to be encouraged to report any crime in school while ensuring their anonymity.
    •School Monitors: Schools should encourage students to adopt positive attitudes during breaks and extra-curricular activities.
    •Drug Abuse Prevention Education: Schools should provide programmes where students can learn about the dangers of drugs and the acquisition of assertiveness skills.
    •Verbal / Physical Abuse: Students and teachers are to respect each other throughout the school year.
    •Sexual Harassment: Schools should provide a safe educational environment free from unwelcome sexual advances.

    Conclusion

    •A school promoting equal rights and a democratic environment coupled with respect for authority.

    Malta: Liceo Mikiel Anton Vassalli Boys’ Junior Lyceum, Tal-Hadaq

    Introduction to the Charter

    Students are partners within the educational sector and democratic process and hence should be encouraged to participate actively and directly in the educational process. Thus, organizational and operational structures within the school should provide adequate accessibility and opportunities for the students at an equal level with other partners.

    It is suggested that the students’ participation should not be limited only during lessons’ time, but throughout the whole process within their own school where decisions are discussed, designed, introduced and evaluated. In this sense, students are considered as equals to the rest of the school community.

    Slogan

    Equal Partners for Better Schools

    Students’ Contributions

    Respect:
    The first fundamental right it that of mutual respect between those who administer and students.Students and teachers alike feel that lack of respect brings about violent and abusive language where teachers resort to harsh punishment and students retaliate and rebel.

    Punctuality:
    Being on time is not an option. Punctuality (students & teachers alike) helps in avoiding students lingering outside the classroom giving them the opportunity and the time to bully and tease. It is also noted that during this waiting period, students do carry out, even if minor, acts of vandalism in the classroom itself.

    Supervision:
    Break supervision is important because this is the time when most of the minor accidents occur. More teachers should be supervising the grounds and this should be carried out with the utmost attention, and also with a fair judgement!

    Cleanliness:
    A clean and well kept environment promotes order and discipline. An unkempt environment (including classrooms, offices and restrooms) would result in apathy, restlessness and students might find it easier to commit vandal acts seeing that no one is there to fix what has been broken. Hygiene is also a vital part of a clean environment.

    Keeping promises:
    Promises made from either side of the fence should be kept and adhered to. This shows not only mutual respect but promotes order in the classroom as well.

    Freedom to express oneself:
    It is of utmost importance that students, teachers and administrators alike should be able and are free to express their opinions freely and also not hinder from others in expressing themselves. Lack of respect is shown when authority forces their opinion without giving time for others to explain themselves. No matter how valid or invalid one’s reason is everyone should be given a chance to air their views on whatever topic is discussed.

    Fair treatment:
    Judgements should be fair and punishments also. It should also be said that students and teachers should not show preferences for this might hinder learning and reduce class democracy. Students who think are not ‘preferred’ by a particular teacher might rebel and cause havoc in class, which although not justifiable, it leaves room for thought!

    Protection:
    Students and teachers should feel protected at all times and in all places. A sense of protection and security helps in a more democratic environment and also lessens the effect of violent (both verbal and physical) behaviour.

    Further Students’ Contributions

    Students should be allowed to dress the way they like, after all, most students are not obliged to go to school wearing a uniform after having completed their secondary education
    Co-education should be adopted at secondary level, to provide more opportunities for the students to learn how to relate better with the opposite sex. This would make the school a better reflection of the wider social setting thereby providing better development for the students.
    The school should strive to meet the student’s requirements by providing a wider choice of subjects
    A Students’ Council will represent the students. Possibly this council should include two representatives from each class. It is very important that all students are aware of the whole process of electing the student representatives on the school council and are kept informed of the functions of this council.
    The students’ council should be allowed to participate in the school’s decision making process especially in the organization of extracurricular activities.
    Any sanctions to correct misbehaviour should appear to be just and fair to the students. Students should be given the right to appeal when sanctions are deemed to be unfair.
    Whenever a teacher or administrative official cannot identify the culprit of some misdemeanor, s/he should not accuse and punish the whole class.
    Teachers should be well prepared for their lessons guide the students to best sources of information
    A board should be appointed to investigate any abuse on the students. A student should have the chance to appeal to this board whenever s/he feels physically or emotionally abused by an adult employee in the school.
    Students should be given the chance to participate in the school decision making process
    The Students’ Council should include a student from each class
    Teachers should act in fairness and avoid labeling students
    While the benefits of a uniform are greatly appreciated, students should be allowed to express their individuality by wearing different accessories, like earrings, gel, etc. and bring personal belongings such as mobile phones and portable disc players or radios
    The students have a right to a safe and pleasant environment. School caretakers do their work properly while the students themselves should also be duty bound to take care of the school environment.
    All adult members of the school should provide an example of how to be a good and respectable citizen.
    Students should be encouraged to take a more active participation in the student council
    School decisions, especially those affecting the students directly, should be discussed with the Students’ Council prior to their being implemented.
    The Students’ Council should issue a quarterly newsletter to keep all students informed about its activities, commitments and decisions, especially those discussed with the administration.
    A board should be set up to deal with cases of teacher abuse on students. Members of this board should be the headmaster, a representative of the teaching staff, a guidance teacher, a member of the Students’ Council and a parent. Rather than resorting to legal action the students would like to appeal to this board when a teacher tends to be physically aggressive. The board should reprimand the teacher concerned once the complaint is justified. This should not jeopardize the individual’s rights to sue for physical abuse.
    Each class should have a representative on the Students’ Council
    Co-education should be considered as a right of the student who has to learn how to socialize within a community that is more representative of the wider social structure.
    Rules should not restrict the right of the student’s self expression like the prohibition of hair gel.
    The school should provide a safe and pleasant environment.
    If students are obliged to wear a uniform, they should still be allowed to feel comfortable in it. Wearing a woolen top over a PE kit to protect oneself from the cold should be allowed so long as the top forms part of the school uniform.
    A uniform is important as it helps the students to identify with their particular school. It gives the student a sense of belonging.
    The head of school should always be ready to listen to the students’ complaints and act upon them when these are justified.
    The head of school should not be offended by any criticism made by the students. Criticism should be encouraged for a better development of the school community.
    The tuck shop should be regularly inspected for hygiene and it should provide more health food.
    While it should be the duty of every student to see that s/he uses the lavatories well, the cleaners should follow a roaster to inspect these facilities every half hour in order to keep the place spic and span.
    Teachers should not look down on the students but should treat them with respect as equal citizens.
    More merit cards or reports should be issued to encourage positive behaviour and attitudes among the students.
    The students should be bound to observe a code of discipline and sanctions should be meted out to those who interfere with the learning process of fellow classmates.
    There should be an agreement between teachers and students regarding the disciplinary action that should be taken against particular misdemeanors.
    There should be a system whereby students should be obliged to make up for any misdeed they were involved in.
    No student should have any priviledges just because s/he happens to have influential parents.
    Teachers should always be seen to act in fairness.

    13. Poland: Zespol Szkol, Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace w Wojkowicach, Wojkowice

    Youth Negotiation Team
    - the operation schedule

    Our main thought “To be wise means to live in the present, plan the future and use past experience to solve the problems”

    Our Aims - solving student – student problems without violence

        - solving student – teacher problems
        - negotiating class contracts at the beginning of each school year
        - negotiating the schedule of school celebrations together with the Youth Council
        - participating in creating the antiviolence program at school
        - participating in class negotiations in case of any problems with fulfilling the assignments

    Our Structure – The team consists of 15 negotiators. Most of them are students of second and fourth years (in the new system – students of third year). The team is supervised by a teacher.

    New Members in Our Team: new members (mostly first year students) will be accepted for a trial period. They will take part in negotiations and workshops as observers. They become regular members after being accepted by other members.

    Our Methods of Work: workshops, negotiation talks in student – student and student – teacher relations, school community – The Headmasters

    What We Can Do: - we can take part in different initiatives in the local community – negotiations of the conditions

        - permanent educating in interpersonal skills, active listening skills and effective dealing with stress

    Our Educational Workshops:

        - interactive games (e.g. “Class trip”, “The president of School Election”) – students can practise their negotiation skills in school matters
        - particular firm situations analysis (in the confines of profession advice) and preparing the most effective negotiation strategies for particular companies
        - workshops: “Negotiation psychology” – communication techniques, using arguments, taking advantage of particular conditions; “Creative approach to problematic situation” (searching for new solutions taking advantage of creative thinking); “Negotiation skills” – negotiation techniques, negotiation levels, negotiation rules
        - negotiation talks – workshops with a camera (“Presentation and Self-presentation Skills”)

    Outfit - mobbing victim

    Case description
    He had long hair, he was tall and lean – some people thought he was simply thin. He dressed in black, shiny shoes and a black leather jacket with metal buckles. He was also wearing a silver inscribed ring and there were some dark, leather-like straps round his wrist. His green rucksack was covered with captions made with pen. He was usually listening to some strange music on his personal stereo during breaks. He smiled and took part in class discussions very infrequently. He behaved in a different way than other students and he was not involved in class matters. He was an outfit. At first the class wanted him to be one of them. His behaviour made him ostracized, in fear of the class unity. Gradually, he became the one to mock at, gossip about and play tricks at. He was shown that the group did not like him. All situations lead to conflict situations. He began thinking about changing the class …

    Category of aggressive behaviour – examination

    Mobbing phenomenon based on physical violence
    (reoccurrence and long lasting of negative behaviour of the class towards the outfit)

    Passive victim’s symptoms
    - spending breaks alone
    - playing truant and detest to be with the class
    - taciturnity
    - pessimism
    - lack of acceptance and understanding
    - ostracizing from activities taken by the rest of the group

    Preventative measures taken

    Towards the victim
    - having individual talks with a victim of emotional mobbing (showing understanding and unconditioned acceptance)
    - trying to integrate the outfit with the class
    - tolerance towards individuals discussions
    Towards the causers
    - having a talk with causers – reminding them of the school rules and regulations
    - having a talk with the most eager oppressors’ parents

    System measures taken
    - finding the phenomenon of mobbing at school and in particular classes – a questionnaire
    - introducing ‘School mediators’ and trying to solve all problems at peer level
    - appointing Youth Court as a part of Youth Council, whose task will be to give opinions on violence causers at school as well as applying certain regulations towards particular causers
    - implementing into the school calendar a “Day Against Violence”, putting the stress at mobbing
    - each class should have a class contract which strictly forbids using physical or emotional mobbing against any member of the class
    - organising in particular classes lessons helping mistreated people integrate with the rest of the group

    Physical violence – case examination

    Case description

      During the break, one of the first-year-class students sprayed pepper gas on the corridor.
      In consequence, children that were there at the time had difficulties in breathing. Teachers had the same symptoms. The School management evacuated the school, windows were opened and the emergency was called for. The doctor helped those most seriously affected and they were taken home by parents.
      Talks were held and the causer of the mindless incident was pointed at.

    Aggressive behaviour category – examination

    Physical violence with indirect health danger to people present at school corridor (effect: causing fear and panic at school)

    Victims’ symptoms
    - difficulties in breathing
    - nausea
    - feeling unsafe

    Preventative measures taken

    The headmaster, the educationalist and the form master had a talk with the causer. Youth Council was asked to give an opinion on the gas spreading causer.

    Youth Council Arguments
    Youth Council emphasizes that the student functions in the group perfectly. He is open-minded and kind. He did not envisage the consequences of his deed; he did not admit doing so on fear of being expelled from school. Youth Council condemned his behaviour and at the same time asked for the student not to be expelled.
    Teachers’ Arguments
    Teachers emphasised that the student broke School Regulations, endangered younger friends’ life and health and admitted to doing so on being shown strong evidence. But taking into account the saying “You are not bad but you took bad decision” it was decided:

    Negotiated statement:
    - The student will be on duty in the primary school cloak-room until the end of the school year, being supervised by a teacher
    - The student will work 30 hours in the primary school library
    - The student will apologise to affected students and their parents in public
    - In case of similar actions the student will be expelled from school immediately

    ‘Wave’ among freshmen (‘freshmen treatment’)

    Case description
    They are confused, afraid, disorientated, looking for their own classes, searching for a form master, waiting for first demands, alone or in small groups. Their only thought is not to get lost. They make their first way down the corridor, watched by older friends from second and fourth classes. Whispers, comments, faces and gestures, in short some freshmen’s memories. ‘I was a little bit afraid because there were so many new people and I was dressed in a different way, and had a different hair-do. I was taller and somehow petrified – it must have been noticeable as some people were staring at me smiling. They didn’t like me – I thought. I was so deep in thought that my class disappeared somewhere. All my anxieties grew even stronger. I began to search for them. I was lost in the complexity of school corridors – I perceived it in such a way at that time – a labyrinth. Suddenly, someone – I don’t know even who – helped me find my class. What a relief, unfortunately, not for too long. Those older boys remembered me. And it all began … I was told to measure the distance between toilet doors with a matchstick, I was told to sing made up songs. My face was painted, I was being sworn at, I was called a ‘freshman’, I was emotionally tortured. Each time I was told that everybody had to go though all of it. They warned me not to make fuss about it …

    Aggressive behaviour category – examination
    ‘wave’ phenomenon with bullying
    (imbalance between those bullying and those being bullied, pressure recurrence)

    Victim’s symptoms
    - unwilling to talk about the problem
    - having difficulties in getting on well with peers
    - lack of self-confidence
    - apathy, retreat, isolation
    - being late, playing truant
    - changing school decision

    Preventive measures taken
    Towards the victim
    - having a talk with a victim (creating positive atmosphere, gaining confidence, becoming safe)
    - offering taking part in individual classes developing assertive reaction skills
    - taking special care of a student that was mistreated against the class background
    Towards the causer
    - having a talk with causers – reminding the school rules and regulations informing about the possibility of expelling form school

    System measures taken
    - at the beginning of each school year students of second and fourth years (in new system third) are requested to sign a pledge forbidding any kind of physical or emotional mistreatment of freshmen, which is an appendix to Youth Council Regulations. In case of misbehaviour, those student will be expelled form school.
    - defining the freshmen mistreatment and its consequences, and putting it in a visible place at school
    - asking teachers to visit possible mistreatment places frequently
    - discussing empathy and social awareness and assertiveness during classes
    - organising the ‘shake off’ day as quickly as possible (from that day on the first-year-class student is not a freshman anymore), preferably it should take place during the first two weeks of new school year
    - spreading the idea ‘An older friend as a support for freshmen’ which says that those older should take care of particular freshmen. A first-year-class students can always ask for help his older friend

    European Charterfor a Democratic School Without Violence

    PREAMBLE:

    “The meaning of dignity entails a gift and a task:
    I, man, have a right to unconditional respect –
    This also means:
    I, man, must unconditionally respect the other man”

    H. Bortnowska

    WE stand on the side of all those who seek to establish a Democratic School and wish to safeguard the dignity and individual needs of all members of the school community.
    The fulfilment of this task requires the protection of students from all forms of violence and brutality, and also from demoralisation, neglect and other kinds of improper treatment. To this end, the school’s educational system is but a support of the child’s upbringing in the family – the family’s efforts and those of the teachers must be mutually coherent. Co-ordination between home and school is especially needed when it comes to encountering aggressive behaviour, and all participants in the Democratic School project ought to bear this in mind.

    THEREFORE…

    WE, THE STUDENTS, are excited about the thought of deliberating a Charter for a Democratic School Without Violence. We believe in the possibility of an open school, based on respect for human rights, and imbibed with the spirit of democracy.

    WE, THE TEACHERS, believe in the possibility of establishing such links with the students as will minimalise violence and aggression and build relations based on mutual trust.

    WE, THE PARENTS, are delighted that the school opens itself to the needs of our children, showing them the values and functional bases of a democratic society.

    IN this spirit we have formulated the following charter.

    PART I
    All members of the school community
    shall commit themselves to unfailingly respect the personal good of others

      1. Every student and teacher shall have the right to respect. His/her personal dignity is untouchable.
      2. Their right to considerate treatment shall be respected regardless of sex, social or ethnic background, or special needs.
      3. The teacher shall create an atmosphere fostering acceptance of differences between individuals, encountering all forms of intolerance, racism, xenophobia and discrimination.
      4. The school shall provide a clear and acceptable System of Violence Prevention/ De-escalation System, which will be clear and accessible to all students seeking help or seeking to help others.
      5. The deliberation of this System of Violence Prevention/ De-escalation System shall involve all parts of the school – students, teachers, and parents.
      6. The school shall develop its disciplinary code in strict accordance with the student’s rights as outlined in this charter
      7. Parents and teachers shall be partners in the realisation of all tasks connected with violence prevention.
      8. Relations between students and teachers shall be based on mutual trust, respect and understanding.

    PART II
    All members of the school community
    shall bear responsibility for the observance of established laws and obligations

      1. Every member of the school community shall act consequently and consistently to all since of violence, referring to the established System of Violence Prevention/ De-escalation System.
      2. The teacher shall have the duty to actively promote attitudes discouraging the use of violence of any kind for the achievement of any aims whatsoever.
      3. The school shall take all necessary steps to facilitate the social reintegration of any student who was the victim of offence in any form within the area of the school’s jurisdiction.
      4. Anyone who has done any wrong shall aim at rectifying the situation to the best of his/her ability.
      5. The student has a right to explain his/her behaviour before any action is taken against him/her, whereas, the teacher shall make clear the reasons for his/her decisions.
      6. The student has a right to express his/her judgements to the full, and the teacher shall hear him/her out, bearing in mind the student’s age as well as his/her level of maturity.
      7. The teacher shall provide broad pedagogical understanding of the mass media, bringing to the students’ attention the consequences of watching violent programmes.
      8. The parents shall share responsibility for the psychological and social rehabilitation of any child who was a victim or a perpetrator of violence within the school’s jurisdiction.

    PART III
    All members of the school community
    shall have the right to introduce initiatives to further democratic life in school.

      1. The Democratic School shall have a working communication system, and information and the flow of information shall involve all parts of the school: teachers, students and parents.
      2. The School shall ensure the transparency of all its projects and decisions.
      3. All initiatives are undertaken in partnership and by agreement of all members of the school community.
      4. The Democratic School shall enable the active participation of all, being open for innovation and instilling in all its members a capacity for compromise.
      5. The student shall have a right to full participation in school life through student government as well as the school’s educational, cultural, sporting and recreational activities.
      6. The school shall undertake every effort to address the question of violence using mediation and therapeutic methods as a means of prophylaxis and prevention.
      7. The System of Violence Prevention/ De-escalation System shall be an integral part of the local and municipal social services system.
      8. In the Democratic School negotiation is recognised to be the fundamental tool for reaching agreements and solving problems and conflicts.

    POSTSCRIPT

      This Charter may be signed by anyone who:

          - knows how to profit from the rights and obligations of democracy in a responsible way
          - is convinced that there should be a deeper understanding of human, child and student rights among teachers, parents and students
          - wants the school to be free from violence

        - understands that the border of any human’s rights are the rights of another human and that we should never violate this border as one can never secure one’s own rights by breaking the rights of another human being.

      14. Portugal: Escola Secundária da Amadora

    Charter for democratic schools without violence

      · Introduction

          o Objectives or functions of the charter

    The objectives of the charter are related with the implementation of policies to comply with the respect for Human rights, race, ethnic and sexual equality policy.
    Preventing violence with strategies to combat and reduce bullying and sanction violence in the school’s daily life.

      · Articles

      I - Schools concern and awareness about violence;
      II - Nature and risks of bullying and pupils’ attitudes to violence;
      III - Investigate violence;
      IV - Strategies to combat and reduce violence;
      V - Parents involvement;
      VI - Training for the prevention and supervision;
      VII – Creating a clear policy.

      I – The policy to prevent violence among students must be based on consultation, awareness raising, with a clear definition of bullying including direct action, follow up and checking results. Along with this all the school community must respect their rights and responsibilities to prevent violence;

      II – The nature of violence must be clearly defined in its form analysing the factors which propitiate it, the risks for the victims, the students, family and teachers’ attitudes, knowledge and understanding about the situations. There must be clear strategies to teach assertiveness and other skills as well as special resources and spaces to deal with violence;

      III – To investigate we need survey methods, interviews, questionnaires with clear reports;

      IV – To combat and reduce violence there must be a clear understanding of the reasons for violence, the effects of violence and the possible solutions which could be part of the teaching to assertiveness and co-operation. Promotion of self-esteem, discussion and agreement, commitment from the whole school community and family are key points;

      V – A close, calm, understanding, involving approach and discussion with parents is an important basis for a violence problem solving approach. Parents must be involved constructively in a co-operative way. There must be a preparation with constant communication, consultation and consciousness;

      VI – For prevention and supervision the school staff must be highly involved trying to supervise and preview difficulties increasing vigilance when necessary and avoid incorrect interpretation. It is of the utmost importance to have trained supervisors who should work subtly. A properly equipped school environment is also basic for preventing increased violence;

      VII – A clear policy combined with efficient communication in the whole school community will help to the acknowledgement of authority and so accept the strategies and measures to manage behaviour and help the preparation for proper adult relationships.

      · Democratic participation methods available in our school

    According to Portuguese legislation in the school Assembly, responsible for the school activities orientation and definition, there are representatives of teachers, parents, educators, students and other school staff.

    The Pedagogical Council, which coordinates and manages the school education, students orientation and teachers development plans, has got also representatives of teachers, school staff, educators, parents, students and psychological counsellor.

    Students and parents have opportunity to attend some of the class teachers meetings for analysing students’ behaviour.

    For the new students in the school there is also a school year starting class with the class responsible teacher to analyse and evaluate the internal school regulations.

      · Slogan

    “Start with knowing and understanding those around you and you will respect them”

    15. Russian Federation: School 700 Saint Petersburg

    This programme is a joint project created by the teachers of English and students of 9th and 11th Forms

    Teachers: V.Galkina, I.Erokhina
    Students: M. Pak, V. Yakovlev, N. Kirillova, O. Kravtsova

    Democracy and Violence Prevention at School

    Brief introduction into the charter: the main subject, the general object, aims, problems in the organisation of school life.
    The main subject – violence infringes rights and liberties of individuals.
    The theme of the charter – prevention of both physical and psychological violence.
    The general object –together developing democracy at school.
    The rights of teachers and students are shown in this charter. A great attention is called to discipline in study and during the intervals. School is our second home. To prevent any violence at school it is important to keep harmony between teachers and students. Anyone acting with violence disobeys school rules and has to be punished.

    Problems – Free atmosphere in class.

            – A teacher mustn’t speak at the top of his/her voice.
            – Help should come from both sides (teachers, students).
            – Maintaining correct behaviour.
            – Keeping control of studying and class attendance.
            – Supporting good relationships between students and teachers.
            – Making joined projects.
            – Teachers’ pay rise to provide decent life style.
            – Keeping school safe.
            – Work of psychologists with pupils.
            – Prevention of any discrimination (age, race, etc)
            – Prevention of any violence (teacher’s, student’s).

    Aims – To avoid additional lessons.

            – To provide justice at school.
            – To improve the atmosphere at school.
            – To keep school safe.
            – To prevent any violence at school.

    Conclusion – the role of this charter is very important because it is based on ethical and morale principles of education. All of us have some life problems. Let us help each other and make our school the place where we will have a wonderful time together.

    2 main aspects:

      1) psychological violence from the teachers’ side (raising voice, humiliation of students and intrusion of the students’ personal life);
      2) violence amongst students (fights, insults, use of physical power towards others).

        Examples of daily violence at school:

      1) teachers’ prejudice while marking students’ work;
      2) fights;
      3) students’ disobedience to the school uniform code.

        Examples of accepting this program in our school №700 – persons on duty (from the side of teachers and students);

            – signaling;
            – psychologists
            – first aid office;
            – guard;
            – a small size of school
            – discussing with parents;
            – writing notes in the school diaries;
            – lattice on the windows at the ground floor;
            – fire-extinguishers.

    School motto: “School is our small world, let’s together make it safe and full of joy”.

    16. Serbia and Montenegro: Secondary School for Chemical, Food and Textile Proccessing, Zrenjanin

    INTRODUCTION TO THE CHARTER

    AIMS:

      · all pupils and students are equal in their right and duties
      · have a natural right to be educated,
      · have a right to choose which school to attend,
      · have a right to express their own opinion in a proper way and not to be punished for that,
      · to be the same regardless to their skin-colour, religion, nationality, language, origin or social status,
      · have a right to be respected as a person,
      · all disputes shall be settle by peaceful means,
      · each student should respect the freedom and rights of the others,
      · each school should have all needed equipment which will make possible better and easier learning and teaching,
      · no student should not be the subject of traffic in any form,
      · nothing should interfere with students’ physical, mental or moral development.
      · each student should have a feeling of safety while is in school.

    FUNCTION:

      · The principles of the Charter to be incorporated in each school regulations and applied to school life.
      · The principles of this Charter should be implemented practicaly in every domain of school life.
      · The principles of this Charter should lead to the better communication between teachers and students.

    THE FIRST ASPECT:

    PROFFESSIONAL SECURITY AND VIDEO-CONTROL SYSTEM

    There are many kinds of violence everywhere in the world, but in schools they are specific.
    Bulling in schools is a serious problem. Recent research shows that bulling is in the increase and currently affects over one third of school children. Bulling has also become an issue for girls and there is also a huge increase in the amount of female bullies.

    In this aspect we shall write only about physical violence because we think that in all schools there have been some students who want to give an impression of being aggressive. They’ve all overdosed on Rambo. In fact they are very unsure of themselves. Anyone who picks on anyone else is just the lowest of the low and deserves to be given the taste if its own medicine. But, it should mean that we are the same and we don’t want to be such.

    And what about the bullies who are not from our school, but come in (sometimes drunk or under the drugs) and provoke our students. The question is: “How to prevent all of that?”

    In our school this problem has been solved by engaging of an professional agency for security. In every shift there are two strong men who take care on discipline: one of them is in the halls and second one is at the entrance to school and no one who is not from our school can enter. All students and teachers have their ID cards, we are both very content with this solution, and we feel much more safe than before.

    Video-cameras are another important thing and in such way destruction of school property can be prevented (by school authorities) or compensated (by their parents).

    We think that every school should have such security.

    THE SECOND ASPECT:

    ARBITRAGE

    Concerning the problems of bad relationships among teachers and students during lecturers, we suggest to be established a group, of let’s say, five students in each class who would act as a corrective factor in the classroom. They could exert influence on discipline in the class; they could react when it seems that a teacher is not fair towards all the students (regardless to their knowledge, work, learning, efforts, or if he/she makes differences due to their skin colour, religion, social status etc.). Also they could react when some of the students quarrel with a teacher, e.g. when the teacher is not respected enough by his/her student. Sometimes, our teachers are upset, they are not content with their salaries and they express their neurosis towards students. We often don’t understand them. They are high-educated people who do such hard and responsible job with the young. The ugly fact is that they are not paid enough for their job. All of us are conscious of the bad situation in our society, and we think that the government should give more money for education.

    This group of students should be among the better or the best ones, they should be elected by their colleagues from the class and they would be changed every quarter or semester. This group (arbitrage) could react in all conflicts which should appear and they would also give an initiative or organize a help for students with bad marks.

    This group could also exert influence on changes in curriculum, of course in agreement with the teachers.
    It could help to find peaceful solutions for each problem. This aspect refers both to the problems of solving the problems of violence and democracy to be more implemented in schools for students.

    THE THIRD ASPECT:

    INTERNAL EDUCATION CENTER

    Education for democracy is a very important aspect of school life. It could be done through a few themes or through a school subject which could be named “health and social education”. There would be some themes that interest all the students: fashion, cosmetics, image, beauty, skin and hair problems, health, nutrition, diets, dental problems, behaviour, man/female relationships, psychological problems, drugs, sects, criminal, occupation choice and everything that interests the young. All of these themes could take 3-5 classes during a school year and sometimes the school can invite, like guests, some experts from these fields: designers, cosmeticians, dentists, psychologists, gynaecologists, policemen, etc.

    Unfortunately, all these problems are not only the problems of the students, but also of our teachers and parents.

    So, in this aspect we suggest one more thing to be established in each school an internal educational centre both for teachers and parents where they could together listen to some lectures and then ask and talk about us (e.g. their students and children) and about the problems which they have with us. It should lead to the better understanding and tolerance among us, and to help in our growing up.

    SLOGAN:

    And now, the slogan that we have made. It’s:

        I love my school, and you ?

        J’aime l’ecole de moi, et toi ?

        Ja volim moju skolu, a ti?

    We decided for this one because the first part of the sentence ‘I love my school’ shows our love for school, to have the best possible time spent in school and we to be matured and responsible citizens one day, and the second part ‘and you ?’ presents an invitation to the other students to enjoy learning in their school days.

      THE WAY TO DEMOCRACY ISN’T DEMOCRACY YET !!!

    17. Spain: Colegio San Agustín, Valdepeńas, Ciudad Real

    METHODOLOGY

    We have worked in the European Project for a long time. We have worked in it in the History Lessons, in the Civic Education Lessons and obiously in the English Lesson. All the work has been done by the students, we have talked with them about the Democracy, how to get it , how to participate, the different types etc ; then they have written all the work working as a hole class, we have discuss everything in class, we have chosen the most important ideas and then they have written the project on their own but working in groups, Each group has chosen one of the points and has develop the main ideas and has translated them into English. They also talked with their parents and grandparents about democracy in the past, the democracy in their parents and grand parents´ schools and then they explained us which ideas they obtained.
    It has been very hard for our students because we are in a Nuns School. In our school it doesn´t exist for example a "headmaster election" as in other schools, and there are some rules which exist only because it is a religious school, just because they are related to the religious spirit of the school.

      Once we have explained ( more or less) the characteristics of our Catholic School and the main reason of why and how we have participated, I will write you all the participants´names ( students ´names and teachers´ names) and our contribution to this Special and Necessary Chart.

    WHY MORE THAN EVER

      When we talk about the Charter, those days in which we have had a horrible terrorist act it is more important than ever for us to see the huge importance of teaching democracy and introducing a non violence spirit into our students´minds . We need to teach our students peaceful ways to resolve their conflicts. Starting with this teaching process at school our students will practice these peaceful ideas out of the school doors. We need to teach our students that "to place bombs in crowded places just to kill innocent people" is not the best democratic way of resolving conflicts.

    INTRODUCTION

    Democracy is important at school because Teaching is considered a Teaching - Learning porcess. As a Teaching Learning process everybody is supposed to participate in this process. Not only teachers but also students are members in that Teaching and Learning process, so both points of view are important and should be taken into account. For this reason, teachers shoudn´t decide on their own, they should always listen to other opinions. Teachers are human beings so they sometimes make mistakes. Therefore teachers would make less mistakes if for example they listened to students´ opinions and also if they did´t take all the class decisions on their own.

    As everybody Knows, there are different organisations at school, such as Students Organisations formed by the representants of the different levels, a Parents Organisation formed by students´mothers and fathers, a Teacher Organisation formed by all different teachers who work at school and the School Council formed by several members of the previous organisations. The School Council formed by teachers, students parents etc is the main organisation because it is responsible for all the important decissions.But all the Organisations work together in a democratic way in order to maintain order, respect, peace and important values at school, and also all the Organisations ideas are taken into account at the same level, because all of them form part of the Main Organisation
    Thanks to Democracy at school, everybody can speak, be listened, give opinion, make their own decisions etc.. and also everybody can try to solve any problem in a democratic way.

    MAIN ASPECTS CONCERNING STUDENTS´ AND TEACHERS´ RIGTHS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

    ·Students shoud be always allowed to see their corrected exams once they have done it and once they have been corrected by the teacher.
    ·If students don´t agree with the marks they have obtained in one exam, they should be allowed to express their opinion to the teacher but both teacher and student should coverse in a pacific and civilised way.
    · The students´opinion about the school trip destinations aswell as the optional activities should be asked.
    ·Students should be alllowed to express their opinions about any topic in a freely way. Teachers should also be allowed to do the same action.
    ·The teacher´s image about one student should never be altered by the student´s race or ideology .
    ·Nobody, nor the student neither the teacher, should be allowed to discriminate somebody just by their race, religion etc..
    ·Students´opinions should be always asked as the students are part of the class not only the teacher.
    ·Students should never be allowed to destroy the school material because it is something useful for everybody.
    ·Students should have compulsories services such as internet, a library computers, but they should always make a civiliced use of them.

        Students, Teacher and Parents should be in charge of the common places and of the correct use of those places .

    ·Students should take part in the decission of other students´ punishments, and should be allowed to participate in the decission making after a conflict. Those students should take the compromise of being as impartial as possible and must always take the most democratic solution.
    ·School time tables should be discuss with the students, in our specific situation all the ESO students want to have a 5 minutes break between each lesson but nobody pays attention to our need, so in our opinion our need should be listened and we should discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of this idea in a democratic way both teachers and students.

    SLOGANS

    We have elaborate two different slogans, we think that the future awareness- raising and dissemination phase should have almost two slogans and change them after a few time.
    Both Slogans are in the second file because as we have make a picture so we had to add them in a second file

    SHORT REPORT ON AN ACTIVE SCHEME THAT USES DEMOCRATIC METHODS

      All the school members thought that the way of resolving the problems should be different. The school playground was always dirty after being the students there, and nobody wanted to help. The teachers didn´t want to take a decision on their own, they wanted the students to admit the problem, and to get a solution all together.One day the teachers left all the playground full of plastic bags, papers, sweets, It was a huge dust bin !. They ask all the students to go out to the playground to play to different games. When the students saw all that rubbish dump, when they saw that it was impossible for them to play, they went to talk to the teachers in order to get all toghether a solution. All of them in a total democratic meeting exposed their opinions and decided that: Each day, following the class order list two students of each level would clean the playground. As all off them were going to clean it more than once during the year, and they saw that it wa sn´t a nice job to clean the rubbish each student tried to maintain the playground as clean as possible everyday in order to find it clean the day they had to do it. Both students and teachers found more useful resolving the problem in a democratic way than deciding the teachers on their own a punishment

      Two students hit each other everyday, during the breaks, the lessons, in the playground, out of school. The school rule for that situation was to expel the students from school but this time we decided to change. The teacher decided to talk to all the students about the violence, the problems of solving something by violence, different historial situations in which the violence didn´t help too much and then they decided, students and teachers by a democratic decission, that those students who were fighting the whole day would be together helping each other in every situation during a week, afer that week in which they had to help each other in everyday situation they became friends, and they found many positive aspects of the other. Then they talk to the rest of the class about their experience, and they pointed that if they hadn´t fight so much, and they had talked more they would have found a good friend many time ago.

      After watching that punishment didn´t solve school problems, teachers started to observe students´ lives and discovered that they loved skating. They built a skating rink and some teachers with the help of the most controversial and troubled students decided that in stead of expelling from school each time that they started a conflict, they were going to be granted with points each time that they did a good action. These points allowed to practice their favourite sport, which was skating, in their breaks. After that decission the conflicts at school were less and less usual and the troubled students wanted to do good actions in order to be granted.

    Spain: I.E.S. Eras de Renueva, León

    INTRODUCTION

    For some time now, in the so called advanced societies, which seemed to have finished with some intolerant and imposing conducts, clearly intolerant attitudes are starting to emerge again.
    When I say “intolerant”, I’m referring to conducts of a definite disrespectful, sexist, xenophobic and even fascist nature.
    In many cases these problems can survive due to the little attention paid from institutions, which try to stop these conducts when, in many cases there’s no solution, instead of rooting them out when the person is being educated.
    In public schools these kinds of problems are constantly growing and, if we don’t do anything about it, the solution may be impossible to achieve.
    If young people can’t show themselves to be as they are ideologically in a Europe so called advanced; if they can’t recognise themselves belonging to one or another religion or even if they are margined because of their ethnic group, we should wonder what progress is, but the fact is clear: if economy gets on well, who cares about people?

    In most cases, the aggressors, most of whom relapse once and again, go unpunished due to legal emptiness in legislations referred to the Minor. This situation creates a feeling of invulnerability in the aggressor and frustration and distress in the victims, that can be the beginning of psychological damages, difficult to halt.
    In conclusion, these problems should be rooted out and shouldn’t be allowed to grow or, otherwise the solution will be impossible to find.

    TYPES OF INTOLERANT CONDUCTS

    Disrespectful behaviour at school

    These are the misdeeds that violate the atmosphere of respect which becomes essential in education.
    These are usually disturbances or lack of respect towards the teacher or pupils. These don’t usually imply very important problems. We should not forget these kinds of misdeeds as they can end with humiliation or endive of victims and can consequently damage more than we could apparently notice.

    Intolerant behaviour towards certain groups

    I would classify these conducts into three groups, according to the reason which produces them:

      1- Racist or xenophobic behaviour

    These are conducts that marginalize, exclude or even chase people from different ethnic groups. These are usually due to dogmatic and prejudiced attitudes, that people feel towards certain cultures and races.
    Some examples of these dogmas are: “Immigrants take our jobs out”; “Every Basque person belongs to ETA and is a member of a Jewish- Masonic conspiracy; Every Muslim is a murderer of Ben Laden's group”. So, with this ethnocentric, dogmatic and ignorant attitude, these and other groups are usually subjected to ostracism, persecution and even to aggression by culturally illiterate and fascistoid people who are not recognised like that but show it from their actions.

      2- Sexist behaviour

    Although our Europe of social-democracies constantly pleads for an egalitarian behaviour between sexes, these archaic and alienating conducts haven’t disappeared.
    We only have to study the job market to check this, and the different conditions for a man or a woman. The behaviour of the completely sexist advertising firms is also reproachable, since they seem not to have overcome the striptease time.
    These examples of sexism just cut women fundamental rights of liberty and equality. Moreover, these conducts aren’t different in the academic world, where pupils repeat what they can learn in the mass media. These sexism problems must be halted, otherwise serious consequences may appear.
    We can just study the (violencia de género) statistics in any European country to prove that.

      3- Antidemocratic and totalitarian behaviour

    These relate to those conducts which try to impose certain beliefs, whether religious or ideological, above other people.
    These attitudes show a totalitarian nature, which must be quickly eradicated, otherwise they can start some fascist or imposing outbreaks, which are really dangerous since they are based on ethnocentricity and intolerance.
    Many of these outbreaks are due to a social unacceptability that leads to look for a getaway, such as violence or the imposing of ideas.
    Although these social problems seem to happen to a small share of the population, we mustn’t forget them since they can give occasion for more dangerous problems such as violence, aggressions, fascist and xenophobic outbreaks.

    EXAMPLES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    - Disrespectful behaviour at school:

    It’s not too difficult to find disrespectful behaviour in any classroom of any school…Any repeated interruption, any insult, any inopportune comment may be considered disrespectful.
    A solution to this problem must be given in the first years of education, by teaching the value of work, of the understanding of the others and above all by teaching the respect for one’s classmates. In short, the maxim “THE OTHER COULD BE ME” should come true.

    - Intolerant behaviour towards certain groups:

    Examples of these conducts take place at school every day, from the slightest pejorative comment to the most brutal, flagrant aggression.
    Now, I’m going to specify several examples of what I consider intolerance among students:

      1. Xenophobic aggressions:
      It’s not difficult to hear insults against people of another ethnic group or country. A good example I know may be the one I could witness in one of the schools I attended. In this particular case a classmate, a coloured girl was insulted repeatedly because of that, because of the colour of her skin. Humiliating insults were addressed to her.
      This clearly racist behaviour can be brought to an end with an education based on brotherhood, in which the mark in the different subjects will be as important as the understanding of the fact that all of us are and suffer the same, regardless of the race we belong to.

      2. Sexist behaviour:
      Unfortunately there are still sexist attitudes which alienate the personal and even sexual freedom of the woman. These behaviours occur whenever a student tries to impose himself on a female student by putting forward reasons of simply arbitrary character of the supposed superiority over the woman. These behaviours also occur every time a man puts his own interests before those of a woman just because he’s physically stronger, for instance. We mustn’t forget the discrimination and violence gays and lesbians have to bear due to their sexual orientation. As a possible solution to this problem we would have to take severe measures:

          · educational reform focused on instilling sexual equality and liberty,
          · the complete abolition of sexist advertising, which is a constant feature in most big companies,
          · total and absolute prohibition of the apologia for the gender-related violence and crimes,
          · equal opportunities between common law unions and legally marriage.

      3. Antidemocratic and totalitarian behaviour:
      This behaviour is based on the imposition of ideas, easily found in our western developed society. One of the most brutal, horrifying cases I’ve ever witnessed was the savage biting that a group of Neo-Nazis (none of them over 18) gave to another minor simply because he was from Euskal Herria.
      Another representative case which actually happened to me was when three extreme right wing young boys greeted me imitating the fascist greeting and shouting “Long live Spain” .As I ignored them, they began insulting me and hitting me.

      The solution to this totalitarian behaviour is given by means of non-sectarian, democratic education which makes the students distinguish between legal and illegal, punishable conducts. It’s also necessary for the police to pay special attention to these cases. Although the aggressors are sometimes minors and they need attention, they can cause the same trouble as criminals

    CONCLUSION

      In a so-called advanced society there is no place for certain intolerant, violent conducts. Thus we must do our best to erradicate them and we must redouble our efforts by means of the necessary reforms in the law and the civic consciousness, but above all with the help of the young people who will be the future of our society.

      I think worthy of mention the proposal of the Spanish Socialist Party which envisages, among others, the insertion in the last year of the Secondary Education of a new subject which aims to achieve sexual equality between the sexes.

      All in all and in conclusion I believe the future belongs to the young and a tolerant youth means a tolerant future and a future of social progress and therefore, the personal formation of the youngsters is as important as, or even more important than, their academic education. A healthy youth is a good signal, and thus we must fight for the principles of equality for and among young people. We must also fight for tolerance in all areas of life and for individual freedom and our long-forgotten collective freedom.

    SLOGAN

    Cedant arma togae

    Cedant arma verbo

    As students of Humanities we have tracked our classical Latin authors in search of expressions regarding violence that we could you use as slogan for this paper.
    And we found Cicero’s words in the De officiis I, 77: Cedant arma togae, “Let arms yield to the gown”, very interesting.

    We thought about the possibility of changing the expression slightly by replacing togae with verbo, in this way we would have the two main ideas which guide this study: Arma arms, which implies the idea of violence, and verbo, word, instrument used for fighting against it with the dialogue and communication: Cedant arma verbo, “Let arms yield to the word”.

    We also wanted to point out that many of the ideas of the Latin world are still currently in force and we can use them as a source of inspiration in the process of unit of Europe that, although diverse in its people, it is common in its past

    18. Ukraine: Sumy Classical Gymnasia, Sumy

    My name is Katya Kondrunina, I’m the pupil of 5(9)-D class. I’m 15.My hobby is dancing. I’m also an active member of the school parliament (commission of social politics) and the role play “Model NATO”.

    My name is Olga Kozlovskaya.I’m the pupil of 6(10)-A form. I’m crazy about football, boxing and writing poems. I’m the head of the commission of foreign affairs. I’m an active member of All-Ukrainian youth movement “Model UNO” and “Model NATO”.
    It’s worth noticing that we’re our native city Sumy we’re living in. We’d like to mention that Sumy is a unique part of Ukraine. It has a long history, and this year we’re going to celebrate it’s 350 anniversary. It goes without saying that a lot of interesting facts about Sumy can be mentioned, but we thought it would be more exciting to read a poem about it.

    So here is Olga’s poem about Ukraine and Sumy.

    MY NATIVE LAND
    I had a dream this night- it was about Ukraine,
    My darling land , that’s full of grace and charm.
    You are young daughter of these blooming plains,
    You can be either mutinous or calm.
    Ukraine is also mother of old cities,
    Of rivers, seas and fields, that’s full of ears.
    And of it’s regions I can name the prettiest –
    It’s Slobodjanshchina, the oldest of all spears.
    Yes, Slobodjanshchina! This name brings so much light
    And so much love, it’s neither dark nor gloomy,
    So here you can find a city-bright
    And very dear to my heart-my native Sumy!
    It dozes peacefully in babble of three rivers,
    And how amazing it’s buried in verdure!
    And sometimes when the fresh, cool wind blows hardly
    It’s so remarkably to hear low murmur…

    * * *
    I had a dream this night…But now I’m not dreaming,
    Oh, don’t mind! I’m really full of health
    To change the fate of native country. Now I’m screaming:
    “I’ll try to give Ukraine prosperity and wealth!”

    And of course there is no doubt that the Charter will pull together experiences and achievements of pilot initiatives across Europe which could inspire many more schools to involve their students, along with educations, in decision- making on matters concerning them.
    Cultivating a new generation of modern youth able to live and work in fundamentally new social and economic conditions is a crucial strategy in saving the sovereignty of our country. That is why we are convinced that pupils’ self-government is an essential part of the democratization of education and training in schools.
    This is one of the most effective methods of attracting pupils to the process of forming civil society. It gives pupils the opportunity to become active members of school life.
    Functioning , real effective – it assures a “business rhythm” to the life of the pupils , it creates favorable conditions for the discovery of pupils’ creative potential, it builds pupils’ groups on the principles of equality, openness , democracy, hence helping to form moral values that are impossible to inculcate solely via verbal influence.

    “Pupils’ self-governance” is the participation of pupils in administration and management of the school’s collective affairs. It can nurture real leaders, managers, and rounded citizens. That’s why pupils’ self- government has to be operational in every secondary educational institution where it’s possible. However, a functioning system of controlling this form of self-government must exist.

    So let us introduce our school parliament. It is called “The united classes’ organization”. It exists since 2000. The head of the body(the president) is elected in all-school elections. The governing body is divided into committees. The 6 main directions( comities) are:

      1. social politics
      2. cultural
      3. informal
      4. foreign affairs
      5. sports
      6. free time.

    Main functions of the governing body are :
    -attracting youth to the decision-making process;
    -democratizing the educational and development process;
    -solving the problems of school-life.
    Here’re some principles of our parliament’s creative activity:

    Personal-oriental principles

    1.The principle of pupil’s adaptation to gymnasia(make yourself at home, gymnasia is for all)
    2.The principle of development(gymnasia is not only for all, but also for everyone)
    3.The principle of psychological comfort(tolerant attitude towards every pupil, the high level of moral values)

    Cultural-oriental principles

    1. The principle of all-round development(every pupil’s place in this competitive world)
    2. The principle of the intact of the system of education
    3. The principle of oriental attitude towards the world(every pupil is a unique part of the world)

    Operation-oriental principles

    1.The principle of implementation every pupil’s knowledge in practice ( helping boarding schools)
    2.The principle of creative activity:
    -school newspaper “Alma Mater”
    -school radio
    -dance group “Amelia”
    -drama society
    -design studio “ART’el Moda”
    -our own currency SHVAKS (the school currency of active senior pupils) and special school uniform
    -we also participate in All-Ukrainian Youth movement “Model UNO” and the role play “Model NATO”
    -school museum
    -the healthy way of life
    -leader’s development.

    We have the system of school crimes. They are the following:
    -smoking
    -being late without a good excuse
    -cheating in an examination
    -stealing
    -playing truant
    -being rude to the teachers or bullying
    -not doing homework
    -fighting
    -not wearing school uniform
    The main goal of punishment is to shame rather than hurt pupils. But if somebody deserves punishment his parents must be informed and he may :
    - be told off
    -stay in the school grounds
    -be expelled from school

    To cut our long story short we’d like to say the following: many pupils return from their schools feeling like squeezed lemon. They are tired and don’t want to go there again. But it is not our story. We always go to school with pleasure, because here we can show our talents not only in serious educational work, but also in social life. The decision-making process makes us more organized and better disciplined, helps to cram lots of things into our lives and to take a confident stand in this competitive world. Our model of self-government opens possibilities to solve the majority of current and future questions.

    United Kingdom: Northumberland Park Community School, Tottenham, North London

    The school is engaged in a number of activities that support the building of a democratic, peaceful, tolerant and inclusive community. The school has an effective School Council and through its Citizenship curriculum and pastoral support system the school regularly undertakes activities that help build community cohesion, resolve conflict and reduce the incidence violence. In addition the school operates a partnership with the local police which is described in more detail below.

    The school has a roll of 1020 students, with 845 (82.8%) are members of ethnic minority communities. This includes Turkish speaking 283 (27.7) (Turkish, Turkish Cypriot and Kurdish backgrounds). The other large groups are Black Caribbean 14.3% and Black African 15.7% and White British 17.2%. Other ethnic groups present are Vietnamese and Chinese, Asian and other mixed race groups.

    It is a multi-lingual school with 58.2% of pupils who are bilingual and 40 languages other than English are in use by the students.

    From the above profile the school can claim to be multi-cultural in many aspects. Many of the students are from families who are recent migrants to this country.

    The school is also in an area of the city characterised by deprivation, high unemployment and significant levels of crime.

    The area has many Strategic Partnerships working to improve these issues and Haringey is an improving area that has been determined by a number indicators.

    A response to high levels of student victimisation of violence through street robbery and violence from disorder and gang fights has been the establishment of a partnership with the local police. The following paragraphs describe the aims and objectives of this partnership. Many of these objectives support and maintain the establishment of a democratic school without violence.

    This partnership has not been imposed on the school, staff and pupils. It is the product of extensive consultation and has been delivered with skill and balance. The school community is policed with consent and in partnership with the police.

    Proactive Community Policing – A Safer School Partnership with Northumberland Park School.

    The school has the benefit of being in a Safer School Partnership with the police in Haringey. This relationship is now in its second year and commenced in September 2002, the two years will be completed in September 2004.

    The aims and objectives of the scheme can be summarised as follows:

    1) To provide a safe and secure school community which enhances
    the learning environment by:

    a) developing a multi-agency approach to supporting teachers and other school staff in managing the learning environment.

    b) developing crime prevention strategies to improve the physical security
    of the school and the personal safety of all who use it.

    c) reducing substance misuse either in the school or in the wider
    community.

    d) reducing the incidence of bullying and violent behaviour experienced
    by pupils and staff in the school and the wider community.

    2) To ensure that young people remain in education, actively
    learning and achieving their full potential by:

    a) raising attainment by ensuring a calm learning environment free from
    disruption.

    b) developing strategies to improve attendance by addressing both
    authorised and unauthorised absence.

    c) supporting vulnerable young people through transition, between phases
    in their education and other aspects of their lives.

    3) To engage young people, challenge unacceptable behaviour and
    help them develop a respect for themselves and their community
    by:

    - developing a whole school approach to conflict resolution.

    - ensuring that young people have opportunities to learn and develop
    citizenship skills.

    - promoting the full participation of all young people in the life of the school
    and its wider community and decisions that directly affect them.

    4) To reduce the prevalence of crime and victimisation amongst
    young people and to reduce the number of incidents and crimes
    in schools and their wider communities by:

    - working together with statutory and voluntary agencies to provide consistent and appropriate support and intervention to divert young people from social exclusion and criminality.

    - sharing information to identify those young people at risk of becoming
    victims or offenders as well as those who already have been victims or
    offenders.

    The activities of the officer involved in the partnership are detailed in an action plan that is reviewed each year. The action plan details how the aims and objectives are being delivered and when. It also details the active partnerships involved in achieving the objectives.

    One area of activity that is being developed in this partnership with the school and its pupils is the creation of the building blocks for creating sustained youth crime prevention, diversion and problem solving and freedom from violence.

    Involving young people. Working with young people to create safer communities

    Crime reduction can only work with the whole community involved. Statutory agencies make the difference, however the community when working with those agencies will make an even greater difference with sustained outcomes.

    Young people as victims

    A recent MORI poll showed how young people feel:

      · 62% said they are fearful of being physically assaulted
      · 41% said they are afraid of being bullied
      · 60% said they are worried about having their possessions stolen

    Why we need to involve young people

    Young people make up a significant proportion of the community, in Haringey it’s 9.9% and their voices need to be heard, just like other sections of the community. They should be involved in a meaningful and non-patronising way and be encouraged and supported to provide solutions and take action to address the issues they identify for themselves.
    Young people need a say in debates about youth crime. Discussions about young people and crime need to take their views on board. They will often know more than adults about local crime problems and can provide a wealth of ‘streetwise’, ‘grassroots’ knowledge.
    Young people have a lot to offer. Their commitment, energy, ideas and resourcefulness can help ensure solutions are effective.
    Issues that impact on young people need attention. We cannot expect young people to have a stake in their community if we ignore the issues which affect them – issues such as violence, bullying, robbery and drugs. Young people need to be part of the solution or they will continue to feel alienated.
    Young people are ambassadors. They have direct access to, and influence on, their peers, parents and other adults. They can be powerful allies in getting crime prevention messages across.
    Young people want adults to see them in a more positive light. Young people can make a valuable contribution and their involvement can help break down stereotyped images of them as responsible for crime. Having them as equal partners can build understanding between generations.
    Above all, young people recognise that they are vulnerable as both victims and perpetrators of crime and are more likely to get involved in projects if they are encouraged to tackle the issues that affect their own lives.
    Many young people thrive on being involved in projects that make a difference in their community. All they need to make things happen is the opportunity to get involved and a little support and guidance from adults.

    Active involvement in community arts, drama, sport, citizenship activities and recreation are key routes to fostering the types of relationships that young people value. In turn this activity creates an ownership of a neighbourhood, a sense of belonging and involvement in shaping the community.

    The benefits of including young people

    Young people must play a full part in planning and organising their programmes, projects and experiences in order to gain maximum benefit from their involvement. They need to progressively take more responsibility for their work, their learning, themselves and each other. In this way they are encouraged to prepare themselves to play a full part in their community as active citizens, reducing crime and responding to the needs of others.
    By being involved in projects, young people:

      · Develop responsibility and citizenship skills
      · Appreciate the advantages to dialogue not conflict
      · Gain new insights into social and moral issues
      · Learn about teamwork, organising, decision-making and communicating
      · Achieve practical skills such as video making, leaflet design, counselling and conducting surveys
      · Gain confidence and self-esteem

    School-based projects:

      · Offer a practical, interactive and engaging way to develop personal responsibility and citizenship skills
      · Involve young people from across the age, background and ability range
      · Encourage positive behaviour
      · Create a positive image for young people and the school
      · Attract additional materials, resources and help-in-kind from partner organisations
      · Improve communications and relationships between staff and pupils

    Neighbourhood-based projects:

      · Involve and reach young people who are considered most ‘at risk’
      · Tackle neighbourhood crime and address community and personal safety issues
      · Dispel some of the myths and fears associated with young people in modern society
      · Achieve trust and respect by building bridges between the generations
      · Give young people a voice in their neighbourhood.

    Young people as partners

    In creating safer and more inclusive communities, it is vital to involve young people – especially those at risk – not only because they are a resource for change, but because their participation can also offer them positive opportunities and choices which they may previously not have been offered. In this partnership, the police have four programs of involvement across all age groups in the school. In Year 11 there is a focus on Violence – in domestic environments involving both women and children as victims. In Year 8 the focus is on anti-social behaviour, bullying and offending. With Years 9, 10 and 11 work has been done to challenge the acceptance of the carrying of guns and knives.

    ENGAGE

    The school’s Youth Act group, ENGAGE was initially supported by The Citizenship Foundation (UK). The group, are making a film about the robbery of young people by young people. They are using this setting to create a video film on DVD supported by a teachers pack. It is clear from research completed by ENGAGE that blockages exist for young people to be able to report incidents to parents, staff and police when they have been the victims of violence. While these blockages exist violence will go unchecked and can even escalate. Important information will be lost and the climate of fear and violence will be maintained by the minority on the majority.

    The project has 15 students across the age groups 12 -15 years old who are working together to explore the obstacles. The tools that they are using involve consultation, through questionnaire, video interviews and focus groups with students. Debates took place and opinions were sought as to what might work to solve the problem and remove the blockage.

    At this particular school the pupils identified the need to change;

      ü how reports are made and to whom - including the police
      ü how they are followed up with action
      ü the security of identity of the complainant or person supplying information.

    New support procedures are being explored and the implementation of system changes that support pupils to feel safe in making reports will be implemented.

            § Third party reporting through trained student mentors
            § Safe message boxes via email and actual mail boxes in the school building
            § Training of Year Heads and Senior teachers in obtaining the correct type of information
            § Training of Year Heads and Senior Teachers in delivering restorative justice type conferences to resolve conflict

    Because students have been actively involved in all aspects of this project and their involvement and participation with other students has taken place on a regular basis, the project has real value and respect amongst the school population. It’s not a policy invented by adults against or too young people. It’s a fine example of active citizenship addressing a problem that affects community safety.

    Summary

    In summary what we have learnt at Northumberland Park Community School is that young people do want to feel safe and work in a school free from violence. When consulted about what they wanted, they were very keen to get involved. Real value has been added to community safety through a substantial reduction of violence, this was achieved in partnership with the police working in the school.
    The police officer working with groups like ENGAGE add real value to the relationship. Through democratic process in partnership, members of the school community and the extended community that the pupils live in benefit from being able to influence a sustained reduction of violence.
    Pupils have a greater respect for the workings of the systems that influence and affect community safety and they have been able to engage and influence those systems through active participation.
    School staff and pupils can make democratic decisions concerning rights and responsibilities and decision making on school matters. However, extended partnerships are often required with outside agencies such as the police and justice organisations if the school community and the staff are to maintain their credibility in being able to provide safety and security when the issue is outside of their remit.
    This model is transferable to other schools, police services and justice agencies.

    IV. Appendices

    Appendix 1


Integrated Projects

    Making democratic institutions work
    Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society

 

    8 July 2004

    A EUROPEAN CHARTER FOR DEMOCRATIC SCHOOLS WITHOUT VIOLENCE

    LIST OF PARTICIPANTS / LISTE DE PARTICIPANTS

    Tuesday 13 to Sunday 18 July, 2004
    Strasbourg, European Youth Centre

    LIST OF PARTICIPANTS / LISTE DE PARTICIPANTS

    Bulgaria

    English Language Secondary School "Geo Milev"
    Nikolay MIHAYLOV
    Rousse

    Foreign Language Secondary School "Romain Rolland"
    Daniela IVANOVA
    Stara Zagora

    Croatia

    Ekonomiska I Trogovacka Skola
    Nikola ŽGANEC
    Čakovec

    Gimnazija Cakovec
    Monika NOVAK
    Vratišinec

    Gimnazija Metkovic
    Maria BRLJEVIC
    Metkovic

    Srednja skola Marko Marulic
    Ana NEDIC
    Slatina

    Cyprus

    Saint George Lyceum of Larnaca
    Agni SHIALAROU
    Larnaca

    Lycée Lanitio A
    Chrysovalanto KOUSETTI
    Limassol

    Finland

    Gymnasiet Lärkan
    Teo KORTMAN
    Helsingfors
    Andreas WILKMAN
    Tuusula

    Germany

    Jörg-Ratgeb-Schule
    Kristian KUEN
    Christine ROITSCH
    Stuttgart

    Greece

    1st Vocational School of Piraeus
    Lemonia MAMMATA
    Athens
    Maria SYRIGOU
    Piraeus

    Hungary

    Batthyány Lajos Egészségügyi Szakközépiskola
    György Patrik POLAI
    Nagykanizsa

    Iceland

    Fjölbrautaskoli
    Eyrun Bjorg MAGNUSDOTTIR
    Selfoss
    Kristrun Elsa HARDARDOTTIR
    Thorlakshofn

    Ireland

    Gairmscoil Mhuire
    Catherine O' LOUGHLIN

    Gregory WALSHE
    Thurles, Co. Tipperary

    Italy

    Instituto Tecnico Commerciale "Padre A.M. Tannoia"
    Roberta COLELLA
    Ezja DI GENNARO
    Corato (BA)

    Lithuania

    Vilnius Senvage Secondary School
    Ččsna ŠARŪNAS
    Darius ŠEŠKEVIČIUS
    Vilnius

    Malta

    Margaret Mortimer' Girls' Junior Lyceum, Santa Lucia
    Sephora BORG
    Qrendi

    Liceo M.A. Vassalli Boys' Junior Lyceum
    Damien AGIUS
    Qormi

    Poland

    Zespol Szkol- Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace w Wojkowicacl
    Agata OLSZỐWKA
    Ewelina ROMIK
    Wojkowice

    Portugal

    Escola Secundária da Amadora
    André Henrique LEAL BRAZ DE CARVALHO
    Queluz
    Ana Carina SANTOS MONTEIRO
    Amadora

    Russia

    School 700
    Ksenia KOTOVA
    St-Petersburg

    Yana MUNDZHISHVILI
    Krasnodarsky kray
    Anastassia SELEGEN
    Moscow
    Anton ULTURGASHEV
    Abakan

    Serbia and Montenegro

    HPTS "Uros Predic" Zrenjanin
    Natasha BABIC
    Klek
    Lana VRANJESEVIC
    Zrenjanin

    Spain

    IES Eras de Renueva
    Elio GARCIA CALLEJA
    Daniel CABANEROS MARTINEZ
    León

    Valdepeńas, Ciudad Real Espańa
    Juan José LÓPEZ LÓPEZ
    Pilar MARTIN PENASCO APARICIO
    Valdepeńas, Ciudad Real

    Ukraine

    Sumy Classical Gymnasium #2
    Katerina KONDRUNINA
    Olga KOZLOVSKA
    Sumy

    United Kingdom

    Northumberland Park Community School
    Liam COLEMAN-HUGES
    Daniela MARKS
    London

    ACCOMPANYING PERSONS

    Bulgaria

    Diana GERASIMOVA
    Rousse

    Cyprus

    Elena ANASTASIADE
    Larnaca

    Croatia

    Marija MIščANčUK
    Čakovec

    Ireland

    Sinéad TUOHY
    Cashel, Co. Tipperary

    Lithuania

    Jurgita TAMLILAITYTE
    Vilnius

    Malta

    Céline ABELA
    Zebbug

    Poland

    Anna AUGUSTYNSKA
    Wojkowice

    Portugal

    Margarida C Fermoselle SILVA
    Amadora

    Russia

    Janna KOUZNETSOVA
    St. Petersburg

    Spain

    Antonio Olazabal FLOREZ
    León

    Ms Estrella Gómez JIMÉNEZ-TUSSET
    Valdepenas Ciudad Real

    Ukraine

    Svitlana HUZ
    Sumy

    United Kingdom

    Mr Colin MOORHOUSE
    London

    Ms Maroulla DEAN
    Waltham Cross, Herts

    SECRETARIAT

    Michael REMMERT, Project Manager
    Tel. +33 (0)3 88 41 34 05 E-mail: michael.remmert@coe.int

    Irena GUIDIKOVA, Project Administrator

    Jean-Pierre TITZ, Project Manager
    Tel. +33 (0)3 88 41 26 09 E-mail: jean-pierre.titz@coe.int

    Lauri SIVONEN, Project Administrator

    Hans-Georg WASSMUTH, Programme Adviser

    Marjorie O’CONNELL, Assistant

    Nathalie Schell, Assistant

    Michelle STAEHLI, Assistant

    Anne GODFREY, Administrative Assistant

    André-Jacques DODIN, Head of Division, Intergovernmental Co-operation

Appendix 2

May 26, 2004

Council of Europe - Integrated Projects - Towards a European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence

       

List of contributions

         
           
           

Country

City

School

Contact

Person

EmailAddress

           

Bulgaria

Kazanlak

Ekzarh Antim

Donka

Daleva

d_daleva@abv.bg

Bulgaria

Ruse

English Language Secondary School "Geo Milev"

Yordanka

Nenova

jns@ru.acad.bg

Bulgaria

Stara Zagora

Foreign Language Secondary School "Romain Rolland"

Stefka

Raykova

stef_raykova@yahoo.com

Bulgaria

Varna

VII Secondary General School "Nayden Gerov"

Svetlana

Banova

sou7@top.bg

Bulgaria

Vidin

Foreign Language Secondary School

Valentina

Iordanova

v_iordanova@abv.bg

Croatia

Bedekovcina

Srednja skola Bedekovcina

Marica

Kascelan

sskola-bedekovcina@kr.tel.hr

Croatia

Cakovec

Ekonomiska i Trogovacka Skola

Biserka

Mihajlova

ets-ck@hrvatska.com

Croatia

Cakovec

Gimnazija Cakovec

Sandra

Breka-Ovcar

eu@gimnazija-cakovec.hr

Croatia

Daruvar

School of engineering Daruvar

Sanja

Busic

tehnicka-daruvar@skole.htnet.hr

Croatia

Dubrovnik

Gimnazija Dubrovnik

Igor

Miosic

ivana.miosic@du.htnet.hr

Croatia

Dugo Selo

Srednja Skola Dugo Selo

Josip

Herceg

srednjadugoselo@yahoo.com

Croatia

Karlovac

Sumarska skola Karlovac

Mirna

Korkut

sum.skola-klc@ka.htnet.hr

Croatia

Karlovac

Tehnoloscko-kemijska skola

Zeljka

Jancic

ss-karlovac-504@skole.hinet.hr

Croatia

Metkovic

Gimnazija Metkovic

Zivka

Frankovic

gimnazija-metkovic@du.Tel.hr

Croatia

Osijek

Nursing School Osijek

Ana

Ilic

ss-osijek-506@skole.hinet.hr

Croatia

Pregrada

Srednja skola Pregrada

Sanja

Kosutic

ss-pregrada@kr.tel.hr

Croatia

Slatina

Srednja skola Marko Marulic

Zorislav

Jelencic

ss-slatina-501@skole.htnet.hr

Croatia

Split

1. Jezicna gimnazija - Split

Djana

Begonja

1.gimnazija.split@st.htnet.hr

Croatia

Split

II. Gimnazija Split

Vedrana

Radic

druga-jez.gimn@st.tel.hr

Croatia

Trogir

Secondary school "Ivan Lucic"

Perislava

Besic Smlatic

ss-trogir-501@st.hinet.hr

Croatia

Vis

Srednja Skola Antun Matijasevic Karamaneo

Mladen

Zivkovic

ss-vis-501@skole.htnet.hr

Croatia

Zabok

Srednja skola Zabok

Mirjana

Spajic

srednjao@inet.hr

Croatia

Zabok

Strukovno i Umjetnicko Uciliste Zabok - SUUZA

Biserka

Dugandzic

ss-zabok-502@skole.htnet.hr

Croatia

Zagreb

Druga Ekonomska Skola

Maria

Saric

ss-zagreb@skole.hinet.hr

Croatia

Zagreb

High Medical School Vinogradska

Zeljko

Pranjic

zpranjic1968@yahoo.com

Croatia

Zagreb

IX. Gimnazija

Mirjana

Franic

ix-gimnazija@zg.hinet.hr

Croatia

Zagreb

Poljoprivredna Skola Zagreb

Dijana

Dijanic

ss-zagreb-542@skole.hinet.hr

Croatia

Zagreb

Postanska i telekomunikacijska skola Zagreb

Zlata

Martinovic

ss-zagreb-540@skole.hinet.hr

Croatia

Zagreb

Technical school Ruder Boskovic

Marija

Saric

tsrb@tsrb.hr

Croatia

Zagreb

Upravna i Birotehnicka Skola

Sanja

Milovic

uibs@zg.htnet.hr

Croatia

Zupanja

Gimnazija Zupanja

Katharina

Berac

ss-zupanja-502@skole.hinet.hr

Cyprus

Larnaca

Pancyprian Lyceum

Angeliki

Christophidou

andreasion@cytanet.com.cy

Cyprus

Larnaca

Saint George Lyceum of Larnaca

Androulla

Antoniadou

lyaggeor@cytanet.com.cy

Cyprus

Limassol

Agios Spyridonas Lyceum

Yiannis

Podinaras

lyceum.ag.spyridona@cytanet.com.cy

Cyprus

Limassol

Lycée Lanitio A

Niki

Papas

papanikh@spidernet.com.cy

Cyprus

Limassol

Lyceum Agrou

Panayiota

Bambang

lyc.agr.lim@cytanet.com.cy

Cyprus

Paralimni

Paralimni Lyceum

Evangelios

Constantinou

nice@paralimni-lyceum.ac.cy

Finland

Helsingfors

Gymnasiet Lärkan

Teo

Kortman

larkan@edu.hel.fi

Germany

Fulda

Winfriedschule

Brigitte

Hoffmann-Cnyrim

Winfriedschule@mail.regio.net

Germany

Neustadt an der Aisch

Friedrich-Alexander-Gymnasium

Maria

Wünsche

wuenschem@fag-neustadt-aisch.de

Germany

Stuttgart

Jörg-Ratgeb-Schule

Brigitte

Liebelt

poststelle.jrsn@stuttgart.de

Greece

Pireus

1st Vocational School of Piraeus

Melissa

Thaleia

1tee-peiraia@sch.gr

Hungary

Békéscsaba

Rózsa Ferenc Gimnázium

Pete

István

fcskati@freemail.hu

Hungary

Nagykanizsa

Batthyány Lajos Egészségügyi Szakközépiskola

Patrik

Polai

ungarisch@yahoo.de

Hungary

Nyíregyháza

Zrínyi Ilona Gimnázium

Szakács

István

esziviki@freemail.hu

Iceland

Selfoss

Fjölbrautaskoli

Örlygur

Karlsson

orlygur@fsu.is

Ireland

Thurles

Gairmscoil Mhuire

Sinead

Tuohy

sineadtuohy@hotmail.com

Italy

Corato (Bari)

Instituto Tecnico Commerciale "Padre A.M. Tannoia"

Anna

Laforgia

sl260362@libero.it

Lithuania

Vilnius

Vilnius Naujininku secondary school

Irma

Banyte

uoga999@yahoo.com

Lithuania

Vilnius

Vilnius Senvage Secondary School

Vida

Metelioniene

senvages@takas.lt

Malta

Mriehel

St Theresa Girls' Junior Lyceum

Josephine

Vassallo

josvass@vol.net.mt

Malta

Sta Lucia

'Margaret Mortimer' Girls' Junior Lyceum

Josephine

Vassallo

josvass@vol.net.mt

Malta

Tal-Handaq

Mikiel Anton Vassalli Boys' Junior Lyceum

Josephine

Vassallo

josvass@vol.net.mt

Malta

Verdala

'Guzeppi Despott' Boys' Junior Lyceum

Josephine

Vassallo

josvass@vol.net.mt

Malta

Victoria

Agius de Soldanis Girls' Junior Lyceum

Josephine

Vassallo

josvass@vol.net.mt

Poland

Belchatow

Secondary School Complex No 2

Magdalena

Piaskowska

zspec@csc.com.pl

Poland

Czarnkow

Zespol Szkol Ponadgimnazjalnych

Malgorzata

Banaszak

b_tr@tlen.pl

Poland

Czestochowie

VII Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace Mikolaja Kopernika

   

copernicus0007@wp.pl

Poland

Goleniow

Secondary Grammar School

   

lo1.goleniow@poczta.fm

Poland

Piortków Trybunalski

1st Bolelsaw Chrobry Comprehensive School

Janusz

Blaszczyk

chrobry1lo@poczta.onet.pl

Poland

Tarnowskie Góry

Wieloprofilowy Zespol Szkol

Marzena

Paruzel

wzs_tg@poczta.onet.pl

Poland

Wojkowice

Zespol Szkol - Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace w Wojkowicach

Magdalena

Kreczko

lowojkowice@o2.pl

Portugal

Amadora

Escola Secundária da Amadora

Rui

Costa

rui.costa.esa@netcabo.pt

Portugal

Figueira da Foz

Escola Secundaria Dr. Joaquim de Carvalho

Fernando

Tomé

tome26@yahoo.com

Portugal

Lagoa

Escola Secundária Padre António Marins de Oliveira

Ana

Aires

ew0bnv@esoterica.pt

Portugal

Porto

Escola Secundaria António Nobre

Fernanda Estela

Rocha

esanobre@mail.telepac.pt

Portugal

Porto

Escola Secundaria Infante D. Henrique

Fatima

Pina

info@esec-infante-d-henrique.rcts.pt

Russia

St. Petersburg

School 700

Tatiana

Chekolyova

school700@spb.edu.ru

Serbia and Montenegro

Zrenjanin

HPTS "Uros Predic" Zrenjanin

Gordana

Stojic

ssupredic@zrlocal.net

Serbia and Montenegro

Zrenjanin

Zrenjaninska gimnazija

Milana

Stanulov

stanulovm@ptt.yu

Spain

Leon

IES Eras de Renueva

Elio

Calleja

erasdere@centros4.cnice.mecd.es

Spain

Palma s/n

IES Berenguer d'Anoia

Maria

Gener Llopis

iesberenguerdanoia@educacio.caib.es

Spain

Valdepenas

Colegio San Agustín

Estrella

Gomez

estrella_gomezjt@yahoo.es

Spain

Villares del Saz

IES los Sauces

Sofia

Valero

svaleroserrano@yahoo.co.uk

Ukraine

Kremenchuk

Gumnasium No. 5

Katryna

Doletska

katerynadoletska@rambler.ru

Ukraine

Kremenchuk

School #10

Katryna

Doletska

katerynadoletska@rambler.ru

Ukraine

Kremenchuk

School #2

Katryna

Doletska

katerynadoletska@rambler.ru

Ukraine

Kremenchuk

School No. 19

Katryna

Doletska

katerynadoletska@rambler.ru

Ukraine

Kremenchuk

School No. 27

Katryna

Doletska

katerynadoletska@rambler.ru

Ukraine

Kremenchuk

Secondary Educational Complex

Katryna

Doletska

katerynadoletska@rambler.ru

Ukraine

Sumy

Sumy Classical Gymnasium #2

Irina

Trigubchak

ochitell@hotmail.com

United Kingdom

North London

Northumberland Park Community School

Colin

Moorhouse

cmo@northumberlandpark.haringey.sch.uk

    Appendix 3

    A EUROPEAN CHARTER FOR DEMOCRATIC SCHOOLS WITHOUT VIOLENCE

    Project Conference

    Tuesday 13 to Sunday 18 July, 2004
    Strasbourg, European Youth Centre

    Programme

    Tuesday, 13 July 2004

 

Arrival

 

19.00 h

Dinner

 

20.00 h

Opening and welcome

 

20.30 h

International Ice Breaking Games

 

    Wednesday, 14 July 2004

09.00 h

Breakfast

 

10.00 h

Who we are, where we come from,
What we do for participation in our schools?

 

12.30 h

Lunch

 

14.00 h

The aims and functions of the Charter
Introduction

 

19.00 h

Dinner

 

20.30 h

French National Holiday Celebrations
Fireworks in the city of Strasbourg

 

    Thursday, 15 July 2004

08.30 h

Breakfast

 

09.30 h

Work on the Charter - Workshops
Discussion of the contributions

 

12.30 h

Lunch

 

14.00 h
15.00 h

Guided visit to the Council of Europe
Meeting the Secretary General of the Council of Europe Mr Walter Schwimmer

 

16.00 h

Free time for sightseeing or shopping at Strasbourg or alternatively
Guided tour through Strasbourg

 

19.00 h

Dinner

 

20.30 h

European Quiz

 

    Friday, 16 July 2004

08.30 h

Breakfast

 

09.30 h

Work on the Charter
Practical concepts for democratic participation and violence prevention

 

12.30 h

Lunch

 

14.00 h

Translation of the Charter into the different languages

 

19.00 h

Dinner

 

20.30 h

Adoption ceremony and
European Intercultural Evening

 

    Saturday, 17 July 2004

08.30 h

Breakfast

 

09.30 h

Visit to the Europa-Park

 

evening

Farewell Party and presentation of
Certificates of participation

 

    Sunday, 18 July 2004

09.00 h

Breakfast

 
 

Departure

 

    Appendix 4

    Electronic Referendum

    On the European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence

Organised by the Council of Europe

In partnership with the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland

    The voting site is open between
    8h00* on 11 October and 18h00* on 22 October 2004
    *Central European (summer) Time

    Dear voter,
    Today you have the opportunity to express your opinion on the European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence. This Charter was prepared at the Council of Europe by young people from many European countries as a model for schools across Europe.
    Your school is participating, together with over 90 other European schools, in the referendum on the Charter which is done by an Internet vote. You are a pioneer in this new form of voting which is likely to become more and more popular in the future.
    This referendum has a consultative role – its results do not mean that your school will automatically adopt or reject the Charter. Your vote, however, is very important because a general approval of the Charter at the referendum will help the Council of Europe to promote it in all of its 45 member States.
    Your vote is important also because if the majority of voters in your school vote in favour of the Charter, your school community may take further steps in order to introduce it as a part of the internal school rules.
    The referendum results will be announced on this web site after the end of the voting period.
    Description of the voting procedure (step-by-step instructions will be available on each page of the voting site) https://coe.geneve.ch/votation.html
    1. Read the School Charter carefully.
    2. Please make sure you are alone behind your computer. Your vote should remain secret. Prepare to answer the following question:
    Do you accept the European Charter for a Democratic School without Violence? You may answer “Yes” or “No” or “Blank” (abstention/no opinion).
    3. Click on the link “Go to the voting page”.
    4. When the voting page opens, identify yourself: enter the number of your voting card and click on "continue".

Do you accept the European Charter for a Democratic School without Violence?

Yes

No

    5. A new page opens: Click on the little square under the chosen answer or do not click on any of the squares if you want to vote "blank".
    6. Click on “continue”.
    7. A new page opens: check whether your answer is correctly registered and if the 4- character code that appears on the page matches the one figuring on our voting card.
    8. Take a coin or another hard object and scratch the surface next to the words “secret code” on your voting card to reveal the secret code.
    On the same page, enter the secret code.
    9. Click on the button “VOTE” to cast your vote.
    10. A confirmation should appear that your vote has been registered.
    You can print this page
    , if you wish. The printout is a proof that you have voted. The printed page does not reveal whether you have voted “Yes” or “No” or "Blank".
    10. Click on Exit.
    11. If you receive an error message, you may have made a mistake while typing your secret code.
    Click on Continue
    in order to try again.
    If you keep receiving error messages, please turn to the teacher responsible who will seek help.
    Information for teachers:
    Hotline e-mail address:
    Hotline telephone number
    : + 41 22 388 11 55
    (Important: this is a telephone number in Switzerland where the voting server is located. Telephone costs may be high!).
    The Hotline is available between
    8h00* on 11 October and 18h00* on 15 October 2004
    and
    8h00* on 18 October and 18h00* on 22 October 2004

    *Central European (summer) Time

Appendix 5

       

Results of the electronic referendum about the European Charter for Democratic Schools without Violence

     

25 October 2004

                         

Country

City

ID

School

Electorate

Total votes

Turnout

YES votes

YES %

NO votes

NO %

BLANK votes

BLANK %

Bulgaria

Kazanlak 

01-01 

Ekzarh Antim 

300 

286 

95.33% 

283 

98.95% 

0.70% 

0.35% 

Bulgaria

Ruse 

01-02 

English Language Secondary School "Geo Milev" 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Bulgaria

Stara Zagora 

01-03 

Foreign Language Secondary School "Romain Rolland" 

300 

275 

91.67% 

275 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Bulgaria

Varna 

01-04 

VII Secondary General School "Nayden Gerov" 

300 

221 

73.67% 

214 

96.83% 

1.81% 

1.36% 

Bulgaria

Vidin 

01-05 

Foreign Language Secondary School 

300 

272 

90.67% 

268 

98.53% 

0.37% 

1.10% 

Bulgaria

1200 

1054 

87.83% 

1040 

98.67% 

7 

0.66% 

7 

0.66% 

Croatia

Bedekovcina 

02-01 

Srednja skola Bedekovcina 

300 

106 

35.33% 

105 

99.06% 

0.94% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Cakovec 

02-02 

Ekonomiska i Trogovacka Skola 

300 

297 

99.00% 

288 

96.97% 

2.69% 

0.34% 

Croatia

Cakovec 

Postal 

Gimnazija Cakovec 

180 

180 

100.00% 

154 

85.56% 

21 

11.67% 

2.78% 

Croatia

Daruvar 

02-03 

School of engineering Daruvar 

300 

284 

94.67% 

277 

97.54% 

2.46% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Dubrovnik 

02-04 

Gimnazija Dubrovnik 

500 

422 

84.40% 

394 

93.36% 

26 

6.16% 

0.47% 

Croatia

Dugo Selo 

02-05 

Srednja Skola Dugo Selo 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Croatia

Karlovac 

02-06 

Sumarska skola Karlovac 

450 

420 

93.33% 

390 

92.86% 

24 

5.71% 

1.43% 

Croatia

Karlovac 

02-07 

Tehnoloscko-kemijska skola 

400 

256 

64.00% 

250 

97.66% 

1.95% 

0.39% 

Croatia

Metkovic 

02-08 

Gimnazija Metkovic 

300 

277 

92.33% 

238 

85.92% 

39 

14.08% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Osijek 

02-09 

Nursing School Osijek 

300 

38 

12.67% 

35 

92.11% 

7.89% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Pregrada 

02-10 

Srednja skola Pregrada 

463 

97 

20.95% 

94 

96.91% 

3.09% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Slatina 

02-11 

Srednja skola Marko Marulic 

300 

284 

94.67% 

274 

96.48% 

3.17% 

0.35% 

Croatia

Split 

02-12 

1. Jezicna gimnazija - Split 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Croatia

Split 

02-13 

II. Gimnazija Split 

300 

292 

97.33% 

268 

91.78% 

24 

8.22% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Trogir 

02-14 

Secondary school "Ivan Lucic" 

300 

213 

71.00% 

187 

87.79% 

25 

11.74% 

0.47% 

Croatia

Vis 

02-15 

Srednja Skola Antun Matijasevic Karamaneo 

300 

32 

10.67% 

32 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Zabok 

02-16 

Srednja skola Zabok 

300 

294 

98.00% 

293 

99.66% 

0.00% 

0.34% 

Croatia

Zabok 

02-17 

Strukovno i Umjetnicko Uciliste Zabok - SUUZA 

300 

289 

96.33% 

268 

92.73% 

2.77% 

13 

4.50% 

Croatia

Zagreb 

02-18 

Druga Ekonomska Skola 

300 

287 

95.67% 

266 

92.68% 

20 

6.97% 

0.35% 

Croatia

Zagreb 

02-19 

High Medical School Vinogradska 

300 

294 

98.00% 

283 

96.26% 

2.38% 

1.36% 

Croatia

Zagreb 

02-20 

IX. Gimnazija 

300 

272 

90.67% 

246 

90.44% 

22 

8.09% 

1.47% 

Croatia

Zagreb 

02-21 

Poljoprivredna Skola Zagreb 

300 

159 

53.00% 

155 

97.48% 

2.52% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Zagreb 

02-22 

Postanska i telekomunikacijska skola Zagreb 

300 

43 

14.33% 

43 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Zagreb 

02-23 

Technical school Ruder Boskovic 

300 

296 

98.67% 

242 

81.76% 

54 

18.24% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Zagreb 

02-24 

Upravna i Birotehnicka Skola 

300 

256 

85.33% 

256 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Croatia

Zupanja 

02-25 

Gimnazija Zupanja 

300 

147 

49.00% 

146 

99.32% 

0.00% 

0.68% 

Croatia

7693 

5535 

71.95% 

5184 

93.66% 

310 

5.60% 

41 

0.74% 

Cyprus

Larnaca 

03-01 

Pancyprian Lyceum 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Cyprus

Larnaca 

03-02 

Saint George Lyceum of Larnaca 

300 

264 

88.00% 

246 

93.18% 

18 

6.82% 

0.00% 

Cyprus

Limassol 

03-03 

Agios Spyridonas Lyceum 

300 

264 

88.00% 

245 

92.80% 

18 

6.82% 

0.38% 

Cyprus

Limassol 

03-04 

Lycée Lanitio A 

300 

279 

93.00% 

269 

96.42% 

10 

3.58% 

0.00% 

Cyprus

Limassol 

03-05 

Lyceum Agrou 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Cyprus

Paralimni 

03-06 

Paralimni Lyceum 

300 

220 

73.33% 

201 

91.36% 

18 

8.18% 

0.45% 

Cyprus

1200 

1027 

85.58% 

961 

93.57% 

64 

6.23% 

2 

0.19% 

Finland

Helsingfors 

04 

Gymnasiet Lärkan 

300 

33 

11.00% 

33 

100.00% 

0 

0.00% 

0 

0.00% 

Germany

Fulda 

05-01 

Winfriedschule 

300 

272 

90.67% 

235 

86.40% 

27 

9.93% 

10 

3.68% 

Germany

Neustadt an der Aisch 

05-02 

Friedrich-Alexander-Gymnasium 

300 

29 

9.67% 

28 

96.55% 

3.45% 

0.00% 

Germany

Stuttgart 

05-03 

Jörg-Ratgeb-Schule 

1100 

194 

17.64% 

186% 

95.88% 

3.61% 

0.52% 

Germany

1700 

495 

29.12% 

449 

90.71% 

35 

7.07% 

11 

2.22% 

Greece

Pireus 

06 

1st Vocational School of Piraeus 

300 

267 

89.00% 

247 

92.51% 

19 

7.12% 

1 

0.37% 

Hungary

Békéscsaba 

07-01 

Rózsa Ferenc Gimnázium 

300 

94 

31.33% 

92 

97.87% 

2.13% 

0.00% 

Hungary

Nagykanizsa 

07-02 

Batthyány Lajos Egészségügyi Szakközépiskola 

300 

110 

36.67% 

107 

97.27% 

2.73% 

0.00% 

Hungary

Nyíregyháza 

07-03 

Zrínyi Ilona Gimnázium 

300 

192 

64.00% 

186 

96.88% 

1.56% 

1.56% 

Hungary

900 

396 

44.00% 

385 

97.22% 

8 

2.02% 

3 

0.76% 

Iceland

Selfoss 

08 

Fjölbrautaskoli 

900 

303 

33.67% 

282 

93.07% 

16 

5.28% 

5 

1.65% 

Ireland

Thurles 

09 

Gairmscoil Mhuire 

450 

72 

16.00% 

58 

80.56% 

13 

18.06% 

1 

1.39% 

Italy

Corato (Bari) 

10 

Instituto Tecnico Commerciale "Padre A.M. Tannoia" 

300 

287 

95.67% 

280 

97.56% 

5 

1.74% 

2 

0.70% 

Lithuania

Vilnius 

11-01 

Vilnius Naujininku secondary school 

300 

141 

47.00% 

134 

95.04% 

4.96% 

0.00% 

Lithuania

Vilnius 

11-02 

Vilnius Senvage Secondary School 

300 

297 

99.00% 

293 

98.65% 

0.67% 

0.67% 

Lithuania

600 

438 

73.00% 

427 

97.49% 

9 

2.05% 

2 

0.46% 

Malta

Mriehel 

12-01 

St Theresa Girls' Junior Lyceum 

300 

249 

83.00% 

240 

96.39% 

3.61% 

0.00% 

Malta

Sta Lucia 

12-02 

'Margaret Mortimer' Girls' Junior Lyceum 

300 

212 

70.67% 

202 

95.28% 

10 

4.72% 

0.00% 

Malta

Tal-Handaq 

12-03 

Mikiel Anton Vassalli Boys' Junior Lyceum 

300 

217 

72.33% 

200 

92.17% 

17 

7.83% 

0.00% 

Malta

Verdala 

12-04 

'Guzeppi Despott' Boys' Junior Lyceum 

300 

191 

63.67% 

177 

92.67% 

14 

7.33% 

0.00% 

Malta

Victoria 

12-05 

Agius de Soldanis Girls' Junior Lyceum 

300 

73 

24.33% 

73 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Malta

1500 

942 

62.80% 

892 

94.69% 

50 

5.31% 

0 

0.00% 

Poland

Belchatow 

13-01 

Secondary School Complex No 2 

300 

149 

49.67% 

134 

89.93% 

14 

9.40% 

0.67% 

Poland

Czarnkow 

13-02 

Zespol Szkol Ponadgimnazjalnych 

300 

269 

89.67% 

269 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Poland

Czestochowie 

13-03 

VII Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace Mikolaja Kopernika 

800 

507 

63.38% 

464 

91.52% 

33 

6.51% 

10 

1.97% 

Poland

Goleniow 

13-04 

Secondary Grammar School 

700 

423 

60.43% 

405 

95.74% 

17 

4.02% 

0.24% 

Poland

Piortków Trybunalski 

13-05 

1st Bolelsaw Chrobry Comprehensive School 

300 

280 

93.33% 

248 

88.57% 

29 

10.36% 

1.07% 

Poland

Tarnowskie Góry 

13-06 

Wieloprofilowy Zespol Szkol 

800 

568 

71.00% 

527 

92.78% 

33 

5.81% 

1.41% 

Poland

Wojkowice 

13-07 

Zespol Szkol - Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace w Wojkowicach 

300 

250 

83.33% 

244 

97.60% 

2.00% 

0.40% 

Poland

3500 

2446 

69.89% 

2291 

93.66% 

131 

5.36% 

24 

0.98% 

Portugal

Amadora 

14-01 

Escola Secundária da Amadora 

500 

223 

44.60% 

211 

94.62% 

3.59% 

1.79% 

Portugal

Figueira da Foz 

14-02 

Escola Secundaria Dr. Joaquim de Carvalho 

300 

215 

71.67% 

193 

89.77% 

16 

7.44% 

2.79% 

Portugal

Lagoa 

14-03 

Escola Secundária Padre António Marins de Oliveira 

300 

233 

77.67% 

231 

99.14% 

0.86% 

0.00% 

Portugal

Porto 

14-04 

Escola Secundaria António Nobre 

300 

136 

45.33% 

130 

95.59% 

4.41% 

0.00% 

Portugal

Porto 

14-05 

Escola Secundaria Infante D. Henrique 

300 

165 

55.00% 

154 

93.33% 

10 

6.06% 

0.61% 

Portugal

1700 

972 

57.18% 

919 

94.55% 

42 

4.32% 

11 

1.13% 

Russia

St. Petersburg 

15 

School 700 

300 

185 

61.67% 

176 

95.14% 

4.86% 

0 

0.00% 

Serbia and Montenegro

Zrenjanin 

16-01 

HPTS "Uros Predic" Zrenjanin 

300 

290 

96.67% 

271 

93.45% 

0.00% 

19 

6.55% 

Serbia and Montenegro

Zrenjanin 

16-02 

Zrenjaninska gimnazija 

1000 

656 

65.60% 

654 

99.70% 

0.15% 

0.15% 

Serbia and Montenegro

1300 

946 

72.77% 

925 

97.78% 

1 

0.11% 

20 

2.11% 

Spain

Leon 

17-01 

IES Eras de Renueva 

300 

254 

84.67% 

245 

96.46% 

3.15% 

0.39% 

Spain

Palma s/n 

17-02 

IES Berenguer d'Anoia 

300 

224 

74.67% 

206 

91.96% 

18 

8.04% 

0.00% 

Spain

Valdepenas 

Postal 

Colegio San Agustín 

144 

144 

100.00% 

136 

94.44% 

1.39% 

4.17% 

Spain

Villares del Saz 

17-03 

IES los Sauces 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Spain

744 

622 

83.60% 

587 

94.37% 

28 

4.50% 

7 

1.13% 

Ukraine

Kremenchuk 

18-01 

Gumnasium No. 5 

300 

20 

6.67% 

20 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Ukraine

Kremenchuk 

18-02 

School #10 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Ukraine

Kremenchuk 

18-03 

School #2 

300 

38 

12.67% 

38 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Ukraine

Kremenchuk 

18-04 

School No. 19 

300 

44 

14.67% 

44 

100.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

Ukraine

Kremenchuk 

18-05 

School No. 27 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Ukraine

Kremenchuk 

18-06 

Secondary Educational Complex 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Ukraine

Sumy 

18-07 

Sumy Classical Gymnasium #2 

300 

80 

26.67% 

67 

83.75% 

13 

16.25% 

0.00% 

Ukraine

1200 

182 

15.17% 

169 

92.86% 

13 

7.14% 

0 

0.00% 

United Kingdom

North London 

19 

Northumberland Park Community School 

300 

237 

79.00% 

208 

87.76% 

27 

11.39% 

2 

0.84% 

Switzerland

Geneva 

20 

Ecoles de Genčve 

1000 

295 

29.50% 

231 

78.31% 

41 

13.90% 

23 

7.80% 

Total

27087 

16734 

61.78% 

15744 

94.08% 

828 

4.95% 

162 

0.97% 

    Appendix 6

    Translations of the Charter

    Bulgarian

    УВОД
    По инициатива на Съвета на Европа млади хора от различни европейски държави изготвиха тази Харта за Демократични Училища без Насилие на базата на основопологащите ценности и принципи, възприети от всички европейци, и в частност тези, включени в Европейската конвенция за правата на човека и основни свободи.
    Тази група от млади хора препоръчва всички училища да вземат под внимание и приемат тази Харта като модел за по-нататъшно развитие на каузата за демократично образование без насилие в цяла Европа.
    Имайки предвид различното състояние/ниво на образователната система в европейските държави, Хартата може да бъде или приета в този си вид или съответно адаптирана и доразвита от училищните общности в зависимост от спецификите в развитието на различните държави, запазвайки нейния дух и водещи принципи.

    Харта за Демократични Училища без Насилие
    1. Всички членове на училищната общност имат право на училище в което безопастността и сигурността са приоритети. Всеки член на общността е отговорен да съдейства и спомага за създаването на положителна и окуражаваща среда за пълноценно учение и личностно развитие.
    2. Всеки член на общността има право на равнопоставеност и уважение независимо от индивидуалните различия.
    3. Училищната общност трябва да гарантира, че всеки спазва и се придържа към своите права и отговорности.
    4. Всяко демократично училище има избран по демократичен път орган,
    който взема решения и е съставен от представители на учениците, учителите и родителите, както и други членове на училищната общност, ако е необходимо. Всички членове на този огран имат право на глас.
    5. Във всяко демократично училище конфликтите от всякакво естество
    се разрешават по мирен и контруктивен път в партньорство с всички членове на училищната общност. Всяко училище има обучени персонал и ученици, чиято основна цел е да предотвратяват и разрешават конфликти чрез съветване и посредничество.
    6. Всяка проява на насилие се разследва и се урежда веднага като се
    вземат предвид причините и последиците от даденото действие независимо дали учениците, или които и да са членове на училищната общност, са въвлечени в него.
    7. Училището е част от местната общност. Съдействието и обмяната на
    опит и информация с местни институции са от изключително значение за предотвратяването и разрешаването на проблемите.

    Croatian

    UVOD
    Na inicijativu Vijeća Europe mladi ljudi iz različitih Europskih zemalja sastavili su ovu Evropsku povelju za demokratsku školu bez nasilja zasnovanu na temeljnim vrijednostima i principima koji su zajednički svim Europljanima, a posebno onim vrijednostima i principima postavljenima u Evropskoj konvenciji za zaštitu ljudskih prava i temeljnih sloboda.
    Ova grupa mladih ljudi preporučuje školama širom Europe da ozbiljno ozbiljno razmotre usvajanje ove Povelje kao modela demokratskog školovanja bez nasilja.
    Imajući u vidu različitosti obrazovnih sustava u europskim zemljama, školske zajednice prema tome mogu ili usvojiti Povelju kao takvu ili je prilagoditi i dodatno ojačati trudeći se očuvati njen duh i osnovne principe.
    (Dodatak dopunjava Povelju nudeći rješenja i objašnjenja kako bi se olakšala njezina primjena.)

    EUROPSKA POVELJA ZA DEMOKRATSKU ŠKOLU BEZ NASILJA
    1. Svi članovi školske zajednice imaju pravo na sigurnu i miroljubivu školu. Svatko ima obvezu pridonijeti stvaranju pozitivne i nadahnute okoline za učenje i nadahnute okoline za učenje i osobni razvoj.
    2. Svatko ima pravo na jednak tretman i poštovanje bez obzira na bilo kakve osobne različitosti. Svatko ima pravo na slobodu govora bez opasnosti od diskriminacije i posljedica.
    3. Školska zajednica treba osigurati da svatko bude svjestan svojih prava i dužnosti.
    4. Svaka demokratska škola treba imati demokratski izabrano tijelo koje donosi odluke, sastavljeno od predstavnika učenika, nastavnika, roditelja i ostalih članova školske zajednice, gdje je to moguće. Svi članovi ovog tijela imaju pravo glasa.
    5. U demokratskoj školi sukobi se rješavaju na nenasilan i konstruktivan način, u u zajedništvu svih članova školske zajednice. Svaka škola mora imati osoblje i učenike osposobljene za sprječavanje i rješavanje sukoba kroz savjetovanje i posredovanje.
    6. Svaki oblik nasilja treba istražiti, brzo riješiti i pratiti bez obzira na to da li se radi o učenicima ili drugim članovima školske zajednice.
    7. Škola je dio lokalne zajednice. Suradnja i razmjena informacija s lokalnim partnerima su ključne za sprječavanje i rješavanje problema.

    Finnish

    Johdanto

    Euroopan neuvoston aloitteesta, nuoret monesta eri Euroopan maasta ovat valmistelleet tätä perussääntöä demokraatisille kouluille ilman väkivaltaa, joka perustuu perusvaltasiin arvoihin ja periaatteisiin jotka kaikki eurooppalaiset jakavat, erityisesti ne jotka sisältyvät eurooppalaiseen sopimukseen ihmisen oikeuksista ja perusluonteisista vapauksista.
    Täma ryhmä nuoria suosittelee kaikkien koulujen otettavan tätä perussääntöä vakavasti harkintaan mallina edistämään demokraattista sivistystä ilman väkivaltaa koko Euroopassa.
    Ottaen huomioon koulutukseen liittyvät erilaiset olosuhteet Euroopan maissa, perussäänto voidaan joko ottaa vastaan sellaisenaan tai soveltaa ja edelleen vahvistaa kouluyhteisön kautta yllä mainittujen arvojen mukaisesti, kuitenkin säilyttäen henki ja yleiset periaatteet.
    [Selittävä muistio täydentää tämän perussäännön antaen esimerkkejä ja selityksiä helpottaakseen toteuttamista]

    Eurooppalainen perussääntö demokraattisille kouluille ilman väkivaltaa

    1. Kaikilla kouluyhteisön jäsenillä on oikeus turvalliseen ja rauhalliseen kouluun. Oppimista ja henkilökohtaista kehitystä edistävä positiivinen ja inspiroiva ympäristö on kaikkien vastuulla.
    2. Kaikilla on oikeus tasa-arvoiseen kohteluun ja kunnioitukseen henkilökohtaisista erilaisuuksista riippumatta. Kaikilla on oikeus ilmaista itsensä ilman vaaraa joutua syrjätyksi tai sorretuksi.
    3. Kouluyhteisö varmistaa kaikkien tuntevan oikeuksensa ja velvollisuutensa.
    4. Jokaisella demokraattisella koululla on demokraattisesti valittu päätöksentekoelin,
    joka koostuu oppilaiden, opettajien, vanhempien, ja tarvittaessa muiden kouluyhteisön jäsenien edustajista. Kaikilla elimen jäsenillä on äänioikeus.
    5. Demokraattisessa koulussa ristiriidat ratkaistaan väkivallattomalla ja rakentavalla
    tavalla yhteistyössä kaikkien kouluyhteisön jäsenten kanssa. Jokaisella koululla on henkilökuntaa ja oppilaita jotka ovat koulutettuja ennaltaehkäisemään ja ratkaisemaan ristiriitoja neuvonantamisen ja sovittelun avulla.
    6. Jokainen väkivaltatapaus tutkitaan ja hoidetaan nopeimmiten ja seurataan
    huolimatta siitä ovatko osalliset oppilaita tai muita kouluyhteisön jäseniä.
    7. Koulu on osa paikallisyhteisöä. Yhteistyö ja tiedonvaihto paikallisten
    kumppaneiden kanssa on olennaista ongelmien ennaltaehkäisemiseksi ja ratkaisemiseksi.

    German

    Einleitung

    Auf Initiative des Europarats haben junge Menschen aus ganz Europa diese Europäische Charta für eine demokratische Schule ohne Gewalt verfasst und dabei die von allen Europäern geteilten grundlegenden Werte und Prinzipien berücksichtigt, insbesondere die in der Europäischen Konvention zum Schutz der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten dargelegten.
    Diese Gruppe junger Menschen empfiehlt Schulen in ganz Europa, diese Charta als Modell in ihrer Arbeit auf dem Wege zu einer gewaltfreien, demokratischen Schule ernsthaft in Betracht zu ziehen.
    Angesichts der unterschiedlichen Bildungssysteme in Europa kann die Charta entweder unverändert übernommen oder aber von der jeweiligen Schulgemeinschaft entsprechend angepasst und weiterentwickelt werden, wobei ihr Geist und ihre allgemeinen Prinzipien bewahrt werden müssen.
    Ein erläuternder Bericht mit Beispielen und Erklärungen zu ihrer praktischen Anwendung wird der Charta beigefügt.

    Europäische Charta für eine demokratische Schule ohne Gewalt
    1. Alle Mitglieder der Schulgemeinschaft haben das Recht auf eine sichere und friedliche Schule. Es liegt in der Verantwortung jedes Einzelnen, dazu beizutragen, dass ein positives und anregendes Umfeld für das Lernen und die Entwicklung der Persönlichkeit geschaffen wird.
    2. Jede einzelne Person hat das Recht auf eine gleichwertige Behandlung und gegenseitigen Respekt, ungeachtetet jeglicher persönlicher Unterschiede.
    3. Die Schulgemeinschaft stellt sicher, dass jeder sich seiner Rechte und Pflichten bewusst ist.
    4. Jede demokratische Schule hat ein demokratisch gewähltes Entscheidungsgremium, das sich aus Vertretern der Schülerschaft, der Lehrerschaft, der Eltern und, wo erforderlich, aus anderen Mitgliedern der Schulgemeinschaft zusammensetzt. Alle Mitglieder dieses Gremiums sind berechtigt, mit abzustimmen.
    5. In einer demokratischen Schule werden Konflikte auf eine gewaltfreie und konstruktive Art und Weise in Zusammenarbeit aller Mitglieder der Schulgemeinschaft gelöst. Jede Schule hat Fachpersonal und Schüler, die spezielle Aus- oder Fortbildungen durchlaufen haben, um durch Beratung und Streitschlichtung Konflikten vorzubeugen und sie zu lösen.
    6. Jeder Fall von Gewalt wird sofort untersucht und bearbeitet. Ihm wird nachgegangen, unabhängig davon, ob Schüler oder irgend ein anderes Mitglied der Schulgemeinschaft darin verwickelt sind.
    7. Die Schule ist ein Teil ihrer lokalen Gemeinschaft. Die Kooperation und der Austausch von Informationen mit Partnern vor Ort sind von wesentlicher Bedeutung für die Vorbeugung und die Lösung von Problemen.

    Greek

    ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ
    Με την πρωτοβουλία του συμβουλίου της Ευρώπης, οι νέοι από τις διάφορες Ευρωπαϊκές χώρες έχουν προετοιμάσει αυτό το Καταστατικό για Δημοκρατικά Σχολεία χωρίς βία, στηριγμένοι σε θεμελιώδεις αξίες και αρχές που συμμερίζονται όλοι οι Ευρωπαίοι, συγκεκριμένα εκείνοι που συμπεριλαμβάνονται στο Ευρωπαϊκό Συνέδριο των Ανθρωπίνων Δικαιωμάτων και Βασικών Ελευθεριών.
    Αυτή η ομάδα των νέων ανθρώπων, συνιστά όπως όλα τα σχολεία λάβουν σοβαρά υπόψη τους αυτό το καταστατικό ως πρότυπο για να προωθήσει το σκοπό της δημοκρατικής σχολικής εκπαίδευσης χωρίς βία, σε όλη την Ευρώπη.
    Έχοντας στο μυαλό τις διαφορετικές καταστάσεις της εκπαίδευσης στις Ευρωπαϊκές χώρες, το καταστατικό μπορεί να υιοθετηθεί ή να προσαρμοστεί καθώς και να εδραιωθεί από τις σχολικές κοινότητες, όπως πρέπει, ενώ θα προστατεύει το πνεύμα και τις αρχές του.
    [Μια εξηγητική σημείωση συμπληρώνει αυτό το καταστατικό, παρέχοντας παραδείγματα και εξηγήσεις έτσι ώστε να ευκολύνει τις εκτελέσεις του]

    ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΟ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΤΙΚΟ ΓΙΑ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΚΑ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΑ ΧΩΡΙΣ ΒΙΑ
    1.Όλα τα μέλη της σχολικής κοινότητας, έχουν το δικαίωμα ενός ασφαλούς και ειρηνικού σχολείου. Όλοι έχουν την ευθύνη να συνεισφέρουν στη δημιουργία ενός θετικού περιβάλλοντος που ενθαρρύνει τη μάθηση και προσωπική ανάπτυξη.
    2.Όλοι έχουν το δικαίωμα για ίση μεταχείριση και σεβασμού ασχέτως οποιασδήποτε προσωπικής διαφοράς. Όλοι απολαμβάνουν την ελευθερία του λόγου χωρίς διακρίσεις και καταπιέσεις.
    3. Η σχολική κοινότητα φροντίζει όπως όλοι γνωρίζουν τα δικαιώματα και τις ευθύνες τους.
    4. Κάθε δημοκρατικό σχολείο, έχει ένα δημοκρατικά εκλελεγμένο σώμα που παίρνει αποφάσεις και αποτελείται από αντιπροσώπους μαθητών, καθηγητών, γονέων και άλλων μελών της σχολικής κοινότητας, ανάλογα με την περίπτωση. Όλα τα μέλη του σώματος, έχουν το δικαίωμα ψήφου.
    5. Σ’ ένα δημοκρατικό σχολείο, οι διαφωνίες επιλύονται με ειρηνικό και εποικοδομητικό τρόπο. Το προσωπικό και μαθητές κάθε σχολείου, εκπαιδεύονται για την πρόληψη και επίλυση των διαφορών μέσω συμβουλευτικής και διαμεσολάβησης.
    6. Κάθε περίπτωση βίας, ερευνάται όσο το δυνατόν πιο νωρίς και παρακολουθείται, ασχέτων αν μαθητές ή άλλα μέλη της σχολικής κοινότητας είναι αναμεμειγμένα.
    7. Το σχολείο είναι μέρος της τοπικής κοινότητας. Η συνεργασία και η ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών με τοπικούς συνεργάτες είναι ουσιαστικές για πρόληψη και επίλυση προβλημάτων.

    Hungarian

    Európai Charta a Demokratikus és Erőszakmentes Iskoláról

    Strasbourg, 2004. július 16.

    Bevezetés
    Az Európa Tanács kezdeményezésére Európa minden részéről érkezett fiatalok megalkották a Demokratikus és Erőszakmentes Iskoláról szóló Európai Chartát, alapul véve azokat az alapvető európai értékeket és elveket, amelyeket minden európai magáénak vall, és különösen azokat, amelyek benne foglaltatnak az Európa Tanács emberi jogok és alapvető szabadságjogok védelméről szóló Egyezményében.
    A fiataloknak e csoportja azt ajánlja, hogy az iskolák Európa-szerte alaposan fontolják meg a Charta modellként való átvételét, amely elősegítheti a demokratikus és erőszakmentes oktatás ügyét.
    Figyelembe véve az európai oktatási rendszerek különbözőségét, az iskolaközösségek a Chartát önmagában elfogadhatják, vagy átvehetik és továbbfejleszthetik megőrizve annak szellemét és alapelveit.
    Ezt a Chartát egy értelmező memorandum egészíti ki, amely példákkal és magyarázatokkal segíti elő annak megvalósítását.

    Európai Charta a Demokratikus és Erőszakmentes Iskoláról
    1. Az iskolaközösség minden tagjának joga van a biztonságos és békés
    iskolai élethez. Mindenkinek kötelessége hozzájárulni a pozitív, tanulásra serkentő és a személyiség fejlődését elősegítő iskolai környezet megteremtéséhez.
    2. Mindenkinek joga van az egyenlő bánásmódhoz és tisztelethez
    bármilyen különbözőségre való tekintet nélkül. Mindenki élvezi a szólásszabadság jogát, anélkül, hogy diszkrimináció vagy elnyomás veszélye fenyegetné.
    3. Az iskola közösség biztosítja, hogy mindenki tudatában legyen jogainak
    és kötelességeinek egyaránt.
    4. Minden demokratikus iskola rendelkezik egy, a diákok, tanárok, szülők
    és– ahol ez lehetséges – az iskolaközösség más tagjainak képviselőiből álló, demokratikusan megválasztott döntéshozó testülettel. E testület minden tagja szavazati joggal bír.
    5. Egy demokratikus iskolában a konfliktusokat erőszakmentes és
    konstruktív módon, az iskolaközösség minden tagjával való együttműködés jegyében oldják meg. Minden iskola rendelkezik egy képzett szakemberekből és diákokból álló csoporttal, amely tanácsadás és közvetítés útján közbenjár a konfliktusok megoldásában és megelőzésében.
    6. Minden erőszakos esetet kivizsgálnak, haladéktalanul kezelnek és
    nyomon követnek, tekintet nélkül arra, hogy a diákok vagy az iskolaközösség más tagjai az érintett felek.
    7. Az iskola a helyi közösség része. A helyi partnerekkel való együttműködés
    és információcsere elengedhetetlen a problémák megoldásához és megelőzéséhez.

    Icelandic

    Kynning á Sáttmálanum

    Fyrir frumkvćđi Evrópuráđs hefur ungt fólk frá mismunandi löndum innan Evrópu útbúiđ ţennan Evrópu Sáttmála fyrir Lýđrćđislega Skóla án Ofbeldis, byggt á megin markmiđum og gildum Evrópubúa, sérstaklega ţeirra byggđum á sáttmála Evrópuráđs um Mannréttindi og viđurkenndum frelsis gildum.
    Ţessi hópur ungs fólks mćlir međ ţví ađ allir skólar í Evrópu íhugi alvarlega ađ taka ţennan Sáttmála til alvarlegrar íhugunar sem fyrirmynd til ađ ýta undir lýđrćđislegt skólakerfi án ofbeldis.
    Hafa skal í huga mismunandi ađstćđur til menntunar í Evrópulöndum, Sáttmálinn getur annađhvort veriđ samţykktur sem slíkur eđa viđurkenndur og frekar bćttur af skólunum eftir ţví sem viđ á, ţó skal anda hans og meginmarkmiđum viđhaldiđ.
    Minnisskjal fylgir ţessum Sáttmála sem inniheldur útskýringar og dćmi til ađ auđvelda ađlögun hans.

    Evrópu Sáttmáli fyrir Lýđrćđislega Skóla án Ofbeldis
    1.Allir međlimir skólasamfélagsins eiga rétt á öruggum og friđsömum skóla. Allir hafa ţá ábyrgđ ađ leggja sitt af mörkum til ţess ađ skapa jákvćtt og hvetjandi umhverfi til menntunar og ţroskunar persónuleikans.
    2. Allir eiga rétt á ţví ađ komiđ sé fram viđ ţá á sama hátt og af sömu virđingu án
    tillits til persónulegs mismunar. Allir njóta frelsis til tjáningar án ţess eiga á hćttu mismunun eđa bćlingu af hálfu annarra.
    3. Skólasamfélagiđ ber ábyrgđ á ţví ađ allir séu međvitađir um réttindi sín og skyldur.
    4. Allir lýđrćđislegir skólar hafa lýđrćđislega kosiđ skólaráđ, sem sér um
    ákvarđanatökur innan skólans. Ţađ ráđ samanstendur af fulltrúum nemenda, kennara, foreldra og öđrum međlimum skólasamfélagsins ţar sem viđ á. Allir međlimir skólaráđsins hafa rétt til ţess ađ kjósa um ákvarđanir varđandi skólann.
    5. Í lýđrćđislegum skóla eru hvers kyns árekstrar eđa deilur leystar á ofbeldislaus
    og uppbyggjandi hátt í samvinnu viđ alla međlimi skólasamfélagsins. Hver skóli hefur innan síns samfélags ţjálfađa nemendur og starfsfólk sem sinnir ţví hlutverki ađ leysa hvers kyns árekstra og deilur međ ráđgjöf og samningaviđrćđum eftir ţví sem viđ á.
    6. Hvert og eitt tilfelli af hvers kyns ofbeldi er rannsakađ og tekist er á viđ ţađ viđ upphaf ţess og ţví fylgt eftir hvort sem nemendur eđa ađrir međlimir skólasamfélagsins eiga hlut ađ máli.
    7. Skólinn er hluti af hinu víđara samfélagi. Samvinna og upplýsingaflćđi milli
    skólans og ađila utan hans er mikilvćgt til ţess ađ koma í veg fyrir og leysa hvers kyns vandamál.

    Irish

    AR SON DAONLACHAS I SCOILEANNA GAN FOIREIGEAN

    Strasbourg, 16 Iúil 2004

    Príomhsmaointe:
    Ar focal an “Council of Europe”, shocraigh daltaí scoileanna na hEorpa an Cairt seo ar son scoileann daonlacha gan foireigean. Seasann an Cairt Europach seo ar son an “European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms”.
    Ba mhian dúinn go glacfaidh gach scoil leis an Cairt seo agus é a úsaid chun forbairt a dheanamh agus scoileanna gan foreigean a chur chun cinn.
    Agus cinnte nach bhfuil cásanna agus corais oideachais mar an gceanna ar fud an mhórthír, is feidir leis na scoileanna éagsúla é a glacadh mar atá nó fiú amhain, é athrú, ach ag an am cheanna, an spíorad agus an bureacht atá inti a choiméad mar atá.
    Tá stór aiseanna ag dul leis an cáirt seo chun é a mhiniú agus a chur in iúl do gach einne.

    AR SON DAONLACHAS I SCOILEANNA GAN FOIREIGEAN
    1. Tá an ceart ag gach duine oideachais siochánta agus sabhálta, a fháil. Tá
    ar gach duine an aidhm seo a chur chun cinn chun atmásféar iontach spraoiúl a chrúthú.
    2. Tá an ceart ag gach duine meas a fháil cibé cinne no creideamh atá aige
    nó aici. Tá cead cainte ag gach uile duine.
    3. Tá ar an scoil iomlán obair le cheile chun cearta agus freagroichtaí an dhalta a cur in iúl dó/dí.
    4. Tá comhairle daonlacha ag gach institúid le daltaí, muinteoirí, tuistí agus
    na ball eile den mhuintir scoile más feidir inti. Tá an ceart votála ag gach duine acu.
    5. Caithfear aon trioblóid a reiteach i slí siochántach agus le léargas le gach
    ball den mhuintir scoile. Tá muinteoirí agus daltaí I ngach scoil in ann foreigean agus trioblóid a sheachaint agus a reitiú le comhairle agus caint.
    6. Caithfear dealáil le gach rud gach mhoill agus leanuint ar aghaidh leis,
    cibé muinteoirí no daltaí atá i gceist.
    7. Is ball den mhuintir aitiúl é an scoil. Tá comhoibriú agus mhatartú eolais
    an tabhactach chun fadbhanna a sheachaint agus a reitú.

    Italian

    Introduzione
    Su iniziativa del Consiglio d’Europa, un gruppo di giovani provenienti da diversi Paesi europei ha elaborato e stilato questa Carta per scuole democratiche abolendo la violenza sulla base dei valori fondamentali sanciti da tutti i Paesi aderenti all’Unione Europea, in particolare quelli inclusi nella Convenzione Europea dei diritti Umani ed i Principi di Libertŕ.
    Questo gruppo di giovani raccomanda che tutte le scuole considerino importante questa Carta affinché essa sia un modello che promuova casi di scolarizzazione democratica abolendo la violenza nell’ambito europeo.
    Considerando le diverse situazioni educative dei paesi europei, la Carta puň essere ben adottata o ben adattata da tutte le comunitŕ scolastiche ricordando sempre i principi generali.

    CARTA EUROPEA PER SCUOLE DEMOCRATICHE SENZA VIOLENZA
    1. Tutti i membri della comunitŕ scolastica hanno diritto di vivere in un ambiente scolastico sicuro e pacifico. Ciascun individuo ha la responsabilitŕ di contribuire alla formazione di un ambiente ideale e costruttivo per l’apprendimento ed il potenziamento della persona.
    2. Ciascun individuo ha diritto ad essere trattato e rispettato nello stesso modo, abolendo le differenze della persona. Ognuno gode della libertŕ di parola senza il rischio di discriminazioni o repressioni.
    3. La comunitŕ scolastica assicura che ogni individuo é consapevole dei propri diritti e delle proprie responsabilitŕ.
    4. Ogni scuola democratica ha un organo che prende decisioni eletto democraticamente e composto da rappresentanti degli studenti, da insegnanti, genitori e da altri membri della comunitŕ scolastica, come stabilito. Tutti i membri di questo organo hanno il diritto di voto.
    5. In una scuola democratica, i conflitti sono risolti in modo costruttivo e non violento, in unione con tutti i membri della comunitŕ scolastica. Ogni scuola ha personale e studenti preparati a prevenire e risolvere conflitti attraverso consigli ed interventi.
    6. Tutti i casi di violenza sono controllati e trattati con rapiditŕ e si segue lo stesso procedimento di risoluzione, sia se si tratta di un alunno, o di un insegnante, o qualsiasi altro membro della comunitŕ.
    7. La scuola é parte della comunitŕ locale. La cooperazione e lo scambio di informazioni con altre entitŕ locali sono essenziali per la prevenzione e risoluzione del problema.

    Macedonian

    Европската Повелба за демократски
    училишта без насилство

    Стразбур, 16 јули 2004 година
    Вовед кон Повелбата
    На иницијатива на Советот на Европа, младите луѓе од цела Европа ја подготвија Европската Повелба за демократски училишта без насилство врз база на фундаменталните вредности и принципи кои ги делат сите Европјани, посебно оние загарантирани во Конвенцијата за човекови права и фундаменталните слободи на Советот на Европа.
    Оваа група на млади луѓе препорачува училиштата од цела Европа сериозно да размислат околу употребата на оваа Повелба како модел со кој ќе се унапреди целта на демократските училишта без насилство.
    Имајќи ги во предвид разликите во европските образовни системи, Повелбата може да биде усвоена во нејзината сегашна форма или може да биде прилагодена и понатаму зајакната од различните училишни заедници, зачувувајќи го нејзиниот дух и генералните принципи.
    Повелбата ќе биде придружена со Меморандум на објаснување, обезбедувајќи примери и објаснувања со цел да се олесни нејзината имплементација.

    ЕВРОПСКА ПОВЕЛБА ЗА ДЕМОКРАТСКИ УЧИЛИШТА
    БЕЗ НАСИЛСТВО

    1. Сите членови на училишната заедница имаат право на безбедно и мирно училиште. Секој има обврска да даде придонес кон создавањето на позитивна и инспиративна средина за учење и за личен развој.

    2. Секој има право на еднаков третман и да биде почитуван, без разлика на личните разлики. Секој ужива слобода на изразување без да биде изложен на доскриминација или репресија.
    3. Училишната заедница ќе обезбеди секој да биде свесен за своите права и обврски.
    4. Секое демократско училиште има демократски избрано тело кое донесува одлуки кое е составено од ученици, професори, родители и други членови на училишната заедница онаму каде тоа е соодветно. Сите членови на
    ова тело имаат право на глас.
    5. Во демократското училиште, конфликтите се разрешуваат на ненасилен и конструктивен пат во партнерство со сите членови на училишната заедница. Секое училиште има персонал и учелници обучени да спречат или решат конфликти преку советување и посредување.
    6. Секој случај на насилство ќе биде испитан и решен брзо и проследен без разлика дали учениците или било кој друг член на училишната заедница е вклучен во случајот.
    7. Училиштето е дел од локалната заедница. Соработката и размената на информации со локалните партнери се основа за спречување и решавање на проблемите.

    Polish

    Przedmowa

    Z inicjatywy Rady Europy młodzi ludzie z różnych krajów Europy opracowali Europejską Kartę Szkoły Demokratycznej bez Przemocy, opartą na fundamentalnych zasadach uznawanych przez wszystkich Europejczyków, a w szczególności na wartościach ujętych w Konwencji o Ochronie Praw Człowieka i Podstawowych Wolności.
    Niniejsza grupa inicjatorów widzi konieczność potraktowania założeń Karty jak modelu ułatwiającego proces demokratyzacji życia szkoły i eliminacji zjawiska przemocy.
    Mając na względzie różnorodność systemów edukacyjnych w poszczególnych krajach, rekomenduje się przyjęcie Karty w postaci niezmienionej, bądź też dopuszcza się rozszerzenie aspektów w niej zawartych, jednak z zachowaniem jej głównych założeń.

    Memorandum Wyjaśniające będące formą dopełnienia Karty, dostarcza przykładów i objaśnień, które mają ułatwić wprowadzenie karty w życie.
    Europejska Karta
    Szkoły Demokratycznej bez Przemocy
    1. Wszyscy członkowie społeczności szkolnej mają prawo do spokojnej i bezpiecznej szkoły. Każdy ponosi odpowiedzialność za tworzenie pozytywnego i inspirującego środowiska dla procesu uczenia się i osobistego rozwoju.
    2. Każdy ma prawo do równego traktowania i szacunku, niezależnie od różnic indywidualnych. Wszyscy mają prawo do wolności słowa bez obawy przed dyskryminacją i represjami.
    3. Społeczność szkolna dąży do tego, aby każdy był świadom swoich praw i obowiązków.
    4. Każda demokratyczna szkoła ma demokratycznie wybrany organ decyzyjny składający się z przedstawicieli uczniów, nauczycieli, rodziców, a także – jeśli to konieczne - innych członków społeczności szkolnej. Wszyscy członkowie tego organu mają prawo głosu.
    5. W demokratycznej szkole, konflikty rozwiązywane są w sposób konstruktywny bez użycia przemocy w porozumieniu z członkami społeczności szkolnej. Każda szkoła ma kadrę i uczniów przeszkolonych w rozwiązywaniu konfliktów na drodze doradztwa i mediacji.
    6. Każdy przypadek przemocy jest niezwłocznie badany i analizowany, uwzględniając uczniów i innych członków społeczności szkolnej zaangażowanych w tą sprawę.
    7. Szkoła jest częścią społeczności lokalnej. Współpraca i wymiana informacji ze środowiskiem lokalnym jest istotna w zapobieganiu i rozwiązywaniu problemów.

    Portuguese

    Introduçăo
    Por iniciativa do Conselho da Europa, jovens de diferentes países da Europa prepararam esta Carta Europeia para uma Escola Democrática sem Violęncia com base nos valores fundamentais e princípios partilhados por todos os europeus, em particular aqueles que estăo incluídos na Convençăo Europeia dos Direitos Humanos e Liberdades Fundamentais.
    Este grupo de jovens recomenda que todas as escolas Europeias assumam seriamente esta Carta como referęncia para a construçăo de modelos educativos democráticos sem violęncia.
    Tendo em atençăo as diferenças nos sistemas educativos europeus, a Carta pode ser adoptada tal como está, ou adaptada e reforçada pelas comunidades educativas, mantendo sempre o seu espírito e princípios gerais.
    Um memorando explicativo complementa esta Carta, fornecendo exemplos e explicaçőes para facilitar a sua implementaçăo.

    Carta Europeia para uma Escola Democrática sem
    Violęncia

    1. Todos os membros da comunidade educativa tem o direito de ter uma escola segura e sem violęncia.
    Cada indivíduo tem a responsabilidade de contribuir para a criaçăo de um ambiente digno e motivador para a aprendizagem e desenvolvimento pessoal.
    2. Todos os membros da comunidade educativa tem o direito a um tratamento igual e respeitador, independentemente de qualquer diferença pessoal que possam ter. Todos tem o direito de gozar de liberdade de expressăo sem risco a discriminaçőes ou repressőes.
    3. A comunidade educativa garante que todos os seus membros conhecem os seus direitos e responsabilidades.
    4. Toda a escola democrática possui um corpo de decisăo eleito democraticamente, composto por representantes dos estudantes, professores, pais e outros membros da comunidade escolar quando necessário. Todos os membros deste corpo tem direito ao voto.
    5. Numa escola democrática, os conflitos săo resolvidos de uma forma construtiva e năo violenta, em parceria com todos os membros da comunidade educativa. Todos as escolas tem quadro de funcionários e alunos treinados e preparados para prevenir e resolver conflitos através de aconselhamento e de mediaçăo.
    6. Todo o caso de violęncia é investigado e tratado com a maior brevidade possível e seguido do mesmo procedimento de resoluçăo quer nele estejam envolvidos estudantes ou quaisquer outros membros da comunidade educativa.
    7. A escola faz parte da comunidade local. A cooperaçăo e intercâmbio com os parceiros locais săo essenciais na prevençăo e resoluçăo dos problemas.

    Russian

    Вступление

    По инициативе Совета Европы, молодые люди из разных европейских стран подготовили Хартию (устав) для Демократических школ без насилия.
    Эта Хартия основана на фундаментальных ценностях и принципах, разделяемых всеми Европейцами и включенных в Европейскую конвенцию по Правам человека и Фундаментальным свободам.
    Эта группа молодых людей рекомендует всем школам Европы принять во внимание Хартию, как модель демократического обучения без насилия.
    Принимая во внимание различные системы обучения в Европейских странах, Хартия может быть или принята как таковая, или приспособлена к конкретной школе.
                           

    Европейская хартия для Демократических школ без насилия

    1. Все участники школьного сообщества имеют право на безопасную и мирную жизнь в школе. Каждый должен вносить свой вклад в создание позитивной атмосферы для обучения и индивидуального развития.

    2.Каждый имеет право на равное обращение и уважение вне зависимости от индивидуальных различий. Каждый имеет право на свободу слова без риска подвергнуться осуждению и репрессиям.

    3. Школьный совет обеспечивает знакомство каждого с его правами и обязанностями.

    4. В каждой демократической школе есть избираемый совет школы, состоящий из представителей от учащихся, учителей, родителей и других участников школьной жизни. Каждый член школьного совета имеет право голоса.

    5. В Демократической школе конфликты разрешаются мирным и конструктивным путем в содействии со всеми участниками школьного сообщества. В каждой школе есть специалисты (учителя, учащиеся, психологи) обученные предотвращать и разрешать конфликты с помощью советов и посредничества.

    6. Каждый случай проявления насилия расследуется, и в соответствии с итогами расследования принимаются меры, вне зависимости от того учащийся это или любой другой участник школьной жизни.

    7. Школа - это часть местного сообщества. Сотрудничество и обмен информацией с местными властями необходимы для предотвращения и решения проблем.

    Serbian

    UVOD
    Na inicijativu Vijeća Europe mladi ljudi iz različitih Europskih zemalja sastavili su ovu Evropsku povelju za demokratsku školu bez nasilja zasnovanu na temeljnim vrijednostima i principima koji su zajednički svim Europljanima, a posebno onim vrijednostima i principima postavljenima u Evropskoj konvenciji za zaštitu ljudskih prava i temeljnih sloboda.
    Ova grupa mladih ljudi preporučuje školama širom Europe da ozbiljno ozbiljno razmotre usvajanje ove Povelje kao modela demokratskog školovanja bez nasilja.
    Imajući u vidu različitosti obrazovnih sustava u europskim zemljama, školske zajednice prema tome mogu ili usvojiti Povelju kao takvu ili je prilagoditi i dodatno ojačati trudeći se očuvati njen duh i osnovne principe.
    (Dodatak dopunjava Povelju nudeći rješenja i objašnjenja kako bi se olakšala njezina primjena.)

    EUROPSKA POVELJA ZA DEMOKRATSKU ŠKOLU BEZ NASILJA
    1. Svi članovi školske zajednice imaju pravo na sigurnu i miroljubivu školu. Svatko ima obvezu pridonijeti stvaranju pozitivne i nadahnute okoline za učenje i nadahnute okoline za učenje i osobni razvoj.
    2. Svatko ima pravo na jednak tretman i poštovanje bez obzira na bilo kakve osobne različitosti. Svatko ima pravo na slobodu govora bez opasnosti od diskriminacije i posljedica.
    3. Školska zajednica treba osigurati da svatko bude svjestan svojih prava i dužnosti.
    4. Svaka demokratska škola treba imati demokratski izabrano tijelo koje donosi odluke, sastavljeno od predstavnika učenika, nastavnika, roditelja i ostalih članova školske zajednice, gdje je to moguće. Svi članovi ovog tijela imaju pravo glasa.
    5. U demokratskoj školi sukobi se rješavaju na nenasilan i konstruktivan način, u u zajedništvu svih članova školske zajednice. Svaka škola mora imati osoblje i učenike osposobljene za sprječavanje i rješavanje sukoba kroz savjetovanje i posredovanje.
    6. Svaki oblik nasilja treba istražiti, brzo riješiti i pratiti bez obzira na to da li se radi o učenicima ili drugim članovima školske zajednice.
    7. Škola je dio lokalne zajednice. Suradnja i razmjena informacija s lokalnim partnerima su ključne za sprječavanje i rješavanje problema.

    Spanish

    INTRODUCCIÓN
    En respuesta a la iniciativa del Consejo de Europa, jóvenes de diferentes países europeos han elaborado estos "Estatutos Europeos para los Centros Educativos Democráticos sin Violencia", basados en los valores y principios fundamentales compartidos por todos los europeos, en concreto aquellos valores y principios incluidos en la "Convención del Consejo de Europa para la Protección de los Derechos Humanos y Libertades Fundamentales".
    Este grupo de jóvenes recomienda que los centros educativos de toda Europa consideren estos Estatutos como modelo fundamental para promover la consecución de una educación democrática sin violencia".
    Teniendo en cuenta las diferencias existentes entre los sistemas educativos europeos, estos Estatutos pueden ser adoptados en su forma literal, o pueden ser adaptados y reforzados por las comunidades educativas, siempre que conserven su espíritu y sus principios generales.
    [Un memorandum explicativo complementa estos Estatutos y proporciona ejemplos y explicaciones con el fin de facilitar su aplicación]

    "ESTATUTOS EUROPEOS PARA LOS CENTROS EDUCATIVOS DEMOCRÁTICOS SIN VIOLENCIA"

    1. Todos los miembros de la comunidad educativa tienen derecho a un centro seguro y sin conflictos. Cada individuo tiene la responsabilidad de contribuir a la creación de un ambiente positivo que favorezca el aprendizaje y el desarrollo personal.
    2. Todos tienen derecho a ser tratados y respetados por igual con independencia de sus características personales (sexo, raza, religión, etc...). Todos gozan de libertad de expresión sin riesgo de discriminación o represión.
    3. La comunidad educativa garantiza que todos sus miembros conocen sus derechos y responsabilidades.
    4. Cada centro educativo democrático posee un órgano de toma de decisiones elegido democráticamente y compuesto por representantes de los estudiantes, profesores, padres y otros miembros de la comunidad educativa, según proceda. Todos los miembros de este órgano tienen el derecho de voto.
    5. En un centro educativo democrático, los conflictos son resueltos en estrecha colaboración con todos los miembros de la comunidad educativa, de una manera constructiva y sin violencia. Todo centro educativo tiene personal y alumnos preparados para prevenir y solventar los conflictos a través de actuaciones de mediación y consenso.
    6. Todo caso de violencia es investigado y tratado con la mayor prontitud posible, y es examinado en profundidad ya sean alumnos o cualesquiera otros miembros de la comunidad educativa los implicados.
    7. El centro educativo forma parte de la comunidad local. La cooperación y el intercambio de información con otras entidades locales son esenciales para la prevención y la resolución de los problemas.

    Swedish

    Introduktion
    Pĺ initiativ av Europarĺdet har ungdomar frĺn olika europeiska länder utarbetat denna europeiska stadga för demokratiska skolor utan vĺld som baserar sig pĺ de fundamentala värderingar och principer som är gemensamma för alla européer, särskilt de värderingar och principer som ingĺr i den europeiska konventionen för mänskliga rättigheter och fundamentala friheter.
    Denna grupp av ungdomar rekommenderar att alla skolor tar denna stadga under allvarligt övervägande, som en modell för att främja demokratisk bildning utan vĺld över hela Europa.
    Tagande i beaktande de olika förhĺllandena angĺende utbildning i de olika europeiska länderna, kan denna stadga antingen bli antagen som sĺdan eller anpassad och vidare förstärkt av skolsamfundet i enlighet med det ovannämnda, samtidigt som dess anda och de allmänna principerna bevaras.
    [Ett promemoria med förklaringar kompletterar denna stadga genom att ge exempel och förklaringar i syfte att underlätta dess förverkligande.]

    Europeisk stadga för demokratiska skolor utan vĺld
    1. Alla medlemmar av skolsamfundet har rätt till en trygg och fridfull skola. Alla har ansvaret att medverka i uppbyggandet av en positiv och inspirerande miljö för inlärning och personlig utveckling.
    2. Var och en har rätt till att bli jämlikt behandlad och respekterad oberoende av personliga olikheter. Alla har friheten att uttrycka sig utan att riskera att bli diskriminerad eller undertryckt.
    3. Skolsamfundet försäkrar att alla är medvetna om sina rättigheter och skyldigheter.
    4. Varje demokratisk skola har ett demokratiskt tillsatt beslutsfattande organ bestĺende av representanter för eleverna, lärarna, föräldrarna, och andra andra medlemmar av skolsamfundet när det är lämpligt. Alla medlemmar i organet har rösträtt.
    5. I en demokratisk skola är konflikter lösta pĺ ett icke-vĺldsamt och konstruktivt sätt i samarbete med alla medlemmar av skolsamfundet. Varje skola har personal och elever som är utbildade i att lösa konflikter genom rĺdgivning och medling.
    6. Varje fall av vĺld utreds och tas itu med snarast och uppföljs vare sig det är elever eller andra medlemmar av skolsamfundet som är inblandade.
    7. Skolan är en del av den lokala gemenskapen. Samarbete och informationsutbyte pĺ lokal nivĺ är väsentligt för förebyggande och lösande av problem.

    Ukrainian

    Європейська Хартія для Демократичних Шкіл без Насилля
    Страсбург, 16липня 2004
    Преамбула

    За ініціативою Ради Європи, молоді люди з різних європейських країн створили цю Хартію для Демократичних Шкіл без Насилля на основі фундаментальних цінностей і принципів, які розділяють усі європейці, у тому числі ті, які включені в Європейську Конвенцію з Прав Людини та Фундаментальних Свобод.
    Ця група молодих людей рекомендує всім школам прийняти до уваги Європейську Хартію як модель демократичного навчання без насилля в Європі.
    Беручи до уваги різні системи освіти в європейських країнах, Хартія може бути прийнятя в початковому вигляді або ж пристосована до конкретної школи і в подальшому посилена шкільною радою у відпоповідності з її духом і основними принципами.
    [Пояснювальний Меморандум, який доповнює Хартію, впроваджує приклади та пояіснення з метою її скорішої імплементації]

    Європейська Хартія для Демократичних Шкіл без Насилля

    1. Усі члени шкільного суспільства мають право на безпечну та мирну школу. Кожен має за обов’язок зробити свій внесок у створення позитивного та сприятливого середовища для навчання та особистого розвитку.
    2. Кожен має право на рівне відношення та повагу, незважаючи на будь-які особисті відмінності. Кожен має право вільно висловлюватися без ризику бути дискримінованим та репресованим.
    3. Шкільне суспільство забезпечує обізнаність кожного з питань прав та обов’язків.
    4. Кожна демократична школа має демократично обране шкільне самоврядування, яке складається з учнів, учителів, батьків та інших зацікавлених членів шкільного суспільства. Усі члени цього органу мають право голосу.
    5. У демократичній школі конфлікти вирішуються мирним та конструктивним шляхом у партнерстві з усіма членами шкільного суспільства. Кожна школа має підготовлений персонал та учнів, обізнаних з питань запобігання та вирішення конфліктів за допомогою порад та посередництва.
    6. Кожен випадок насилля досліджується та вирішується негайно, незважаючи на те, чи то учень, чи то інший член шкільного суспільства був ініціатором конфлікту.
    7. Школа- частина громадського суспільства. Співробітництво та обмін інформацією з місцевими партнерами важливі для запобігання та вирішення проблем.


1 Tsalikoglou F. (1989): Mythologies de la violence et de la répression, éd. Papazisi, Athčnes

2 Notons que la question avait été formulée de maničre ŕ ce que les élčves aient la possibilité de mentionner plus qu’ une catégorie.

3 Il a été demandé aux élčves de coter les actions / fonctions de chaque acteur comme suit : Pas du tout (1), Un peu (2), Moyennement (3), Trčs (4) démocratiques et tolérantes ŕ l’égard de la différence que peuvent exprimer les enfants de cet âge. Ensuite, partant des réponses, l’on a dégagé des indicateurs moyens.

4 Quote from the speech “A Europe for all and by all” by Walter Schwimmer, the Secretary General of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 27 January 2004)

5 Maria Montessori Italian physician and educationalist (1871-1952)

6 In greater detail: Ligeti György (2003): Gyújtós – Iskola, demokrácia, civilizáció (“Matches – School, Democracy, Civilization”) Új Mandátum Publishing, Budapest

7 In Hungary, the students’, teachers’ and parents’ rights and responsibilities are enacted in the law on public education, ratified in 1993. (It has been modified many times since then.)

8 Ligeti György, (2003) p. 14.

9 The fulfillment of these listed competencies can be practically a guarantee of democratic school work. Criteria have been sketched out based on opinions and suggestions given by students and pedagogues, considering among others the “Democracy learn & live” program of the BLK Germany (Internet: http://www.blk-demokratie.de) and the “Strategies for Learning Democratic Citizenship” document of the COE-project “Education for Democratic Citizenship”.

10 Krumm, V. & Lamberger-Baumann, B. (1996). Was über Gewalt in der Schule geschrieben wird. In K. E. Witruk & G. Friedrich (Hrsg.), Pädagogische Psychologie im Streit um ein neues Selbstverständnis (p. 570-576). Landau: Verlag Empirische Pädagogik.

11 This fact have been confirmed also by a youth expert at the local police

12 Olweus, D., (1999), Sweden. In P.K. Smith et al. (eds), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross- National perspective. London: Routledge

13 World Health Organization, (1999), “WHO information series on School Health”, Document 3, WHO, Geneva

14 Olweus, D., (1993), Bullying at school. What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell

15 Vajda Zsuzsanna: Bullying In: Online Pedagogic Lexicon (Hungarian) /editors: Báthory Zoltán - Falus Iván /, 2003. 12. 25. Internet: http://human.kando.hu/pedlex/

16 Among others: William Golding: The Lord of the Flies (1954); Géza Ottlik: School at the Frontier; Robert Musil: Young Törless

17 Frydman, Marcel (1993): Télévision et violence, Les Éditions Médicales et Paramédicales de Charleroi, Belgique – in Hungarian: Television and Agression (Televízió és agresszió), Pont, Budapest, 1999

18 Buda Béla dr.: Az elektronikus kommunikációs kultúra árnyoldalai? Aggályok és tények az internet és a mobiltelefon visszaélő illetve túlzó használatával kapcsolatban. In: A 21. Századi Kommunikáció Új Útjai - tanulmányok /szerk: Nyíri Kristóf /MTA Filozófiai Kutatóintézete, Budapest, 2001

19 Based on the international experiences of the project VISIONARY Internet: www.violence-in-school.info ; and Mihályi Ildikó (2003): The Nature of the Terrorization at School (Az iskolai terror természetrajza) In: Új Pedagógia Szemle, September 2003

20 Fliegel, Steffen (2000): Mobbing in der Schule (Bullying at School) Internet: http://www.wdr.de/radio/wdr2/westzeit/psychologie001108.html

21 Lauper, Esther (2003): Mobbing im Bildungsbereich Internet: http://www.mobbing-info.ch

22 Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852) German educator who founded the kindergarten system (1782-1852)

23 André Malraux (1901-1976) French writer and politician »La meilleure éducation est celle dont on ne s'aperçoit pas » 

24 Yehudi Menuhin (1916-1999), American violinist and conductor considered among the great virtuosos of his time.

25 The Visionary project based on German-Finnish-Danish-Portuguese cooperation is one of the bests which does not develop new concepts but collects the available information on the Internet. http://www.violence-in-school.info/

26 It is to be noted that only 20 per cent of the responding pedagogues talk with their students “often” about school conflicts, democracy and politics. In greater details: Appendix

27 That is proved by our survey, 69 per cent of the responding students was in this opinion. The evaluation of the questionnaires is to read in the Appendix.

28 Renges, Annamarie, (2003): Mobbing in der Schule In: Das Online Familienhandbuch 2003. 11. 11. Internet: http://www.familienhandbuch.de/

29 Dr. Utasi Judit (2001): Erőszak az iskolában (Violence at School) – In: Család, Gyermek, Ifjúság 2000/1, SzocHáló Internet: www.szochalo.hu – The author sketches out the possible ways of prevention violence through the overview of German results.

30 Bagdy Emőke – Telkes József, (1988 p. 21-33): Személyiségfejlesztő módszerek az iskolában, Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó

31 According to the Rorschach-test; Dr. Vekerdy Tamás psychologists „What kind of school do the children need?” Filum, Budapest 2003 p. 67